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phrastic verbs are used in Algonquin to ex- the start, took different lines. This appears, this region. These left Tollan for causes no press the various modes of running, falling, for example, from the difference between the longer distinctly traceable, and, long before cutting, or eating. As to the lack of generic Mexican calendar in Cortez's time and the Columbus's discovery, spread into Yucatan terms for different objects of nature, e. g., Asiatic (say Chinese) system of time reckon. and Central America. Beyond maize cultibird, fish, tree, it is not so great in Amer- ing. China had known the Metonic cyclevation and some peculiar theological tradiican languages as grammarians make it ap- of nineteen years, which is built upon a luni

tions, the Mayas "borrowed everything in pear. solar basis, even before Meton of Athens

their advancements from the Nahuatlaca. That the "specific relations of the noun are invented or promulgated it in 432 B. C.; but

The calendar systems of Mexico, Yucatan, usually represented by case-endings" is the Mexican cycle is solar only, and belongs

and Central America were substantially by no means an accurate statement, for a to the Western World originally, though some

identical. One of the day-counts, the noctinumber of extensive linguistic families, have regarded it as borrowed. This, howev

diurnal birth-cycle, as Payne calls it, was in such as the Tinné, have no case-endings at er, is but one of the points in which early

use at the time of the conquest, and consistall; and in the Algonquin and Iroquois dia- American civilization differed entirely from

er of 13X 20 days. The number thirteen was lects the formation of nominal cases is al- that of the Eastern world. Since our knowl

based on the fact that, from an infinite nummost wholly limited to the locatives. As a edge of ancient America centres upon a

ber of higher and lower spirits, in the eargeneral fact, it may be stated that, in the few tribes only, whose culture placed them

liest stage of religion, thirteen greater male tongues spoken on the plains of eastern far above

savages, Payne took

and female spirits were recognized in Mexico North and eastern South America, case-de- special pains to investigate the civil and

as gods of superior rank, powers ruling the clension is deficient or fragmentary, but in mental development of the Nahuă (he pre

universe and the sequence of days. Each the higher regions of the Sierra Nevada, fers to call them Nahuatlaca, Nahua='Men')

noctidiurnal cycle consisted of thirteen days, Rocky Mountains, and the Andes, languages and the Kechhua people, without forgetting the

and twenty sequences of this cycle made are well provided with case-forms. What our Maya of Yucatan and the Chibcha of Bogotá.

a calendar period; each day in this cycle author says about conjunctions being gener. Before the Spanish conquest of Anahuac, once bore a name borrowed from a very old ally syllables of indefinite meaning, has to most Mexican tribes described themselves as

seasonal enumeration of lunations, in use be supplemented by the fact that many of Chichimecs, and the people of Tlaxcallan es

at some previous time. The day-names lo our conjunctions are rendered in American pecially called themselves Teochichimecă,

this cycle seem to be seasonal names of lulanguages by temporal, causal, local, and or 'Chichimecs of the Sun' (teotl). These

nations, as is common among savage nations; other suffixes to the verb, and form what is had advanced, like the other Aculhua tribes,

their succession seems to point to Anahuac, called verbals. For many of these verbals

from the "Seven Caves" and Jalisco by way and the birth-day cycle was known in Mexinew terms have to be invented, for old- of the Tollan district and the lakes; their

"moon-reckoning." metzlapohualli. world grammatic terminology by no means peculiar tribal name was derived from the

Another day reckoning that was in use suffices to express all the grammatical forms fact that they proposed to discover and oc

comes pretty close to our year reckoning. in use by the red man of America. cupy Teotlixco = Anahuac, or the 'Land of

It is the cempoualli, or twenty-day period The interesting fact that many alphabetic the water where the sun rises' (teotl, or sun, repeated eighteen times, and, with the five sounds of English and other European lan- being 'the god,' or 'the god by excellence'), fatal days (nemontemi), reaches a total of guages are non-existent in more primitive

an imaginary land. Some years were passed 365 days. Payne believes that here the tongues, is discussed in a lengthy chapter by at Texcuco, and, coming in conflict with the number twenty was suggested by the fingers Payne, and explained by the circumstance

pueblos surrounding them, they crossed the and toes of the human body. The ordinary that such sounds are not easily acquired, or sierra of Talocan. In a similar way the civil and religious calendar consisted of four that their origin is an artificial one. The

author sketches the early history of the cycles of thirteen, making a great cycle of labials f and v are scarcely known in Ameri

other tribes and pueblos of the Mexican fifty-two years, called ahau by the Maya peo. ca, but all the dentals are generally well

plateaus, Tollan, Huexohzinco, Tecpanec, ple. It represents the greatest number of represented here. In Australia and parts

Tezcuco, until the settling of Tenochtitlan full and new moons occurring in the year. of Africa and Asia the sibilants 8, sh, z, zh

gives him a resting-point from which to ex- There is nothing to prove that the Inca are rejected; the Nahuatl has 2, but rejects patiate further upon the system of Mexican Peruvian people possessed a true calendar 8 and sh, and the various sounds of l are

attributes, education, law and justice, and in which the days and months were numerimore acceptable to the American than those land-distribution.

