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ing in some approved school, during the period for which the certificate has been issued; and provided further, that the applicant shall have performed such professional work as the State Board of Education or county superintendent shall direct, and shall not have remained out of school work longer than two consecutive years.

SEC. 80. Renewal of Professional and First-grade Certificates. [Laws 1911, ch. 277, sec. 3.] All professional certificates in force at the time of the passage of this act shall at their expiration be renewed by the issuance of first-grade certificates, and no professional certificates shall be issued after the passage of this act; provided, that after May 1, 1913, no person shall be granted a certificate who has not completed at least one year of school work in an accredited high school or its equivalent, and after May 1, 1915, no person shall be granted a certificate who has not completed at least two years of high-school work or its equivalent, and after May 1, 1917, no person shall be granted a certificate who has not completed four years of high school or its equivalent; provided further, that this requirement shall not apply to any one who has taught at least six school months before May 1, 1912; and provided further, that the State Board of Education may make such temporary modifications of the requirements of this section as may be necessary to supply the schools with teachers.

SEC. 81. Temporary Certificate. [7534.] That the county superintendent of any county in this state, upon request made in writing by such district board, is authorized to issue temporary teachers' certificates to any person not under eighteen years of age applying therefor, when in the judgment of such county superintendent the applicant is a person of good moral character and possesses the necessary qualifications of a teacher; provided, however, that such applicant make affidavit that he has not failed in the last preceding examination for teachers' certificates in any county in this state; and provided further, that such temporary certificate, when issued, shall not be effective or in force from or after the next quarterly examination for teachers' certificates in the county wherein same was issued.40 (Laws 1907, ch. 342, sec. 1.)

SEC. 82. Issued on Examination. [7494.] No certificate shall be issued by any county board or county superintendent except upon examination as provided in this act; provided, that county boards may renew professional certificates from year to year, as provided for in section 4 of this act.41 (Laws 1903, ch. 424, sec. 7.)

40. At the expiration of a temporary certificate another temporary certificate cannot be issued.

41. See sections 79 and 80 of this book. The provisions of those sections govern where they are in conflict with section 82 of this book. SEC. 83. County Certificates, Where Valid. [7495.] No certificate shall be of force except in the county in which it is issued; provided, that the county superintendent may indorse42 unexpired professional and first-grade, second- and third-grade certificates issued in other counties, on payment of the usual fee of one dollar, which certificate shall thereby be valid in the county in which such indorsement is made for the unexpired term of the certificate.43 A certificate issued under this act may be revoked by the board of examiners on the ground of immorality or for any cause that would have justified the withholding thereof when the same was granted. (Laws 1905, ch. 393, sec. 1.)

SEC. 84. Revocation; Causes For. [7526.] Any certificate issued by the State Board of Education, regents of the State Normal School, county board of examiners or city board of examiners may be revoked by the body issuing the same on the grounds of immorality, gross neglect of duty, annulling of written contracts with boards of education and district boards without the consent of a majority of the board which is a party to the contract, or for any cause that would have justified the withholding thereof when the same was granted. (Laws 1905, ch. 392, sec. 1.)

SEC. 85. Examination of Teachers in Physiology and Hygiene. [7519.] No certificate shall be granted to any person to teach in any of the public schools of this state after the 1st day of January, 1886, who has not passed a satisfactory examination in the elements of physiology and hygiene, with special reference to the effects of alcohol stimulants and narcotics upon the human system; and provision shall be made by the proper officers, committees and boards for instructing all pupils in each public school supported by public money and under state control upon the aforesaid topics. (Laws 1885, ch. 169, sec. 1.)

SEC. 86. Examination in Districts Employing Ten or More Teachers. [7533.] That in any common-school district employing ten or more teachers therein, the school board may appoint two competent persons, who, together with the superintendent of the school of such district, shall constitute an examining committee of such school board, whose duty it shall be to examine all persons who may apply to them as teachers; and no person except one who holds a diploma or a certificate from the State Board of Education or a diploma from the State Normal School shall be elected by such board as a teacher who

42. The indorsement of any county certificate is optional with the county superintendent.

43. The indorsement of a certificate by a county superintendent in a county other than the one in which it was issued makes it a legal certificate in the county where indorsed until it expires by limit of date. A specified limitation accompanying the indorsement is of no effect.

cannot produce a certificate from the examining committee, and setting forth that such person is competent to teach in such department of said school as may be stated in the certificate and is a person of good moral character; and provided, that a person holding such state diploma, state certificate or State Normal School certificate or a certificate granted by the aforesaid examining committee shall not be required to take any county teachers' examinations. (Laws 1907, ch. 340, sec. 1.)

