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ORIGIN OF THE JUVENILE COURT LAW.
The Juvenile Court law of the state of Illinois, as it exists today, was not a mushroom growth or a makeshift to temporarily gloss over existing evils. The law is the product of the deepest analysis of conditions existing not only in the field of childsaving work, but covering the entire ground of charity and soulsaving work. It was not due to spasmodic action on the part of a few reformers with a view to making temporary fame for themselves. It was the product of deep thought, patient research and untiring effort on the part of every one interested in matters pertaining to sociology along every line as it is being studied by modern thought. It was a product of gradual evolution born of the mother necessity of existing evils which threatened to swamp the ship of state itself if they were not checked.
While others were groping in the dark, as far back as the years 1888, 1889, the foundation thought underlying the Juvenile Court law was born in the office of the Chicago Visitation and Aid Society. This society had been devoting its entire time to child-saving work, realizing that if a better, higher civilization was to be evolved, the foundation must be laid in uplifting the minds and bodies of the children; but the work of the Visitation and Aid Society, as well as the work being done along the same lines of thought by other societies, while not practically illegal, there was, however, no legislation giving them the powers to do what they realized it was necessary to do in order to save the child. After mature deliberation a bill was drafted by the officers of the society, in 1901-2, legalizing the work. This bill was introduced in the Illinois Legislature and passed to second reading, but failed to become a law. The laws, as they then existed in the state of Illinois, took absolutely no cognizance whatever of a delinquent child under the age of ten years. When a child reached the age of ten years, if it committed a der redation of any sort that could be construed into an overt act against the laws of the state of Illinois, it could be arrested and thrown into prison along with the most hardened criminals. Here the little ones, many of whom positively did not realize they had done wrong except for the fact that they were being punished for doing it, learned their first lesson in crime and the seeds that were planted in their first jail experience rapidly ripened and bore fruit as soon as they were released.
Running wild on the streets like little wild animals seeking what they might destroy, the children under ten years of age lived their disorderly little lives unmolested because there was no law making it possible for the officers of societies to get hold of them and check the stream of evil while it was yet weak, before it had developed into a river of degeneracy which would be beyond human control.
The case of the notorious Shevlin family illustrates well the condition of things as they were at that time, and the helplessness of soul-saving agencies when they came to deal with such conditions.
Years ago an officer of the Visitation and Aid Society stood outside the door of a shanty and watched “Mother Shevlin" teach a beautiful young boy how to steal a handkerchief out of a coat pocket without being detected. As a consequence of the evidence obtained that day. Vincent Shevlin was sent to an institution for a time.
The rest of the family of degenerate children was, perforce. left to pursue its infamously criminal way, because there was no law on the statute books of the state of Illinois whereby they could be brought into court and cared for as they should have been. Once in a while some particularly flagrant crime would call the attention of the police department to them, but on the whole they were left alone.
If the Juvenile Court law had been on the statute books of the state of Illinois ten years ago, Vincent Shevlin would never have been allowed to leave the institution and return home without first being placed under the watchful care of a probation officer. If the Juvenile Court law had been on the statute books of the state of Illinois ten years ago the Visitation and Aid Society, or any other society whose attention had been called to the degenerate family, could have brought all of the children into the
Juvenile court, taken them away from the influence of their immoral and wicked mother, who educated them to be what they became in after life, thieves and murderers. They might have been placed in wholesome surroundings where their thoughts could have been diverted into healthy channels. They might have been taught a trade where their thoughts could have worked along proper lines instead of being compelled to utilize their ingenuity in continually planning fresh and more daring depredations than they had committed before. Perhaps some home could have been found for them in the country where, surrounded on all sides by the beautiful in nature, guided with kindly care by those who were watching over them, the boys would have forgotten that they ever picked a pocket on the streets of Chicago, and would have grown into honest, truthful, praiseworthy manhood, “Far from the maddening crowd's ignoble strife,” instead of finding an untimely and ignominious death on the gallows and at the muzzle of a policeman's revolver. If the Shevlin boys could have been saved from the degredation into which they sunk because of the lack of legislation similar to the Juvenile Court law now in force, the state of Illinois would to-day be richer by thousands of dollars and the record books of the police stations would be clear of many reports of robberies and murders which they now show. But greatest of all, if it had been possible to get at the boys and save them, they might to-day be self-respecting, law-abiding men.