cally adjusted to the solar year. In the chiet of r. In the majority of the American

As to the consolidation of American popu- pueblos the four cardinal points in the languages s and occur simultaneously with lations into tribes and compact national

sun's course were ascertained by means of the assibilated 8h and zh, and alternate in the

bodies, and their formation into distinct set- the Intihuatana, and at Cuzco the phenomesame words; 8 and 2 being evidently more

tlements, Payne admits that some are much na of the solstice were familiarized by two archaic than sh and 2h. Payne supposes older than others and can still be distin- groups of pillars placed conspicuously on that the vibratiles, or, we call them, guished as such; these he calls autochthonic, heights to the east and westward, and mark. liquids (1, r), being the easiest and most

while others are later arrivals. In regard ing the extreme points of the sun's rising natural consonantic sounds, may be regarded

to the lands now known as Mexico, a line and setting. They had a year of 360 days, as the earliest group among the "adjust

may be drawn from the mouth of the Rio understood to be distributed into twelve ments" (p. 151), and in the lowest stage of

Grande to Guadalajara in Jalisco, to the natural moons of thirty days each, with a speech were probably indistinguishable. The

north of which is a congeries of peoples dis- name assigned to each moon; they reckoned Dakota, Totonac, and Mixtec have rejected

tinct from one another in physical character by the succession of lunations, but had no both, probably substituting n in their place;

and language, whereas south of it begin means to coördinate this reckoning sumbut, generally speaking, I is more frequent

the pueblos of the old, genuine, and rela- marily with the succession of years. Tho upon this continent than r. tively unmixed nationalities of the Nahua,

names of the sections of the year were taken The question, “'Did the American man orig- Otomi, Tarasco, Totonac, and others. A mix- from agricultural operations in the field, inate here or did he migrate here from an- ture of ethnic elements was, however, pro

among the Aimará people. As to the calenother continent?" Mr. Payne touches upon duced here also by the numerous colonies

dar of the Chibcha people in Bogotá, Payne in his preface (p. 6), in these terms: established from Anahuac in later times

considers it a counterfeit dating from a late "A race distinguished from the inferior among the allophylic peoples, and therefore period, but composed of ancient elements animals only by some painful and strenuous only the tribes settled east of the isthmus of

derived from sundry South American naform of articulate speech, the possession of

tions. rude stone weapons and implements and of

Tehuantepec, such as Mayas, Guatemaltecs, the art of fire-kindling,

may have Costa Ricans, etc., can be called aboriginal A large number of topics, particularly the lived in the Old and New World in the pa- when compared with those west of this formation of the tribe, the clan, early marlæo-ethnic age,

and during long ages "limit.” Mr. Payne is unwilling to admit riage, etc., deserve equally to be mentioned man roamed over both, as a single æcumenic

that the Maya people possessed an indig- with those we have selected. We must, area. When a geological change had separated them, an intercourse between them enous civilization independent of that of the however, conclude by saying that the two became less and less until the American Nahuatlaca. But this view will meet with volumes as yet published of Payne's 'Higbranch of humanity became practically an considerable opposition among students. If tory' are a noteworthy instance of what may isolated race, as America itself had become an isolated continent."

his conclusions are well founded, he says, be accomplished by an Americanist who has

the Maya monuments and "pinturas" are never visited this western hemisphere in From the time when America became due to the Toltecs, a branch of the Nahuă, person, nor seen any of its tribes or ancient separated from the old-world continents, who are regarded "by general consent" as monuments, but with marvellous instinct the cultural development, weak as it was at the founders of the higher advancement in and historic tact has resolved so many of


its secrets from books alone.

The sequel views of Col. Thorneycroft, who, though a get back to their families and their fields it will be eagerly awaited.

junior officer, had been placed by Buller's they might do so in the national indepenorder in command on the Knob when it be- dence on which they had set their hearts.

came evident that his senior in the brigade It was human nature that they should unLondon to Ladysmith, via Pretoria. By was unequal to it. Thorneycroft, who had derrate the rights of Uitlanders and of black

Winston Spencer Churchill. Longmans, received no messages from Warren before, Africans, and stick for the complete domGreen & Co. Crown 8vo, pp. 496.

now, in the night of the 24th, thought it too inance of the Dutch settlers in what they Mr. Churchill's experience as a war corre

late to make the position tenable, and it was consider their own country. spondent had an episode which added much

abandoned. If Churchill's description of to the romantic character of his army life

events is accurate, it is no wonder that in South Africa. He was taken prisoner | Lord Roberts condemned the generalship of North American Forests and Forestry. Their with the detachment on an armored railway

the battle. On the 24th Mr. Pearse at Lady- Relations to the National Life of the train that was derailed and captured by the

smith had seen the Boer wagons trekking American People. By Ernest Bruncken, Boers on November 15. They were recon

away towards the pass in the northwest, and Secretary of the late Wisconsin State noitring from headquarters at Estcourt

believed their retreat had begun. It is Forestry Commission. G. P. Putnam's northward towards the Tugela River, and

hard to believe that proper energy by Gen. Sons. 1900. the enterprising correspondent naturally Warren on that day would not have made

