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E P I S T L E
JAM E S,
С НАР. І.
JAMES, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting.
My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into various 3 trials *; knowing that the proof of your faith worketh 4 patience. And let patience have its perfect work: that ye may be perfect and entire, wanting nothing.
Now if any of you want wisdom, let him ask of God, who giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not ; and 6 it shall be given him. But let him ask in † faith, no
thing doubting. For he that doubteth is like a wave of 7 the sea, moved by the wind and tossed about. And let
not that man think that he will receive any thing from 8 the Lord: he is a man of a divided mind, unsteady in all
9 Now let the brother of low degree glory in that he is 10 exalted ; but the rich, in that he is made low: for as 11 the flower of the herb he will pass away. For the sun
is no sooner risen with a burning heat, but it withereth the herb, arıd its flower falleth, and the beauty of its appearance perisheth : so the rich man also will fade in his
ways. 12 Happy is the man that endureth trial 1: for, when he
N. m. temptations, N. t.
+ Or, with, N. m.
# N. m. temptation, N. .
hath been proved, he will receive the crown of life,
which the Lord hath promised to those who love him. 13 Let no man say, when he is tempted, “ I am tempted of
God:” for God cannot be tempted by evils, nor doth he 14 tempt any man.
But every man is tempted, when he is 15 ensnared and allured by his own evil desire. Then when
desire hath conceived, it beareth sin: and sin, when it 16 is finished, bringeth forth death. Do not err, my be17 loved brethren. Every good gift, and every perfect be
nefit, is from above, and cometh down from the Father
of lights, with whom is no variableness, nor shadow of 18 turning. Of his own will he regenerated * us by the
word of truth, that we might be a kind of first-fruits of
his creatures. 19 Wherefore, my beloved brethren, let every man be 20 swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to anger. For the
anger of man worketh not the righteousness of God t. 21
Wherefore lay aside all defilement, and abundance of wickedness, and receive with meekness the word im22 planted in you, which is able to save you I. But be ye
doers of the word; and not hearers only, deceiving your 23 own selves. For if any be an hearer of the word, and
not a doer, he is like a man beholding his natural face 24 in a mirror: for he beholdeth himself, and goeth away,
and immediately forgetteth what manner of man he was. 25 But whoever looketh into the perfect law of freedom,
and continueth in it, this man, being not a forgetful bearer, but a doer g of the work commanded, will be
happy in his deed. 26 If any man || seem to be religious, and bridle not his
tongue, but deceive his own heart, this man’s religion is 27 vain. The religion which is pure and undefiled before
our God and Father is this; to take care of orphans and
* begat, N.
+ Or, the righteousness which God requireth. N. m. # N. m. your souls, Gr. and N.t.
Or, an active doer, Wakefield. || any man among you, R. T. and N. with doubt,
widows in their affliction, and to keep one's-self un
spotted from the world. CH, 11. My brethren, hold not the faith of our Lord Jesus 2 Christ, the Lord of glory *, with respect of persons. For
if there come into your assembly a man with a gold ring
in gorgeous apparel, and there come in also a poor man 3 in vile apparel; and ye regard him who weareth the
gorgeous apparel, and say [to him), “Sit thou here in
a good place ;” and say to the poor man, “ Stand thou 4 there," or, “ Sit here under my footstool ;" have ye not
then been partial among yourselves, and have ye not be5 come judges whose thoughts are evil? Hearken, my be
loved brethren: hath not God chosen the poor of the
world to be rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which 6 he hath promised to those who love him? But ye have
dishonoured the poor man. Do not the rich oppress 7 you, and draw you before the judgement-seats? Do not
they blaspheme that honourable name by which ye 8 called ? Now if ye fulfil the royal law according to the
scripture, “Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself,” 9 ye do well : but if
respect of 10 sin, and are convicted by the law as transgressors. For
whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in
one point, he is guilty of shewing disrepect to all t. 11 For he who said, “ Do not commit adultery,” said also,
“Do not commit murther." Now if thou commit no
adultery, and yet commit murther, thou becomesta 12 transgressor of the law. So speak ye, and so act, as those 13 who will be judged by the law of freedom. For he shall
have pitiless judgement, that hath shewn no pity: but
pity glorieth over judgement. 14 What doth it profit, my brethren, if a man say that he
hath faith, and have not works ? can faith save him?
persons, ye commit
Or, bold not your glorious belief in the Lord Jesus Christ, Wakefield. + See Bell on the Lord's Supper, p. 101, 102. This indeed is all the writer could zuean. Comp. I Cor. xi. 27. “ He is liable to the prenishdient of offereding in all." N.