It was just such cases as that of the Shevlin family which made the societies realize their helplessness, and they began to cast about for a remedy. It was realized that a law must be evolved which should not only protect them and legalize the work they were already doing, but that the law must at the same time broaden the field of work and provide a more comprehensive way for them to bring about desired results than any that had so far been devised. The agitation, begun in a small way by discussion among those interested in the problem of saving children, spread to the women's clubs, where it was vigorously agitated, and suggestions were offered as to what was needed in the way of legislation. Then the Chicago Bar association became interested in the matter and named a committee to inquire into the needs and outline such legislation as would appear, in the minds of the committee, to cover the necessities of the societies engaged in charitable and sociological work. It was understood from the start that the saving of souls and the making of men and women had progressed to a point which would necessitate the deepest study before intelligent and lasting help could be given them along the line of providing state legislation that would simplify and systematize their work.
The committee which had been appointed by the Chicago Bar association to take up the matter of child-saving legislation met in the office of Judge Ephriam Banning and nominated Judge Harvey B. Hurd as chairman and Hastings H. Hart as secretary. After a general discussion of the matter it was decided that before any intelligent action could be taken it would be necessary to secure the views of those most interested in the proposed legislation, that is, the societies interested in child-saving work, regarding the ground which should be covered by the law. In accordance with this idea, the committee invited all interested persons to meet with it and state their views as to what should be incorporated in the body of the law. It might be said that from this time on Judge Harvey B. Hurd fathered the law, Mrs. Lucy M. Flower mothered it, while John C. Newcomer stood sponsor for it in the legislature, of which he was then a member.
The committee met many times. The wheels of progress in drawing up the bill were not greased at all times with enthusiastic assistance from all concerned in the results which were to be accomplished. The interests at stake were so diversified, because of difference in religious thought or methods of work of the different societies, that at times it required the most skilled diplomacy to straighten out difficulties and arbitrate in a way that would cover the points desired by all. The bill was passed from hand to hand, being changed and remodeled as each one incorporated in it what he or she considered necessary to make of it a law which would not only protect every man, woman and child with whom the societies would have to deal, but would at the same time protect each individual society in its methods of dealing with those who came under its care as charges.
It was realized from the start that as the law was to cover every possible contingency that might arise in the efforts of a society or other agency to take a child away from evil environments and place it where it could develop in a healthier atmosphere, it would be necessary to select a court to administer the law which should have original, inherent and unlimited jurisdiction, as the child upon being brought into the Juvenile court would from that time on become a ward of the court; that it would be brought into court from time to time, where its wants and necessities must be provided for. As the conditions which would be met with would cover a ground unlimited in its scope, the court must have powers quite as unlimited in order to be able to provide in each case just what the case might demand at the moment it was under consideration. The Circuit court was finally decided upon by those interested in the law as the court that should have jurisdiction over the children's cases.
Finally the law was shaped into a form that would permit being sent down to Springfield to be acted upon by the legislature. Here again it met with opposition and set-backs, small to be sure, but because of their very triviality more annoying to those whose very souls were bound up in the bit of paper upon which the proposed law was written. The Senate seemed to realize at once the importance of the desired legislation, but the House of Representatives kept up a running fight throughout the entire session whenever the Juvenile Court law was mentioned.
The measure was introduced by Hon. John C. Newcomer early in the session, and, in the regular order of business he had it referred to the Judiciary committee of the House. After being referred to the Judiciary committee it became necessary to amend the law in the hope that the determined opposition to the measure could be overcome. Then after aggravating delays, delays which were considered preferable to risking a negative vote in the committee, the Senate and House Judiciary committees met in joint session to consider its passage. Judge Harvey B. Hurd, Judge Carter, Ephriam Banning and T. D. Hurley were present at the joint meetings of the committees and explained every detail of the proposed law to the inquiring legislators. After this joint meeting of the Judiciary committees the bill was brought up in the Senate by Senator Case and passed upon favorably.
In the meantime it seemed that the measure must surely find an untimely death in the House. Mr. Newcomer finally asked the House committee to take the matter up and offer any amendments to the law which would satisfy them with it if they were opposed to the bill as it then stood. This suggestion was complied with. The proposed amendments were submitted to the Chicago persons who were interested in the passage of the law and then the same old grind of incorporating the amendments and still securing the things absolutely required if the work was to be intelligently carried on had to be gone over again. Upon being brought up before the House Judiciary committee for the third time, with the amendments desired by the representatives incorporated in the bill as much as could be done without injuring the parts the Chicago contingent was most interested in, it was carried by a unanimous vote and sent to the House with the recommendation that it be passed.