When we observe the prodigal and wholwished to see what was at the front. He

success complete; and Buller, in the crisis, ly unwise use of our forest heritage, it saw more than he bargained for, and had a

should have applied the energy himself i1 seems sometimes as if almost nothing were •Boer escort to Pretoria, where he made the

Warren failed. Spion Kop should have been being done in any way to inculcate sucacquaintance of Krüger's Secretary of War made impregnable before daybreak after its cessfully the principles of sound manageand other distinguished Afrikanders. He capture. Thorneycroft held it all through

ment. One turns away, sick at heart, as made a daring escape from the military

the following day, and still he was not re- he sees the treasures of our forests squanprison, and had an adventurous journey to inforced. nor connection made with his

dered recklessly, and feels that he cannot Delagoa Bay which would make any boy flanks. When the Knob was abandoned, Bul

unaided exert any influence in favor of a green with envy. Back by sea to Durban, he ler went over the river in person to manage

true economy. Nevertheless, in spite of the hastened again to his post at the front, and the retreat, but it would have been better

discouraging outlook, it is possible to deon the day before Christmas his tent was at if he had been there to give system and

tect, here and there, some signs of betthe very spot where he had been captured. energy to the attack.

ter times and of a judicious policy. The Meanwhile, Gen. Buller had concentrated The action at Vaal Krantz on February 5 constant, although sometimes tactless, exthere his army corps, had been repulsed at is described as being similar in its leisurely hortations of the early Commissioners of the Tugela River, and was deliberately pre- beginning, its partial success, and the failure Agriculture, and the more skilful presenparing for another advance. Churchill had to follow it up. The final turning of the tations of the matter by their successors, not lost much by his excursion to Pretoria. Boer position at the end of February was are beginning to yield tangible results. He now got a commission in the volunteer by the English right, after their capture of These results are as yet scanty, but they cavalry to save question as to his status it the commanding ridge of Monte Christo; but convey a little hope that the subject will he was captured again in some less absurd we cannot ignore the fact that this was after soon receive the attention which it deserves, reconnoissance than one by rail.

Lord Roberts's advance into the Orange and be taken from the category of imThe operations to try a second crossing Free State had drawn away a considerable practicable reforms, to be placed securely of the Tugela began on January 11. The part of the Boer army about Ladysmith, among the accepted factors of national plan was to threaten with the right, but to and made the raising of the siege a foregone prosperity. force the crossing at the left, some twenty conclusion.

The establishment of Government forest miles in a bee-line west of Colenso and the The campaign under Buller, judged from reserves, although not very graciously welrailway crossing. Venter's Creek there Mr. Churchill's narrative (which tries to becomed by some of those who will thereby comes in from the north, and its valley of- friendly), was marked by a deliberation in most benefit in the long run, is a step fered a way to turn the Boers' right by tak- planning and a sluggishness in execution so in the right direction. If the reserves are ing Spy Knob (Spion Kop), where they were extreme as to take away from it all ener- tactfully managed, as it seems likely they supposed to have an outpost. This was go- getic aggressiveness, and to give to the mo- will be, a great deal of good must follow ing a long way round, for the crossing at bile army of Boers abundant time and oppor- in an educational way. People who now Trichardt's Drift, near the creek's mouth, tunity to plant themselves in strong positions look upon forestry as on a par with gentlewas nearly twice as far from Ladysmith as and intrench in front of each new movement man-gardening and gentleman-agriculture, Colenso was. The promise to reach the of the British. The forces under Buller, with useful chiefly as affording a basis for the commanding position at the Knob could be those in Gen. White's garrison, were at all activity of humorists, will see that true formade good only by speed, yet a week was times far superior to the enemy in numbers. estry means a small but certain profit calspent watching the enemy extending the Cipher communication by heliograph and culable in per cents. The establishment of trenches on the north of the river. On the search-light telegraphy was constant be. forest schools connected with our larger in18th the column began a leisurely crossing tween the two English commanders, yet they stitutions of learning, and the deepening inat Trichardt's, with very little opposition, seem never to have coöperated in a common terest in courses on forestry, where the and pontoon bridges were laid. The in- effort, although the distance between them

name of Forest School has not yet been fantry advanced about two miles and wait- was less than the length of the lines of assumed, point in the same direction. The ed till next day. Immense wagon trains also either army, and those of the Boers extended experiment of one of the largest forestcrossed. Nothing at all was done on the with practical continuity from White to owning corporations in our country, look19th. On the 20th an attack was made, but Buller. As commander-in-chief, Buller does ing towards scientific management of the the Knob was no longer an outpost, for the not appear to have attempted any well-con- crop of available wood, is perhaps even Boers had been given plenty of time to move ceived simultaneous operation by his two more hopeful than either of the other onto their right. The English gained a foot- wings upon the weaker force of the Boerscouraging signs mentioned. Forest-wasters, hold on the plateau. For two days more the which lay between. It is not so strange that greedily seeking to skin their forest-coverfiring was kept up between the lines with the Boers contented themselves with defen- ed lands, have to pause when they hear of no material change. In the night of the sive tactics after their offensive strategy had experiments in thrift on lands close to their 230 Gen. Woodgate's brigade made an as- carried the war beyond their own borders own. It is also to the well-informed agrisault on the Knob and got a lodgment on it. into Natal. The necessity of economy in the cultural journals throughout the land that we In the early morning of the 24tb the Boers use of their smaller numbers, with the unfit- must attribute much influence in helping to concentrated their fire upon it. Woodgate ness of their irregular organizations for bat- lift the weight of despair which has so long was wounded and disabled.