15 Now if a brother or sister be naked, and destitute of daily 16 food; and one of you say unto them, “ Depart in peace,
be ye warmed, and be ye filled ;" but ye give them not
those things which are necessary for the body; what doth 17 it profit ? Thus faith also, if it have not works, is dead 18 by itself. Yea, a man will say, “Thou hast faith, and
I have works : shew me thy faith without * thy works, 19 and I will shew thee my faith by my works.” Thou be
lievest that God is one +: thou doest well: the demons I 20 also believe, and tremble. But art thou willing to know, 21 O vain man, that faith without works is dead ? Was not
our father Abraham justified by works, when he offered 22 up his son Isaac on the altar ? Dost thou see that faith
wrought with his works; and that faith was made perfect 23 by works ? and that the scripture was fulfilled which
saith, “ Abraham believed God, and it was counted to
him for righteousness :” and he was called the Friend of 24 God? Do ye see § that a man is justified by works ||, and 25 not by faith only ? In like manner was not Rahab the
harlot also justified by works, when she received the mes26 sengers, and sent them out another way? For as the body
without the spirits is dead, so faith without works is
dead also. CH. 111. My brethren, be not many teachers; knowing that 2 we shall receive a greater condemnation. For in many
things we all offend : if any offend not in word, he is a
* by thy works, MSS.
+ that there is one God : N. I human ghosts: - Mr. Farmer supposes an allusion to Job xxvi. 5, which he reņders, “ the giants, or the ghosts of the dead, tremble under the waters together with their host.” He adds, that St. James doth not appear to be delivering any new doctrine concerning demons, but rather to be arguing with the persons to whom he writes it, on their own principles. Farmer on Demoniacs, p. 211-216. Ist edition,
See, therefore, R.T. NI “ So as to receive God's continued and final favour. St. Paul's justification, Rom. iii. 28. v. 1. &c. &c., is admission into the gospel-covenant. St. James declares that such as are admitted into that covenant must perfect their faith by works, ver. 22, in order to be finally justified." Newcome.
Or, breath, N. m.
3 perfect man, and able to bridle the whole body also. Be
hold, we put bits in the mouths of horses, that they may 4 obey us: and we turn about their whole body. Behold,
ships also, which are so great, and are driven by fierce
winds, yet are turned about by a very small helm, whi5 thersoever the pilot chooseth. Thus the tongue also is a
little member, and boasteth great things. Behold, how 6 great a pile doth a little fire kindle! And the tongue is a
fire, a world of iniquity * : [so] is the tongue among our members, that it defileth the whole body, and setteth
on fire the course of nature t; and is itself set on fire by 7 hell. For every kind of beasts, and of birds, and of
creeping things, and of things in the sea, is subdued, 8 and hath been subdued, by maykind. But the tongue
no man can subdue : it is an evil not to be restrained, full 9 of deadly poison. Therewith we bless our God and Fa
ther; and therewith we curse men, that are made after 10 the likeness of God. Out of the same mouth proceed
blessing and cursing. My brethren, these things ought 11 not so to be. Doth a spring send forth out of the same 12 place sweet and bitter water? Can a fig-tree, my brethren,
bear olives ?or a vine, fig3 ? So neither can that spring
which is salt yield sweet water 13 Who is wise and knowing among you? Let him shew
by his works a good behaviour, with meekness of wis14 dom. But if ye have bitter envy and strife in
and strife in your heart, boast not yourselves, and speak not falsely concerning 15 the truth. This wisdom cometh not down from above; 16 but is earthly, animal, demoniacal g. For where envy and strife are, there disturbance is, and every evil work.
. 17 But the wisdom which is from above is first
theo peaceable, gentle, easy to be entreated, full of pity and
* the tongue is a spark, the varnisher of injustic: Wakefield.
no fountain can yield both salt water and fresh. R.T.