Then a new difficulty arose to check the progress of the bill. It was sent over to the House from the Senate so late in the session that it was apparent at once it would never be reached in the regular order of business if it were placed on the regular calendar of the House. Finally, in the last week of the session, in fact, on the afternoon of the last day of the session, Mr. Newcomer succeeded in getting unanimous consent to having it taken out of the regular order of business and considered. After a very brief discussion a vote was taken, and the bill was passed. At last the long strain was over, the work of years was about to bear fruit-Chicago was to have a Juvenile court, and the agencies interested in child-saving work had the strong arm of the law back of them in any action it might be necessary for them to take in order to save a child and make a man.
Then began the formative period of the Juvenile court in Cook county. The child-saving agencies had cried for help in the way of legislation that would aid them in their work; now it became necessary to make intelligent use of the law which had been passed in answer to their appeal. The Juvenile Court law became a statute of the state of Illinois, going into effect July 1st, 1899. Upon examination it at first seemed that it would be utterly impossible to enforce it, as it had failed to provide the means to carry it into effect.
However, in the face of countless difficulties, the interested and determined ones forged ahead. By the terms of the law it was made the duty of the judges of the Circuit court in Cook county to designate one among them to preside over this new branch of the Circuit court. Judge Richard S. Tuthill was named, and has since then been known as the judge of the Juvenile court, or as it is more familiarly and lovingly called, “The Children's Court."
This choice of a judge to preside over the Juvenile court was not made by chance. It was realized by all concerned that the entire bench could not furnish one more ideally fitted in every way to take charge of this most important work. Judge Tuthill is a father and grandfather. He realizes all the exigencies that are likely to arise in the life of a child and is able to arrange them just in the order in which they should come. Most important of all, although he is not juvenile in any respect, Judge Tuthill has not forgotten the motives and emotions that governed him before he reached man's estate, and because he has not forgotten, he is able to place himself in the child's place and intelligently arrive at a conclusion as to just what was most likely to
have led up to the line of conduct which the youngster has pursued. When dealing with the little dependents and delinquents who are brought before him he drops entirely the role of avenging justice. His face warms into a fatherly smile and when he pats a youngster on the head and offers words of advice which sound as if there was a storehouse of love back of them, the little one is more than likely to burst into tears and "tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth,” because he feels in his heart, although he could not explain to you why he feels it, that he may dare to tell the truth to the judge, and that the judge will understand the situation exactly as it happened.
But more than a judge was needed for the intelligent workings of the new Juvenile court. In order to carry out not only the letter but also the spirit of the law, it would be necessary to appoint probation officers and there was no fund provided from which these officers of the court might be paid. It was realized that intelligent, practical and effective work on the part of the probation officers could not be secured from those who might volunteer their services without making any charge for the time they might put in. Volunteer work is always desultory work. To bring about results from the administration of the law the very hardest, most untiring work on the part of the probation officers of the court would be necessary. It is more than likely that the framers of the law did not, themselves, grasp the scope of the law or realize what its workings really comprehended. While in a vague way they realized the importance of the measure, they did not expect that the work of the court would either be so great at the very beginning or that it would increase with such startling rapidity and assume such stupendous proportions. The probation system is looked upon by all as the very greatest force in producing the best results from the operation of the Juvenile court, and while those who framed the law had thought people could be secured who would be willing to give at least a part of their time without pay, it was soon apparent that it would be necessary to provide pay for the probation officers.
Mrs. Lucy L. Flower, who had been an enthusiastic helper in securing the passage of the law, and who had mothered it from its very inception, interested the Chicago Woman's club in the matter, and they tendered to the court when it opened the services of Mrs. Alzina P. Stevens of Hull House, themselves paying her for her services as probation officer. Mrs. Stevens' death before the court was a year old was greatly lamented by all who had been associated with her in the work. Other women's clubs of Chicago, as well as churches and charitable institutions, employed and paid for the services of probation officers, and thus another difficulty was met and conquered. Mayor Harrison, on behalf of the city; the superintendent of police, the state's attorney and others tendered their services and aided materially in making it possible to at once put the Juvenile Court law into intelligent operation in Cook county. The Mayor appointed Timothy D. Hurley, who had been one of the most active workers in bringing about the passage of the law, an assistant in the law department of the city, and detailed him to render service in the Juvenile court. Mr. Hurley, who was conceded by every one to be rarely fitted by nature and experience for the work, was appointed Chief Probation Officer, and held this position until just recently, when his duties as justice of the peace and police magistrate forced him to give up his work in the Juvenile court.