tle tactics on a large scale, combined to dic- discouraged concerted effort to save our It becomes evident at this point that there tate the policy which they pursued.

forests. Through evil report and ridicule, was no competent direction of the division. It is pleasant to note that Mr. Churchill, they have kept up the fight against the Churchill says that he visited in person while he was prisoner, found even the least universal spendthrift policy which has biththe scene of action, and went back to Gen. cultivated of the Veldt Boers free from per. erto characterized all lumbering here. To Warren, the division commander, and de- sonal hate, and considerately kind in their tbem and to the special forest journals must scribed the situation. Warren, instead of treatment of him. They seemed to him good be given high praise, if lumbering in our going himself, sent him back to learn the hopest farmers, anxious to end thọ war and country ever yields to wise forest man. agement. And, further still, to certain in mind, we commend Mr. Bruncken's closing the manner in which general principles aro judicious publications by the general Gov- chapter, “On Forestry as a Profession." stated and urged, are generally good. Glouernment and by the States, must be assign

cester Cathedral serves continually to point ed part of the credit, when our forests

the moral. As is natural, the writer deals The White Robe of Churches of the Eleventh come to be properly cared for.

with what he knows most minutely; and

Century: Pages from the Story of GlouThe book before us is another indication

what he has to say about Romanesque de

cester Cathedral. By the Very Rev. H. that the times are ripe for reform. We are

sign, about painting applied to medieval

D. M. Spence, D.D., Dean of Gloucester, sorry to note that the author, on his title

architecture, and about restoration of ancient

London: J. M. Dent & Co.; New York: page, writes "late" Forestry Commission of

monuments, is as well explained by the in

Charles Scribner's Sons. 1900. Pp. xx, Wisconsin. It seems a pity to have efficient

stances under his eyes in Gloucester as it

348. work stop where it is so much needed as in

could have been in any other examples. our northern tier of wooded States. Mr.

This is a stout little octavo, Illustrated In fact, the book is calculated to give a Bruncken's book, of about 250 pages, is read

by some seventy-five pictures, of which a great deal of valuable information, and more able, and, for the most part, trustworthy.

dozen are separate plates in photogravure, especially to give a right leading to the

halt-tone, or collotype. These are from Exception may be taken to some of his sug

future studies of the beginner who may gestions relative to the treatment of forest

such photographs as are rather easlly ob- read it through. The little affectations, as

tainable. of the text illustrations, some in the title and in the odd laudation of the trees, but such matters of detail do not impair the value of the work to the general

are taken from Viollet-le-Duc's 'Diction- title given in the humble dedication to a reader. General readers are not likely to

ary of Architecture,' some from Corroyer's princess, will hurt no one's feelings, and

'Architecture Romane'; those of decorative take up forest management, and specialists

may even excite personal interest in the glass are taken

from Merson's


writings of a man who evidently possesses will of course be guided by the text-books

Vitraux'; while two or three are credited to an individuality of his own. rather than by general works like the pres

other books, and some very humble, oldent. Therefore we commend Mr. Bruncken's book as useful in all essential particu

fashioned woodcuts, like those which used

to decorate our school geographies, are inlarg.

Illustrations of Logic. By Paul T. Lafleur. serted without credit being given-as is Part of the prejudice against forestry in

Boston: Ginn & Co. 1899. 8vo, pp. 97. natural enough, their original provenience America has doubtless arisen from the silly

Prof. Lafleur has taken the trouble to ranbeing, perhaps, lost. Three drawings by attempts made here and there to introduce

sack more than a hundred good writers and Herbert Railton are given; but these are without modification European methods. In

cull from them three hundred specimens of views of the author's own special dominion, many countries in Europe, every severed

arguments, of which the greater part are the Cathedral of Gloucester, and whether twig and bit of bark must go to form the they have appeared in another book or not

valid or invalid according as they are free faggot, and eager hands clutch all fallen is not stated. No great success attends the

or not from any confusion between the ideas branches. Everything is turned to account.

of some and all. That is to say, they are use of these illustrations of such varied In our lumber camps the largest branches source and character. Even where there

arguments that can be tested by Aristotellan go to waste, and place, when dry, all the are no mistakes made in the legend or title

syllogistics. The preface supplies unintenwoods in peril from fire. The conditions of and where the single elucidation

tionally a three hundred and first example,

may planting trees are wholly different, and the

for Mr. Lafleur there remarks that an inpass, the lack of true relation between ditheight of absurdity would seem to be reachferent pictures is regrettable; and, perhaps,

structor "finds difficulty in convincing his ed when the owner of small wood-lot is for utility's sake, the book would be bet

hearers that the logic of the class-room advised to keep a forester. In the book beter without the pictures than with them.

