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industry/university research is concerned with studies that may lead to improvements in production automation and batch processing techniques. The Foundation is also continuing strong support for earthquake hazards mitigation in FY 1980, and research in this area is increased by $850,000, to a total of $18.3 million.

A unique feature of the Applied Science and Research Applications activity is the program of Integrated Basic Research. Basic research projects that show real promise for contributing to rapid advances in identified problem areas are given augmented funding. In FY 1980, such funding is planned for basic research in five areas: advanced measurement investigations; deep mineral resources; biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur; and population redistribution.

The Applied Science and Research Applications concept is extremely important in maintaining the overall strength of NSF research support activities. Moving the results of basic research along the continuum toward practical application is a complex and difficult process. Consequently, the ASRA activity is a key to the Foundation's effort in assuring effective and prompt use of basic research results.

Scientific, Technological, and International Affairs

The Foundation is requesting $25.8 million for international cooperative science, policy research and analysis, information science and technology, and science resources studies. These together form the Scientific, Technological, and International Affairs activity. The program is only slightly increased--about $600,000--over the FY 1979 level.

Programs in this activity are designed to give U.S. scientists an opportunity to participate in and benefit from international scientific activities, to provide the Government with a research and analysis capability for science and

technology policy, and to improve the understanding of the transfer and dissemination of scientific and technological information. The science resources studies funded under this activity provide the principal Federal capability for collecting, interpreting, and disseminating national

statistics on the human and financial resources of the science and technology enterprise.

Science Education

The Office of Education estimates that all levels of government combined will invest more than $100 billion in education in FY 1980. The Foundation's role in the science education enterprise is that of a catalyst. That is, NSF attempts to concentrate limited resources on high-leverage points in the education process through improvements in curriculum, strengthening science teacher competence, and expansion of opportunities for people to pursue careers in science.

The budget provides $84.7 million for Science Education in FY 1980, $4.7 million more than the FY 1979 level. Our efforts will be concentrated chiefly on programs to strengthen science education at the junior high school level, on improving science teacher competence at both junior high school and high school levels, on increasing scientific literacy of all citizens, and on efforts to increase science career opportunities for minorities, women, and the handicapped.

Graduate fellowship and traineeship programs are being continued at the same level as in FY 1979. A total of 1,550 graduate students is to be supported, including 525 new and 1,025 continuing awards. These fellowships include the Foundation's recently authorized Minority Graduate Fellowship Program.

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The Undergraduate Research Participation, Student-Originated Studies, and Science Instructional Equipment programs, which focus on improving undergraduate instruction, are included in the budget as recommended by this Committee last year. Also included are programs addressing addressing the Foundation's longstanding concern for the quality of science education offered in two- and four-year colleges and universities.

Another feature of our science education program for FY 1980 is an important thrust in the development of instructional materials and related technologies, including research on the application of new video disc technology to science teaching.

The Foundation is also continuing to support the development of a major television program in science targeted at 8 to 12 year-olds. The program is to be aired during prime viewing time for this age group. This program is being done in collaboration with the Children's Television Workshop, the people who produced Sesame Street. We believe this program will spark the imagination of our youth and will be an effective way of motivating young people to pursue additional science activities.

Program Development and Management (PD&M)


Funds are

The budget includes $59.6 million for the PD&M activity. activity covers NSF administrative expenses. included for support of a full-time permanent staff of 1,318, an increase of 20 from FY 1979. Also covered are the costs associated with the Foundation's peer review system and the provision of central support services needed in the Foundation's day-to-day activities. Program Development and Management expenses are 5.9 percent of the total NSF budget in FY 1980.

Special Foreign Currency

An amount of $6.0 million in excess foreign currency is included in the budget. I have already mentioned the special nature of this program.

NSF Budget Process

Mr. Chairman, the Foundation's FY 1980 budget is the result of an extensive process. I do not plan to discuss the process in any detail in my comments today, other than to say that it included an updating of our long-range plans and a detailed zero-based budget review.

We have phased down or terminated numerous projects and programs to permit the research efforts proposed for FY 1980. Some programs that represented significant funding in the past are not funded in FY 1980. For example, during the six-year period, 1973-1978, the Foundation provided about $6 million for support of research on integrated pest management. That research was intended to help to provide a basis for biologically safe techniques of controlling insect pests which are a threat to U.S. agriculture. The major operating responsibility for follow-on support has been transferred to the Department of Agriculture. NSF research funds are now directed to support of new basic approaches to the study of pest control.

The Foundation's research programs entitled Chemical Threats to the Environment, Community Water Management, and the State Science, Engineering, and Technology Program have been terminated. Also, the Administration shifted funding responsibility for the second phase of the Michigan State Heavy-Ion Accelerator from NSF to the Department of Energy.

The National Science Board, as Dr. Hackerman indicated, is heavily involved throughout the budget development process; the priorities reflected in the budget represent a consensus of needs and science opportunities. The priorities also reflect guidance given us by the Congress and the Administration.

Expected Research and Science Education Proposals

In terms of the Foundation's overall program, we expect to receive in excess of 25,000 research and science education proposals for funding in FY 1980. They will aggregate some $3 billion dollars. The Foundation will use about 30,000 scientists, who volunteer their time without charge to the Government, to aid us in the review and evaluation of these proposals. The NSF budget will permit the funding of approximately $850 million, or 28 percent of the total $3 billion proposed. Experience shows that about 48 percent of the proposals receive some funding. The amounts granted are, in almost every case, considerably less than the amount proposed. The competition has become increasingly intense in the past decade.

Geographic Distribution

Geographic distribution of NSF awards is another issue of particular concern to the Foundation, the Congress and parts of the scientific community. The Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research was approved by the Board and initiated last year. It is designed to stimulate research activity in eligible states and increase the ability of scientists in those states to compete successfully for Federal funds. Ad hoc committees are currently developing plans in the first seven states: Arkansas, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Carolina, South Dakota, and West Virginia.

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