But, although the court now had helpers to aid it in carrying on its work, still another difficulty was confronted. The provision is made in Section ii of the Juvenile Court law "That no court or magistrate shall commit a child under the age of twelve years to a jail or police station.” Neither the city or the county had a place of detention for children, pending their appearance in court, such as the law contemplated for them. It was necessary to continue caring for the dependent, neglected and homeless children at the Detention hospital, although it was realized this was no place to confine babies and children of tender years, surrounded as they were on all sides by the cursing and raving of the unfortunate insane who found here a temporary shelter until their cases could be disposed of by the County court. However, as no other place was available, it became necessary to care for the dependent children in the Detention hospital, on the theory that any port in a storm is better than a grave in the angry deep. It was decided that the operation of the law should not be killed because there was no place to care for the children -time would straighten out the tangle and the temporary makeshift must be employed.
A still more serious difficulty arose when those interested in the law cast about for a place of detention for delinquent children. A delinquent, before he has undergone the smoothing process of the court, is as slippery as the proverbial eel, and a place of detention where this class of children could be cared for pending the disposal of their cases by the court-a place where they could be watched, and where there was a reasonable assurance that they might be found the next moment if for a moment the back of the one in charge was turned to them. The Board of Directors of the Illinois Industrial association, through its superintendent, Mr. A. C. Dodds, tendered its cottages at 233 Honore street, to be used as a place of detention for delinquent children. After great effort the city and county were induced
each to pay one-half of the expenses incurred in feeding and providing beds for the children during their stay in the home.
So, at last, after weary efforts and the constant complaint that it would never be possible to enforce the Juvenile Court law until it was materially amended, chaos finally gave way, under determined effort and the application of trained minds, to cosmos. The Juvenile court was finally opened July 1, 1899, and has been increasing in its activity and the volume of work accomplished until, at the present time, twelve District officers and sixteen Police probation officers are working under the direction of Chief Probation officer, and twenty approved and well managed and active institutions are represented in court. To utilize the forces of the juvenile court to the best advantage and at the same time to systematize the work, the county has been divided into twelve districts, and each district assigned to what is known a general probation, or a district officer, who devotes his or her entire time to the work. All children coming before the court, if paroled, are assigned to the district officer of the district in which the child resides. The number of children in some districts exceeds 500. The district probation officer works under the direction of the Chief Probation officer, and he in turn is subject to the direction of the court. It is not expected that the district probation officer shall visit every child in his or her district. The district officer is simply responsible for the work of the court in the district in which he has been assigned, and in a general way oversees and systematizes the work of the probation officers in that district. The work of visitation is assigned to the probation officers or to churches, social settlements, societies or individuals in the district which desire to co-operate with the Juvenile court. Thus it will be seen that the real work of the district officer is to keep track of what is being done in the district and report to the court what has been accomplished by the forces at work.
Perfection comes through practice. What if the path of the Juvenile Court law was strewn with thorns, that its wheels were blockaded and its progress impeded at every turn? Like a revolution, it gathered force with every opposing obstacle in its track, and to-day Illinois stands the pioneer state in child-saving legislation, and the eyes of the entire country are intent upon studying the perfect workings of the Juvenile court of Cook county with a view to copying its methods and accomplishing in every other state in the Union a share of the great work that has done more to make Illinois famous than any other one thing she ever accomplished.
An old English adage reads that “The proof of the pudding is law, Assistant State's Attorney Howard O. Sprogle, who has in the eating of it." Going a little further back in history, our watched the cases coming before the Cook County Grand Jury Master said, “For every tree is known by his own fruit. For of
for years, spoke as follows regarding the results of the operation thorns men do not gather figs, nor of a bramble bush gather they
of the Juvenile court as he had observed them in the Grand Jury
room: “The effect of the Juvenile court upon the number of grapes." And so long ago that even tradition is unable to settle cases coming before the Criminal court is very patent,” explained the date, the Book of Good Counsels advises us that "Good things Mr. Sprogle. “About 2,000 cases a year are handled by Judge come not out of bad things."