bears any relation to thought as met with fore us there are no such childish councils. There are blunders, however; thus, on page

in ordinary discussion and books"—implying The advice which the author gives is sulted 161, the ground plans of the two great ca

that these illustrations ought to convince to our needs and our conditions. Until one thedrals of Paris and of Bourges are dis

them that that logic supplies all that is stops to think how vast the normal forest played, but on such widely different scales

requisite to judge of the validity of ordinary area is in the United States, and how diveras to mislead the beginner into the con

reasoning. Now, it is certainly true that sified are the constituents of our forests, he viction that one was vastly larger in total

most students, confusedly perceiving that cannot realize the impracticability of laying dimensions and in detail than the other;

any argument which requires close attendown a set of rules to be applied throughout, while at the same time Paris is called

tion to apprehend Its force depends upon World-wide differences exist between the Bourges, and Bourges is called Paris. Thus

something more than the some and all of forests of our Northeast, sometimes parched much needs to be said of the illustrations,

traditional syllogistic, jump to the concluby protracted droughts, and the heavy which, with a little more minute care,

sion that there is no important element of growths in the moist Northwest. Each must might have aided greatly the study of the

right inference of which that doctrine takes have its own set of rules. The recognition work.

account. This confuses some illative prinof these differences is a part of the duty of As for the text, it is far from being with

ciples with all, and the conclusion is not the Division of Forestry in the Department out value, and, perhaps, exemplifies that

true, since training in ordinary logic will of Agriculture at Washington, and advice kind of utility which the work of the con

almost insure a man against confusions of concerning the different kinds of manage- scientious, balt-informed writer may have

that kind. But, on the other hand, those who ment is now being sought by practical men. for persons who will not read the work of

teach the old logic, finding that a great It is to be sincerely hoped that the book we the better scholar. It is a pity to see in the

many important arguments can be thrown have here noticed may excite a still wider appendix, and occupying much more than

into syllogistic form, which really only Interest in the whole subject, and indicate half of it, reference with commendation to

proves that they involve a syllogistic eleto many forest owners the advantage they that rubbishing book which we have al- ment, jump to the conclusion that no imcould gain from expert advice at their com- ready reviewed, Leader Scott's 'Cathedral

portant principle of reasoning has been mand in the Division of Forestry and in Builders.' This, and the fantastical theory overlooked, thereby falling into the very some of the State commissions. about the Comacines, is likely to do a

same fallacy that ensnares their pupils. The It is pleasant to notice that many young great deal of harm during the next five years,

conclusion is not true, since, upon the examen in America are seriously adopting for- but each special occurrence of its mischiev

mination of the syllogistic statement, it estry as an occupation. To such as can ous influence is to be noted. Similarly, a

will often be found (not to say always, if bring to their work sound training in the kind of mistake that comes of too much the argument is at all dificult) that the elementary subjects which are concerned

stress laid upon one point, and too strong whole gist of the reasoning has been thrown with the distribution, healthy growth, and an assertion of something approximately into the premises, so that the question of diseases of forest trees, and supplement that true, is to be found, as might have been its validity is untouched by any criticism of training by practical studies in common- expected in such a book. It is rather grati- the forms of the syllogisms. Hence, the sense forestry, positions of usefulness must fying, however, to note the author's use of need for a logic of relatives. The following be open. At the outset, the number of posi- the word Romanesque for the earlier round- three hundred and second "illustration" will tions will be small, and the pay never can arched building of England, and his con- show, if it be syllogistically treated, the be large; but to each well-equipped man, sequent ignoring of the misleading term truth of the above; ordinary syllogistic declear in his head and ready to work with Norman-misleading when used for archi- | ing incompetent to decide whether it is a strong hands, a career of honorable activity tecture not essentially influenced by the peo- sound argument or not: will be surely within reach. To all young ple or by the art of Normandy. Tho spirit If our duties on Cuban sugar were abolishmen of courage who have much outdoor work of the book, the character of its assertions, | ed, either our consumers would buy their

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sugar much cheaper, or else Cuban planters Mondes. He considers the renovation of vilizations of the East and the West are to would get a far better price for their sugar. Asia as the striking phenomenon of the merge. Two million emigrants yearly rush But the latter event would create a power- second half of the century not yet finished. over the rails to Siberia. ful stimulus to tbe production of sugar in The main factors of this renovation are the In treating of Japan, after glancing at its Cuba, and since what now limits the produc

evolution of Japan from a hermit nation to origins and past history, the author calls tion there is not so much a lack of suitable

a world Power, the astonishing develop- attention to the diversity of opinion about land or of anything of which the possible ments of Russia in Siberia, and the changes the Japanese and the reality of the reforms supply is already near exhaustion, but only in China which suggest a problem of the

which they have undertaken. He is perthe cost of machinery, etc., which can be first order of complexity. The revelation, fectly right in insisting that, to obtain a had in almost any quantity at present prices, since the war of 1894-5, of China's political correct judgment, one must know Japan's or lower, it follows that the production weakness enables the author to picture in history. Thus only can he appreciate the would be immensely increased if much bet

