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that this claim of foreign allegiance should be promptly and finally disavowed: Therefore any declaration, instruction, opinion, order, or decision of any officer of the United States which denies, restricts. impairs, or questions the right of expatriation, is declared inconsistent with the fundamental principles of the Republic.

872. SEC. 2000. All naturalized citizens of the United States, while in foreign countries, are entitled to and shall receive from this Government the same protection of persons and property which is accorded to nativeborn citizens.

873. Sec. 2001. Whenever it is made known to the President that any citizen of the United States has been unjustly deprived of his liberty by or under the authority of any foreign government, it shall be the duty of the President forth with to demand of that government the reasons of such imprisonment; and if it appears to be wrongful and in violation of the rights of American citizenship, the President shall forth with demand the release of such citizen, and if the release so demanded is unreasonably delayed or refused, the President shall use such means, not amounting to acts of war, as he may think necessary and proper to obtain or effectuate the release; and all the facts and proceedings relative thereto shall as soon as practicable be communicated by the President to Congress.

TITLE XXX.

NATURALIZATION.

874. SEC. 2165. An alien may be admitted to become a citizen of the United States in the following manner, and not otherwise:

First. He shall declare on oath, before a circuit or district court of the United States, or a district or supreme court of the Territories, or a court of record of any of the States having common-law jurisdiction, and a seal and clerk, two years, at least, prior to his admission, that it is bona fide his intention to become a citizen of the United States, and to renounce forever all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty, and, particularly, by name, to the prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty of which the alien may be at the time a citizen or subject.

Second. He shall, at the time of his application to be admitted, declare, on oath, before some one of the courts above specified, that he will support the Constitution of the United States, and that he absolutely and

atirely renounces and abjures all allegiance and fidelity to every foreign rince, potentate, state, or sovereignty; and, particularly, by name, to Le prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty of which he was before a tizen or subject; which proceedings shall be recorded by the clerk of he court. Third. It shall be made to appear to the satisfaction of the court admitng such alien that he has resided within the United States five years at ast, and within the State or Territory where such court is at the time eld, one year at least; and that during that time he has behaved as a nan of a good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constiation of the United States, and well disposed to the good order and hapiness of the same; but the oath of the applicant shall in no case be allowed o prove his residence. Fourth. In case the alien applying to be admitted to citizenship has vorne any hereditary title, or been of any of the orders of nobility in the ingdom or state from which he came, he shall, in addition to the above requisites, make an express renunciation of his title or order of nobility n the court to which his application is made, and his renunciation shall be recorded in the court.

Fifth. Any alien who was residing within the limits and under the jurisdiction of the United States before the twenty-ninth day of January, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-five, may be admitted to become a citizen, on due proof made to some one of the courts above specified, that he has resided two years, at least, within the jurisdiction of the United States, and one year, at least, immediately preceding his application, within the State or Territory where such court is at the time held; and on his declaring on oath that he will support the Constitution of the United States, and that he absolutely and entirely renounces and abjures all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty, and, particularly, by name, to the prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty whereof he was before a citizen or subject; and, also, on its appearing to the satisfaction of the court, that during such term of two years he has behaved as a man of good moral character, attached to the Constitution of the United States, and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the same; and where the alien, applying for admission to citizenship, has borne any hereditary title, or been of any of the orders of nobility in the kingdom or state from which he came, on his, moreover, making in the court an express renunciation of his title or order of nobility. All of the proceedings, required in this condition to be performed in the court, shall

be recorded by the clerk thereof.

Sixth. Any alien who was residing within the limits and under t jurisdiction of the United States, between the eighteenth day of Jun one thousand seven hundred and ninety-eight, and the eighteenth da of June, one thousand eight hundred and twelve, and who has continu to reside within the same, may be admitted to become a citizen of ti United States without having made any previous declaration of his inte tion to become such; but whenever any person, without a certificate such declaration of intention, makes application to be admitted a citize it must be proved to the satisfaction of the court, that the applicant w residing within the limits and under the jurisdiction of the United Stati before the eighteenth day of June, one thousand eight hundred an twelve, and has continued to reside within the same; and the resident of the applicant within the limits and under the jurisdiction of th United States, for at least five years immediately preceding the time such application, must be proved by the oath of citizens of the Unite States, which citizens shall be named in the record as witnesses; an such continued residence within the limits and under the jurisdiction a the United States, when satisfactorily proved, and the place where th applicant has resided for at least five years, shall be stated and set forth together with the names of such citizens, in the record of the cour admitting the applicant; otherwise the same shall not entitle him to b considered and deemed a citizen of the United States. (Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States o America in Congress assembled, That the declaration of intention tu become a citizen of the United States, required by section two thousand one hundred and sixty five of the Revised Statutes of the United States may be made by an alien before the clerk of any of the courts named in said section two thousand one hundred and sixty five; and all such declarations heretofore made before any such clerk are hereby declared as legal and valid as if made before one of the courts named in said section.]