Tuthill of children between the ages of ten and sixteen. Of this Those interested in the Juvenile Court law have been more number, perhaps ten or twelve a year are sent to the Grand Jury than gratified: they have been heartily enthusiastic over the re- by Judge Tuthill for indictment for the purpose of having them sults which have been brought about by the operation of the sent to Pontiac, when that institution seems to be the proper Juvenile court. The highest hopes of the earnest people who place for them. These ten or twelve cases which invariably come framed the law have been more than realized, and the end is not to the Criminal court from Judge Tuthill's court and from no yet in sight. The law is being interpreted day by day in a way other sources, are the only cases of youthful criminals handled that reaches right down into the heart of evil and promises to by the Grand Jury. It would be safe to say that two hundred tear out, in time, the roots which cause the growth of bad citi- cases a year less are handled by the Grand Jury since the existzenship. Illinois being the pioneer state to provide a court where ence of the Juvenile court than came under its notice before the children's cases may be considered apart from the civil and new law went into effect. criminal cases of adult petitioners, the eyes of the whole world “Before the Juvenile court was established all cases of boys are fixed upon the Juvenile court and definite results are being detected in crime came to the Criminal court in the regular course eagerly sought for.
of events. Not less than fifteen cases of boys under the age of Judge Murray F. Tuley, the Dean of the Bench, has been sixteen years came before the Grand Jury every month. The quoted as saying, “This is the greatest law ever enacted by the crimes usually charged against the lads were burglary, petty depstate of Illinois. I have such a high appreciation of the lasting redations upon freight cars, candy or bake shops, or stealing benefits that must follow the judicious administration of this act, pigeons or rabbits from barns; hoodlum acts which in the counit would be with great reluctance that I throw anything in the try would be considered boyish pranks rather than crime. Not way of its operation. I believe that it is effecing more good in less than seventy-five percent of these cases were regularly this city and county than all that the Criminal court could pos- thrown out by the Grand Jury because of the tender age of the sibly effect, and that it will effect more good in one year than boy. The deplorable fact must be admitted, however, that most the Criminal court can, by punishment, effect in ten years, or of this seventy-five per cent turned loose by the Grand Jury even twenty.” Judge Tuley made this statement while the Ju- eventually were returned and indicted later for repeated offenses. venile court was still a young child, before any definite results The cause of this was not difficult to locate. The poisonous effect could be pointed to as having been obtained through the working of the police station and jail experience clung to the boy after of the court.
he was turned loose by the Grand Jury. The badness he had A short time after Judge Tuley had expressed himself as favor- learned while under confinement he rolled under his tongue as a ably impressed with the theory underlying the Juvenile Court choice morsel, and retailed it to his companions, thus spreading
the infection and also starting other youths upon the same path of crime in which he had, himself, left several footprints. Almost before the fact was realized he had developed into a criminal and drifted back to the Criminal court, which knew him frequently from that time on."
Perhaps in no other place outside of the Juvenile court itself can the good results brought about by the operation of that court be observed to better advantage than in the County Jail, where for many years previous to the enactment of the Juvenile Court law the officials endeavored to care for the youth so unfortunate as to come under the ban of laws then in force, in such a way as to prevent him, as far as possible, from being harmed spiritually and mentally by having his heart hardened and his spirit broken by his enforced confinement for weeks or months with vicious and degenerate adults. It was the constant attempt of those in charge of the County Jail to enable the youths under their care to retain their self-respect and self-confidence, and to teach them such lessons that they would be able after leaving the jail to more easily withstand temptation and to lead better lives. Long before the Juvenile Court law became a reality, the agitation of the women's clubs and other societies interested in child-saving work for reform along the line of caring for the unfortunate little ones who came under the ban of the law, caused the jail officials to open a school in the County Jail, where the small offenders were compelled to learn lessons, whether they desired to do so or not. This agitation also brought about the building of the John Worthy school, where the young children sent out to the Bridewell could be kept separate from the older criminals. But this only provided for the care of those who came under the attention of the jail officials in the regular order of sentence and commitment—it had no deterrant effect upon the source of the evil. In March, 1901, when the Juvenile court had been in existence only about a year and a half, Jailer John L. Whitman, of the Cook County Jail, made a written statement regarding the influence of the court upon the number of cases of small boys coming to the County Jail. His statement is copied in full, as it gives a better and more definite idea of the good results arising from the administration of the Juvenile Court law than anything that has been said regarding it. Mr. Whitman wrote as follows:
"I am a firm believer in preventive measures for doing away with social ills rather than pin those cure-alls which are the delight of so many reformers. It has been evidenced by the operation of the Juvenile court that the most good can be accomplished by making the effort to reclaim our wayward boys and girls from the career of crime which too soon opens its alluring arms for the friendless and homeless of our cities, who, by the inevitable vicissitudes of metropolitan life, are early cast into swift contact with the terrible temptations of their environments.