graphic phrase the amazing contrast be- nature and the consequences of the modern ter prices could be got. Then, since this tween "the sick man in Peking'' and the as transformation and gauge the chances of country must remain the principal market yet untouched resources of both the soil

the future civilization of Japan. M. Leroyfor Cuban sugar, either much more sugar and the sub-soil of China. Visiting the ca- Beaulieu shows that the evolution of Jamust be sold here, or else the supply from pital, which he describes in lively French pan's early civilization was arrested under other quarters (which is not now nearly so phrase, the author sees, in the attitude of the Tokugawa shoguns, who excluded forgreat as that from Cuba) must be very great- the population towards foreigners and their eigners and so included the people that ly curtailed. But, on the one hand, our peo- indifference to the outward world, a type growth was impossible. When, however, ple already use extravagant amounts of su- of decadence of the entire empire. The chief the long-repressed energy broke forth, it gar, almost as much as they would if it cost

cause of China's political marasmus lies in was embraced by the European civilization nothing. Hence, a very considerable reduc- her learned men, whose minds are as im- without resistance. To-day Japan is a land tion of price would be necessary in order to pervious to new light and ideas as are the of contrasts. The old and the new jostle. Increase the consumption in any large pro- stone images on the Ming tombs.

Landing at Nagasaki, our traveller voyaged portion. Nor, on the other hand, could the

In treating of the people, the author pays

through the Inland Sea, finding Yokohama, production of cane-sugar elsewhere than many a compliment to their abilities and

though only forty years old, with a populaCuba be greatly curtailed unless there were character. They are not in decadence, but

tion of 170,000 souls. Tokio is a city of telea motive for partially abandoning its productheir spirit has lost all elasticity. Their

phones and electric lights. Amazing is the tion, in the shape of a considerable diminuwhole look is backward. Their golden age

development of Japanese industry, which tion of the profits of that production. In was long ago, and the future has no hope.

in its activities has been redoubled since either case, therefore, the price of sugar to While Japanese think that if Confucius and

the war with China, for Japan means to consumers in the United States would be

Mencius were living to-day, they would be capture the Chinese market, the greatest very considerably reduced. in the forefront of progress, the Chinese pic

single market in the world. She will not Let anybody who thinks that, even grantture them as mighty teachers always stand

hesitate to fight Russia on the sea, should ing the facts alleged, the above is not a ing with their backs to the present. The au

that be necessary. Yokohama is the comsound argument (as most of our readers thor treats intelligently of the foreigners in

mercial, Osaka is the manufacturing centro. will probably agree it is not), endeavor to China and of the concessions made to them Agricultural life is

yet predominant, detect the flaw in it by any ordinary syllo

in the years 1842, 1858, 1860, 1895, and 1898. though with a tendency to lessen in relagistic rules, or let anybody show it is sound The Chinese, even when they bow before the

tive importance, the rural population being reasoning by those rules (without throwing foreigners' force and profit by their material

very dense on the plains and in the low the gist of the argument into the premises), advantages, hold them in supreme contempt.

valleys. The author' was pleased with the and in either event we will admit that some

This hostility among the learned directors good humor and politeness of the peasantry, thing has been done to rehabilitate the logic of opinion is the greatest obstacle to pro

notes the diffusion of Western civilization of the schools.

and instruction among them, shows the cost gress. Mr. Lafleur may remonstrate that he puts

M. Leroy-Beaulieu is surprised at the new

of living, and reveals the very modest budget forth no argument in his preface, but mere

of a little Japanese home, Statistical details relations between China and the Powers disly states a fact. John Dryden might on the cernible since the war of 1895. These have

Illustrate the enormous development of comsame ground protest against Mr. Lafleur's

merce both at home and abroad. resulted wholly to Russia's advantage. JaIllustration No. 1, which is Dryden's couppan had a dream of conquest; but Russia,

Japan's remarkable financial prosperity on letdrawing in France and Germany, not only

the eve of the war with China is another *All human things are subject to decay, And when fate summons, monarchs must obey." drove Japan away from her prey, but sub

topic. The wonderful faculty of organizastituted at Peking her own all-powerful in

tion displayed during the campaigns, on But the compiler would rightly reply, "Mr. fluence in place of the British, which had

land and sea, is praised. In consequence of Dryden, you perhaps had no definite inten- been paramount before. The author gives

this war, however, a military and naval tion of arguing, but in fact you did argue a very readable résumé of Russia in Asia.

programme of startling proportions has been essentially as in the stock example, 'All men His whole discussion is fresh, suggestive,

formulated. Now, the problem of Japan is are mortal; Sortes is a man; hence, Sortes and clear. He shows that Russian expansion

how to get the two hundred and forty million is mortal.'" In like manner, Mr. Lafleur's in Asia was contemporaneous with that of

of yen to carry it out. Treating of politics statement of fact does convey to the readwestern Europe in the New World. There are

and social life, M. Leroy-Beaulieu remarks er's mind an argument, and, if insidiously, many analogies between the north of Asia

the preponderance of the Samurai, that class so much the more dangerously.