CHAPTER IV.-COMPULSORY EDUCATION.

$87. Who must attend school; liability of

parents and guardians. 88. Truant officers; appointment; duty. 89. Incorrigible pupils. 90. Compensation of truant officers. 91. Teachers and school officers to report.

$92. Annual school census.
93. Deaf, mute and blind must be edu-

cated.
94. Penalty.
95. Education of children in asylums.

SECTION 87. Who Must Attend Schools; Liability of Parents and Guardians. [7736.] Every parent, guardian or other person in the state of Kansas having control or charge of any child or children between the ages of eight and fifteen years, 44 inclusive, shall be required to send such child or children to a public school, or a private, denominational or parochial school45 taught by a competent45 instructor, each school year, for such period as said school is in session; provided, that any child of the age of fourteen years or more who is able to read and write the English language,46 and who is actively and regularly employed46 for his own support or for the support of those dependent upon him, shall not be required to attend the aforesaid schools for a longer period or term than eight consecutive weeks in any one year; provided, that any and all children that have received a certificate of graduation from the common schools of any county or certificate of admission to a high school in any city in the state of Kansas shall be exempt from the provisions of this act; provided, that the children who are physically or mentally incapacitated for the work of common schools are exempt from the provisions of this act, but the school authorities shall have the right, 47 and they are hereby authorized, when such exemption under the provisions of this act is claimed by any parent, guardian or other person in the control or charge of such child or children, to cause an examination of such child or children by a physician or physicians employed for such purpose by such authorities, 48

44. The ages are from the time the child becomes eight years old until it becomes fifteen years old.

45. The parent or guardian may determine the particular kind of a school which the child shall attend. Attendance at a night school does not afford sufficient time to become a substitute for attendance upon a day school. This state requires that instructors in such schools be competent; a teacher may be competent without being the holder of a teacher's certificate. For exclusion on account of a contagious disease, see section 166.

46. He must be able to read and write the English language, and also be actively and regularly employed as stated in the law.

47. It is entirely within the province of school authorities to determine the validity of the claim for exemption.

48. The school boards should pay the expense of the examination by the physician.

and if such physician or physicians hold that such child or children are capable of doing the work in the common schools, then such child or children shall not be exempt from the provisions of this act. (Laws 1903, ch. 423, sec. 1.)

SEC. 88. Truant Officers; Appointment; Duty. [7737.] The county superintendents of public instruction shall divide their respective counties, exclusive of all cities of the first and second class therein, into not less than one nor more than five truant districts, and the board of county commissioners shall, upon the nomination of the county superintendents of public instruction of their respective counties, appoint a truant officer for each district thus created, who shall hold his office at the will of the county superintendent of public instruction; and the boards of education of all cities of the first and second class, respectively, shall, independently and originally, appoint the truant officers or officer of their respective cities, to serve at the pleasure of the appointing board. Each truant officer, in his respective district, shall see that the provisions of this act are complied with,49 and when from personal knowledge, or by report, or complaint of any resident or teacher of the district upder his supervision, or from any information, he believes that any child subject to the provisions of this act is habitually absent from any school which it should or has been accustomed to attend, or has been assigned to attend by order of the directors of any country district, or by the classification, transfer, or order of the board of education or superintendent of schools of any city of the first or second class, for a period of three or more consecutive days, unless excused under the provisions of section 1 of this act, he shall immediately give written notice 50 to the parent, guardian or other person having control or charge of such child, or, in the absence of such parent, guardian or other person having control or charge from his or her usual place of residence, shall leave a copy of such notice with some person over twelve years of age residing at the said usual place of residence, with instructions to hand said notice to said parent, guardian or other person having control or charge of such child, which notice shall require the attendance of said child at said school within five days from date of same; and if within five days from the date of said notice such parent, guardian or other person having control or charge of such child does not comply with the provisions of this act, then such truant officer shall make complaint in the name of the state of Kansas against such parent, guardian or other person having control or charge of such child in the

49. The truant officer appointed by the county commissioners is under the direction and supervision of the county superintendent.

50. Formal written notice is required, and the notice is final for the term. Notice by registered letter where delivery is prompt, or by special delivery where it can be used, is a legal notice if delivery can be proved.

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