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why the request cannot be addressed to the subordinate authorities, or that previous applications made to such authorities have not been altended to.

1561. ARTICLE VII. Consuls-General and Consuls shall be free to establish Vice Consals in the ports mentioned in article one, and situated in their Consular districts

The Vice-Consuls may be taken indiscriminately from among the subjects of the Netherlands, or from citizens of the United States, or of any other country residing or having the privilege, according to the local laws, to fix their residence in the port to which the Vice-Consul shall be named.

These Vice-Consuls, whose nominations shall be submitted to the approval of the governor of the colony, shall be provided with a certificate given to them by the Consul under whose orders they exercise their functions.

The governor of the colony may in all cases withdraw from the ViceConsuls the aforesaid sanction, in communicating to the Consul-General or Consul of the respective district the motives for his doing so.

1562. ARTICLE VIII, Passports delivered or signed by Consuls or Consular Agents do not dispense the bearer from providing himself with all the papers required ty the local laws, in order to travel or to establish himself in the colonies.

The right of the governor of the colony to prohibit the residence in, or to order the departure from, the colony of any person to whom a passport may have been delivered, remains undisturbed.

1563, ARTICLE IX. When a ship of the United States is wrecked upon the coast of the Dutch colonies, the Consul-General, Consul, or Vice-Consul who is present at the scene of the disaster, will, in case of the absence, or with the consent of the captain or supercargo, take all the necessary measures for the salvage of the vessel, the cargo, and all that appertains to it.

In the absence of the Consul-General, Consul, or Vice-Consul, the Dutch authorities of the place where the wreck has taken place will act in the premises, according to the regulations prescribed by the laws of the colony.

1564. ARTICLE X. Consuls-General, Consuls, and Vice-Consuls, may, in so far as the Axtradition of deserters from merchant-vessels or ships of war shall have een stipulated by treaty, request the assistance of the local authorities or the arrest, detention, and imprisonment of deserters from vessels of he United States. To this end, they shall apply to the competent funcionaries, and claim said deserters, in writing, proving by the register of the vessel, the list of the crew, or by any other authentic document, that the persons claimed belong to the crew.

The reclamation being thus supported, the local functionaries shall exercise what authority they possess, in order to cause the deserters to be delivered up.

These deserters, being arrested, shall be placed at the disposal of said Consuls, and may be confined in the public prisons at the request and at the expense of those who claim them, in order that they may be taken to the vessels to which they belong, or to other vessels of the same nation. But if they are not sent back within four months from the day of their arrest, they shall be set at liberty, and shall not again be arrested for the same cause.

It is understood, however, that if the deserter be found to have coinmitted any crime, offense, or contravention, his extradition may be delayed until the court having cognizance of the matter shall have pronounced its sentence, and the same has been carried into execution.

1565. ARTICLE XI. In case of the death of a citizen of the United States, without having any known heirs or testamentary executors, the Dutch authorities who, according to the laws of the colonies, are charged with the administration of the estate, will inform the Consuls or Consular Agents of the circumstance, in order that the necessary information may be forwarded to parties interested.

1566. ARTICLE XII. The Consuls-General, Consuls, and Vice-Consuls, have, in that capacity, in so far as the laws of the United States of America allow it, the right to be named arbiters in the differences which may arise between the masters and the crews of the vessels belonging to the United States, and this without the interference of the local authorities, unless the conduct of the crew, or of the captain, should have been such as to disturb the order and tranquility of the country, or that the Consuls-General, Consuls, or Vice-Consuls should request the assistance of the said authorities, in order to carry out their decisions or to maintain their authority.

It is understood, however, that this decision or special arbitrament is not to deprive, on their return, the parties in litigation of the right of appeal to the judiciary authorities of their own country.


The Consuls-General, Consuls, and Vice-Consuls, who are not subjects of the Netherlands, who, at the time of their appointment, are not established as residents in the Kingdom of the Netherlands or its colonies, and who do not exercise any calling, profession, or trade, besides their Consular functions, are, in so far as in the United States the same privileges are granted to the Consuls-General, Consuls, and Vice-Consuls of the Netherlands, exempt from military billetings, from personal taxation, and, moreover, from all public or municipal taxes which are considered of a personal character, so that this exemption shall never extend to custom-house duties or other taxes, whether indirect or real.