and the north of America, in which are three of men who have enjoyed intellectual culture After all this tirade, we desire to say that zones, the author describing their extent and

for a thousand years, while to the people at Mr. Lafleur's little book will certainly be an production. The native population is insig- large even schools are a novelty. The clan enlivening and useful agent in the class- nificant, and the immense majority of the

spirit still survives. Though the “ring' of room. We wish that somebody would sup- inhabitants are Russians. The Polar tribes

Choshiu and Satsuma men that surrounded plement it with a collection of real illustraare decreasing, while the Mongol population

the Emperor for thirty years is broken, and tions of relative reasonings, of striking prob- is increasing more slowly than the Russians,

the combat of Parliament against the Minislems in the doctrine of chances, of moot who, having large families, lead all races.

try, made up of southern clansmen, is over, cases in inductive reasoning, and of exam- In this population of Russian emigrants,

yet real party government has hardly been ples in hypothetic investigations.

there are many hetereogeneous elements, in- | attained, for Japanese parties are chaotic. cluding the Jews and the Raskolniks, or dis

Signs of amelioration are nevertheless resenters from the Russian church. The au

cognized. La Rénovation de l'Asie. Par Pierre Leroy

thor is enthusiastic about the mineral rich- The growth of a warmer sentiment beBeaulieu. Paris: Armand Colin & Cie.

es and commercial possibilities, including tween Japan and Great Britain has created This well-known French author, who the transit of tea from China and Japan, of a sort of championship for the integrity of writes briskly and with notable literary southern Siberia. The cities are of little the Chinese Empire, while hostility to Russkill, made a journey of two years through importance, the rural population being by sia increases. Yet there are ways in which the northern parts of Asia, studying the far the most promising. The iron road is in Russia and Japan may walk as friends and people and their official documents, and con- competition with the sea path, and the wheel even allies. In the final chapter the author tributing the results of his observations with the keel, but it is evident that by the discusses, with ability and many a fertile from time to time to the Revue des Deux overland road, and not by the ocean, the ci- suggestion, as well as with precedent and

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of Mr. Williams, whose readable little vol


analogy, the question whether a people can Palaeontologie,' at first intended to be lite- ed him "with having made extraordinary assimilate the civilization of a different race. ral, but later, with the consent of the au- variations in the cborals, and with interHow far does Japan desire similarity to thor, fundamentally altered in many re

mixing many strange sounds, so that thereEurope? He gives a correct picture of the spects. The chapters on the Protozoa and by his congregation were confounded." Latcountry since the revision of the treaties, Coelenterata remain as in the original, but er on, at Leipzig, he was admonished for and believes that it will be necessary, for all the rest has been more or less modified, "doing nothing" when he had been comthe Japanese to enter into communication revised, or entirely rewritten. The gracious posing a number of his immortal church as intimately as possible, so that Western attitude of Dr, von Zittel towards the duck

cantatas and the great Matthew Passion! civilization may strengthen and not ema- lings which have been hatched out in this

Bach did not accept these slurs meekly. ciate them. Altogether, this is a very timely process of incubation, for some of whom He was, in his small sphere, almost as great and very able book by an author who gathers he can hardly be expected to show any

a fighter as Wagner, and was always in without prejudice his facts at first hand. paternal feeling, is beyond all praise. No

hot water with the authorities in his strugthing more fully informed with the true

gle in behalf of art. His temper, too, was scientific spirit than his personal preface can

on occasion as violent as Wagner's or Textbook of Palæontology. By. K. A. VON be imagined.

Handel's. One day when Görner, the organZittel, Translated and edited by Chas. R. The composite nature of the present

ist of the Thomas Church, made a blunEastman. Revised and enlarged edition. work, some portions of which were only

der, Bach pulled off his own wig and threw Macmillan & Co. 1900. Vol. I., pp. x, 706. received by the editor after earlier parts

it at him, shouting, "You ought to be a 8vo. With 1,476 woodcuts. were stereotyped, has naturally resulted in

cobbler!" Invertebrate palæontology long remained

some incongruities, the most notable of quiescent after the Darwinian ripples had which is the appearance in two places of

ume is based on the best German authorcertain thoroughly broken up the placid surface


ities, makes it clear that Bach was not so formerly regarded

poor as has been assumed. His income from of zoology. This came about from the pre

corals, but now plausibly claimed by the valence of the ancient notion that fossils students of Polyzoa. The recent advances

various sources was, it is true, only about were the “Medals of Creation," related to in our knowledge of Conularia, its sessile

$500 a year, but, as the author computes one another and to the existing fauna only habit and probable relegation

(p. 80), the purchasing power of this sum to , the

was equal to $3,150 in our day. However, as medals are to other medals. Thus there hydroid polyps, have not found a place in