875. SEC. 2166. Any alien, of the age of twenty-one years and upward, who has enlisted, or may enlist, in the armies of the United States, either the regular or the volunteer forces, and has been, or may be hereafter, honorably discharged, shall be admitted to become a citizen of the United States, upon his petition, without any previous declaration of his intention to become such; and he shall not be required to prove more than one year's residence within the United States previous to his application to become such citizen; and the court admitting such alien shall, in ddition to such proof of residence and good moral character, as now rovided by law, be satisfied by competent proof of such person's having een honorably discharged from the service of the United States.

876. SEC. 2167. Any alien, being under the age of twenty-one years, who las resided in the United States three years next preceding his arriving at that age, and who has continued to reside therein to the time he may nake application to be admitted a citizen thereof, may, after he arrives at the age of twenty-one years, and after he has resided five years within the l'nited States, including the three years of his minority, be admitted citizen of the United States, without having made the declaration required in the first condition of section twenty-one hundred and sixtyéve; but such alien shall make the declaration required therein at the time of his admission; and shall further declare, on oath, and prove to the satisfaction of the court, that, for two years next preceding, it has been his bona-fide intention to become a citizen of the United States; and he shall in all other respects comply with the laws in regard to naturalization.

877. SEC. 2168. When any alien, who has complied with the first condition specified in section twenty-one hundred and sixty-five, dies before he is actually naturalized, the widow and the children of such alien shall be considered as citizens of the United States, and shall be entitled to all rights and privileges as such, upon taking the oaths proscribed (') by law.

$78. SEC. 2169. The provisions of this Title shall apply to aliens [being free white persons, and to aliens) of African nativity and to persons of African descent.

879. SEC. 2170. No alien shall be admitted to become a citizen who has not for the continued term of five years next preceding his admission resided within the United States.

880. SEC. 2171. No alien who is a native citizen or subject, or a denizen of any country, state, or sovereignty with which the United States are at war, at the time of his application, shall be then admitted to become a citizen of the United States; but persons resident within the ['nited States, or the Territories thereof, on the eighteenth day of June, in the year one thousand eight hundred and twelve, who had before that day made a declaration, according to law, of their intention to become citizens of the United States, or who were on that day entitled

(1) Error in the Roll; should be prescribed.

to become citizens without making such declaration, may be admitte to become citizens thereof, notwithstanding they were alien enemies a the time and in the manner prescribed by the laws heretofore passed that subject; nor shall anything herein contained be taken or construe to interfere with or prevent the apprehension and removal, agreeably law, of any alien enemy at any time previous to the actual naturaliz tion of such alien.

881. SEC. 2172. The children of persons who have been duly natura ized under any law of the United States, or who, previous to the passin of any law on that subject, by the Government of the United State may have become citizens of any one of the States, under the law thereof, being under the age of twenty-one years at the time of th naturalization of their parents, shall, if dwelling in the United States be considered as citizens thereof; and the children of persons who noi are, or have been, citizens of the United States, shall, though born on of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, be considered a citizens thereof; but no person heretofore proscribed by any State, o who has been legally convicted of having joined the army of Grea Britain during the Revolutionary War, shall be admitted to become citizen without the consent of the legislature of the State in which suc person was proscribed.

882. Sec. 2173. The police court of the District of Columbia shall havi no power to naturalize foreigners.

883. SEC. 2174. Every seaman, being a foreigner, who declares hi intention of becoming a citizen of the United States in any competen court, and shall have served three years on board of a merchant-vesse of the United States subsequent to the date of such declaration, may, oi his application to any competent court, and the production of his cer tificate of discharge and good conduct during that time, together wit] the certificate of his declaration of intention to become a citizen, b admitted a citizen of the United States; and every seaman, being a for eigner, shall, after his declaration of intention to become a citizen a the United States, and after he shall have served such three years, bu deemed a citizen of the United States for the purpose of manning ant serving on board any merchant-vessel of the United States, anything to the contrary in any act of Congress notwithstanding; but such seamai shall, for all purposes of protection as an American citizen, be deemei such, after the filing of his declaration of intention to become such citizen.

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