“Previous to the enactment of the law governing the cases of juvenile offenders there were committed to the jail each year an average of five hundred and seventy-five boys under sixteen years of age. These boys were arrested on criminal charges, tried as criminals, and if convicted, sentenced to serve time in penal institutions under the same laws that governed the cases against adults. The Juvenile court does not denominate offenders of minor years as “criminals," and it cannot be properly said that those whose tender years are incapable of deliberation shall 'be denominated criminals when the very essential elements of crime are impossible to their immaturity of body and mind. The word criminal, and the suggestions engendered in its employment rather convey the idea of deliberate and rational devotion of life and faculties to the commission of crime. So the Juvenile court rightly denominates the youthful offenders as delinquent, and with kindly advice and a mild restraint in some cases carefully leads them from the path of crime, diverts their young minds from evil and educates them. Many will be found who, after such treatment, courageously enter highways of truth, honesty and self-help.
"Since the Juvenile court has been in operation not over twenty boys under the age of sixteen have been sent to jail, and they were boys who had, early in life, started upon a career of crime, and their environments were such as to justify the court in inflicting more permanent reformatory measures. Some of these were sent to Pontiac. Practically speaking, however, there is now no one under the age of sixteen years committed to jail.
“When, under the law, they were committed to jail, every effort was made by the officials to better their condition if possible. A school was established within the jail, and the moral influence of the teacher over them as well as the educational -advantages derived from the school was a source of benefit to many. But now that the Juvenile court has relieved the authorities at the jail of the care of this class of boys and are benefiting them in a more substantial way, we have the opportunity to do for the older class of boys what we did for the younger class before the Juvenile court was in operation, and the result of our efforts has been very gratifying in the older class as well as in the younger class. With the large majority of the boys—in fact, I might say, without exception-it will be found that they are susceptible to the melting influences of the teacher's patient, win
ning ways. They learn rapidly and are eager for the stimulus of education, and oftentimes leave the jail with a new ambition in life.
“The Juvenile court is most effectually caring for the delinquents. I know that they do not develop into criminals, otherwise they would be brought before the Criminal court and into jail as they reach or pass the age of sixteen. What is being done for the delinquents by the Juvenile court and what can be accomplished by our best effort at the jail for those just past the age of delinquency will, in the near future, prove to be the most potential agency for the suppression of crime that has yet been projected, and will hasten the day when the crime disease, so far as the youth is concerned, shall have been cured away."
At the same time the above statement was writen by Mr. Whitman, Miss Nellie J. Flood, the teacher of the jail boys, wrote as follows upon the same subject :
“For the past four years I have had charge of all boys who have come under the ban of the law and have been placed in Look County Jail. From daily experience, close observation and study of the juvenile offender, I am where I can see the effects and advantages of the recent enactment passed for the benefit of th juvenile offender.
"I think these boys may be divided into three grades. First, the boy who, in a spirit of mischief rather than wickedness, breaks windows, steals a few pigeons or flips cars. To the second grade belong the first offender who, perchance, by reason of dire necessity or having fallen into bad company, wilfully breaks the law. To the third grade belong the chronic offenders who are steeped in crime and are better acquainted with the dark side of life than the average man.