Bach had nineteen children to bring up, grew up a body of students who empirically the shufiling of old and new. However,

and he sent two of them to the university, correlated particular fossils with particu- criticisms of detail are relatively unim

so that it is not surprising that his widow lar horizons, as one fastens price-tags to portant in view of the steps forward into

died in an almshouse and was buried in a bolts of cloth in a shop. These men in the the realm of modernity made by many chapmain studied fossils as fossils, with the

pauper's grave. Bach's own grave was forters of this volume. The footing may not

gotten and lost. Its discovery, a few years least possible reference to existing animals, always be secure nor the trail clean-hewn

ago, makes a detective story of great inand many of them became wonderfully ex- of obstacles, but it leads in the right direc

terest, which Mr. Williams might have pert in their chosen field, and produced in- tion. The most notable advances are made

advantageously incorporated in his pages. valuable iconographic volumes illustrating in the groups of Polyzoa, Mollusca, and

He should also have given some space to fossil remains. A few, who studied verte- Trilobites, in which nothing but part of the

Mendelssohn and Franz for their labors in brate remains, were forced to use the bones bibliography and all the illustrations re

restoring Bach's works to the world. Apart of existing animals in comparisons, and it main of the old work, the text being en

from such omissions he has done his work has been chiefly from this small company tirely original. Any book summing up the

well, and we have noted no errors except that palæontologic philosophers have arisen. latest work on Crinoids, Polyzoa, Brachio

a few misprints (sätzes and gülden for salzes A gradual illumination slowly penetrated pods, Cephalopods, and Trilobites by such

and gulden). Tbe story of Bach's life is the cloisters of invertebrate palæontology, authorities as Wachsmuth, Ulrich, Schu

kept separate from the consideration of but no real change of method took place chert, Hyatt, and Beecher, must remain a

his works, which takes up about half the until very recently, long after the zoolo- classic, whether all matters of detail are

volume. The difference between Handel gists had been rioting in the stimulating inally accepted or not.

and Bach is thus summed up: "Handel, rays of the evolutionary sun. As usual, It is only fair to point out that the work

domiciled in England, knew his public, and the textbooks have lagged behind the work- done by Dr. Eastman's dozen collaborators,

knew them so well that he wrote works That palæontology is not a distinct involving much time, drudgery, and sacri

which not only became popular at once, science, but a particularly hampered secfice, has been wholly a labor of love; their

but have never ceased to be popular. Bach tion of biology, where students struggle services having been given at the appeal

either did not know or did not care to against enormous difficulties to win frag- of the editor to make for the coming gene

please his public, and wrote far above their mentary but essential testimony as to the ration of students a manual which would

heads, so that for a time after his death history of living organisms, was academijoin to lavish and elegant illustrations a

he was forgotten entirely.

Burney cally admitted in the spirit of the politician text stimulated by the spirit of modern re

devotes nearly a whole volume to Handel who was in favor of the Maine Law but search, and in this way make the path

and only one paragraph to Bach." opposed to its enforcement. To the efforts

easier for those who will, in some future of Huxley, Cope, Hyatt, Ryder, and similar

decade, prepare a new Manual of Palæonheresiarchs is due a change which is no

tology free from current incongruities and thing less than fundamental in the way of

A Short History of Free Thought, Ancient with all the advance of science recorded. looking at and interpreting the testimony

and Modern. By John M. Robertson. Lonof fossils.

don: Swan Sonnenschein & Co.; New Among those who had attained eminence

Bach. By C. F. Abdy Williams. E. P. Dut- York: Macmillan Co. 1899. 8vo, pp. 477. in palæontology under the old conditions

ton & Co. Pp. 223.

Free thought about religion has, far more were a few who pressed earnestly but with The deepest of all musical thinkers died than science or philosophy, been broken up cautious steps towards the light of the new 150 years ago. Great would have been the into a hundred separate movements; and day. The most eminent of these has long astonishment of Johann Sebastian Bach and this circumstance compels, in any singlebeen acknowledged in Von Zittel. His ma- his fellow-townsmen and contemporaries volume review of them, so succinct a treatpual and text-book of Palæontology have could they have been told that, in the year ment of each movement that, though this been of the greatest use to students, and 1900, American journalists would be called yolume is not small and a good deal of it is have represented the best and most scien- upon to review a new biography of him in fine print, the history is rightly named tific summation of the older Palæontology containing a three-page bibliography with a short one. Had sufficient references been in the attitude of welcoming the new.

No more than fifty entries, one of them a monu- given to other works to make this a guide worthy text-book of Palæontology has exist- mental work in two volumes of nearly 1,900 to the literature of the special topics, it ed in the English language, the nearest pages. It is true that Bach was not with- would have been a valuable manual; but, approach to it being the illustrative palæon. out honor in his own country, but it was that not having been done, it remains a tological paragraphs in Dana's 'Manual of as a performer on the organ and the clavi- short history and nothing more. Geology,' excellent of their kind but very chord that he was appreciated, 20t as a Some general theories regarding the course limited in scope. With a view to supplying composer. Even bis organ playing was of free thought that the author seeks CODthis deficiency, Dr. Eastman undertook a often above the comprehension of his neigh-stantly to illustrate, serve to connect the translation of Von Zittel's 'Grundzüge der bors, and at Arnstadt the Consistory charg- different morsels and to maintain the read.


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