Consuls-General, Consuls, and Vice-Consuls who are not natives of recognized subjects of the Netherlands, but who may exercise conjointly with their Consular functions any profession or trade whatever, are obliged to fulfill duties and pay taxes and contributions, like all Dutch subjects and other inhabitants.

The Consuls-General, Consuls, and Vice-Consuls, subjects of the Netherlands, but to whom it has been accorded to exercise Consular functions conferred by the Government of the United States of America, are obliged to fulfill dnties and pay taxes and contributions, like all Dutch subjects and other inhabitants.

1568. ARTICLE XIV. The Consuls-General, Consuls, and Vice-Consuls of the United States shall enjoy all such other privileges, exemptions, and immunities in the colonies of the Netherlands as may, at any future time, be granted to the agents of the same rank of the most favored nations.


Treaty concluded May 23, 1878 (Rights, Privileges, and Immunities of

Consular Officers not applicable to colonies).

1569. ARTICLE I.

Each of the high contracting parties agrees to receive Consuls-General, Vice-Consuls-General, Consuls, Vice-Consuls, and Consular Agents of

le other into all its ports, cities, and places, except in those localities here there may be some objection to admitting such officers. This exception, however, shall not be made in regard to one of the igh contracting parties, without being made likewise in regard to every ther Power.

1570. ARTICLE II. The Consuls-General, Vice-Consuls-General, Consuls, Vice-Consuls, nd Consular Agents of the two high contracting parties shall be recipocally received and recognized on producing their commissions in the orms established in their respective countries, and the necessary exequaars shall be delivered to them free of cost, on exhibiting which they hall enjoy the rights, prerogatives, and immunities which are granted y the present convention.

The Government granting the exequatur shall be at liberty to withIraw the same on stating the reasons for which it has thought proper o to do. Notice shall be given, on producing the commission, of the *xtent of the district allotted to the Consular Officer, and subsequently of the changes that may be made in this district.


The respective Consuls-General, Vice-Consuls-General, Consuls, ViceConsuls, Consular Agents, Consular Pupils, and Consular Clerks of the high contracting parties, shall enjoy in the two countries all the privileges, exemptions, and immunities which are enjoyed or which may be hereafter enjoyed by the officers of the same rank of the most favored nation. Such Consular Officers being citizens or subjects of the country which has appointed them shall be exempted from military billeting and contributions, and from all military service by land or by sea, whether in the regular army, in the national or civic guard, or in the militia, and shall enjoy personal immunity from arrest or imprisonment, except for acts constituting crimes or misdemeanors by the laws of the country in which they reside. They shall, moreover, when citizens or subjects of the country which has appointed them, and provided they be not engaged in commerce or manufactures, likewise be exempt from capitation or sumptuary taxes, and from all other fiscal duties or contributive taxes of a direct or personal character; but this immunity shall not extend to customs, excise, or octroi duties, nor to taxes upon real or personal property which they may acquire or own in the country in which they exercise their functions.

Consular Officers who engage in commerce shall not plead their Co. sular privileges to avoid their commercial liabilities.


If the testimony of a Consular Officer, who is a citizen or subject of the State by which he was appointed, and who is not engaged in basness, is needed before the courts of either country, he shall be invited in writing to appear in court, and if unable to do so, his testimony shall be requested in writing, or be taken orally at his dwelling or office.

To obtain the testimony of such Consular Officer before the courts of the country where he may exercise his functions, the interested party in civil cases, or the accused in criminal cases, shall apply to the competent judge, who shall invite the Consular Officer, in the manner prescribed in Section I, to give his testimony.

It shall be the duty of said Consular Officer to comply with this request, without any delay which can be avoided.

Nothing in the foregoing part of this article, however, shall be construed to conflict with the provisions of the sixth article of the amendments to the Constitution of the United States, or with like provisions in the constitutions of the several States, whereby the right is secured to persons charged with crimes to obtain witnesses in their favor, and to be confronted with the witnesses against them.

1573. ARTICLE V.

Consuls-General, Vice-Consuls-General, Consuls, Vice-Consuls, and Consular Agents may place above the outer door of their offices, or residences, the arms of their nation, together with a proper inscription indicative of their office. They may also display the flag of their country over their offices or dwellings, and may hoist their flag upon any vessel employed by them in port in the discharge of their duty.


The Consular archives shall be at all times inviolable, and the local authorities shall under no pretext examine or seize the papers belonging thereto.

When a Consular Officer is engaged in business, the papers relating to the Consulate shall be kept in a separate inclosure and apart from the papers pertaining to his business.

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