"My position in the jail previous to the enactment of the Juvenile Court law was that of investigation committee, probation officer, counsel ministering to their temporal needs, and teacher, all in one. All these various grades of boys, ranging from eight to sixteen years of age, were brought to the jail, where a separate department and school was established and maintained for their benefit. The average attendance at the school varied from thirty to sixty. During the three years previous to the enactment of the Juvenile Court law there were 1,705 boys brought to the jail school, none of whom were over sixteen years of age. The number was so large that the boys sixteen years old and over could not take advantage of the school and its benefits. Since the enactment of the Juvenile Court law-that is, during the past two years—there have been brought to the jail 799 boys, not more than a dozen of whom have been under sixteen, who were sent from the Juvenile court. Now the school attendance is composed of boys over sixteen, whom I separate into the same grades as I did those of younger years—that is to say, the mischievous, the first offender and the chronic offender.
"Every boy has lying dormant in him a power for great good and possibilities for either good or evil. If the course is evil, the duty is to divert it, if possible, by such treatment as the case may call for. This the Juvenile Court law aims at, to encourage the good and restrain the evil in the juvenile delinquents. The effect of the Juvenile Court law has been a protection to the first and second grades of offenders of whom I have spoken before, and it gives them an opportunity of immediate trial, when their cases are passed upon by judges experienced in dealing with children."
But the vast majority of children coming before the Juvenile court are dependent children, and in lifting them from their dependency, by taking them away from a homeless life or from so-called homes which were worse than unfit-homes where drunkenness and poverty, and evil and crime, rendered the atmosphere positively mephitic to the young lives which were forced to breathe in it, by removing these hundreds of little ones from their awful environments and placing them in homes or institutions where they will receive exactly the care each individual case demands, the Juvenile court has stepped into the lives of numberless human beings at the most critical period of their existence, saved them from lives of shame and crime, and lifted them to a plane where they can grow and expand in God's good sunshine and become happy, useful, law-abiding men and women. The beneficial effects of the probation system are everywhere apparent to those who are making a close study of the workings of the Juvenile court. One of the most important things to be remembered in studying the probation system is the fact of its value from an economical viewpoint. Since the Juvenile court has been in existence, over 4,000 cases have been turned over to the loving, watchful care of a probation officer. It has been estimated by the superintendent of the John Worthy school that an expenditure of sixty cents per day is necessary to properly care for the boys under his charge. Had it been necessary to care for these thousands of children in institutions instead of placing them in charge of a probation officer and forcing their parents to provide for them, the enormous amount of money necessary to carry on the work under such circumstances can be readily figured out, especially when it is taken into consideration that the estimate of sixty cents per day for each child would not cover the cost of the buildings necessary to house this vast number of little ones.
street. These in the congested quarters where the land
is high and playgrounds most needed, are crowded with Published by tho Visitation and Aid Society.
busy traffic. The same influence has crowded the house
and contracted the size of the rooms; there T. D. HURLEY, Editor, 79 Dearborn St., Chicago, IIL.
porches and the living rooms, eight or ten feet square, Eastern Office, 53 W. 24th St., New York City.
afford no romping ground for children. The rays of Western Office, Portland, Oregon.
the hot summer sun strike down into these narrow teneTb. JUVENILE RECORD is published monthly, except in the ments and the temperature rises to a degree fatal to all month of July. Single copies, 10 cents. Subscription price, $1.00 per year.
except the most rugged. Under such conditions it is
not surprising that there are delinquent children and hatard In Post Omco at Chicago, II., as second-class matter
mothers and sickly babies abandoned by those who should
be their protectors. The summer outings of the social The JUVENILE RECORD is the official organ of and published by the Visitation and Aid Society and will deal with social problems in child-saving
settlements, charity bureaus and other organizations work and give an account of the workings of the Juvenile Court
liave done much in recent years to alleviate this condiNEW SUBSORIPTIONS can commence at any time.
tion. There is much more which can be done. MoveWHEN RENEWING, always give the name of the post-ofilce to which your paper is now being sent. Your name cannot be found on our books unless ments have already been started to give the tired mother this is done. Four weeks are required after the receipt of money by us before the date opposite your name on your paper, which shows to what a few days or a week in the country. It is one of the time your subscription is paid, can be changed. This will show that your remittance was received.
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National Conference and Juvenile Courts
The National Conference of Charities and Correction
has again met, spent days in discussing economic and The Juvenile Record this month starts the publication sociological subjects and again failed to consider the of a quarterly edition. The first number describes Ju- vital question of Juvenile courts for the nation. Its only venile courts, the laws under which they operate, scenes notice of the phase of child saving was to appoint a in the court room and the accomplishments of the first committee to arrange for possible discussion of the subyear in Illinois. Succeeding numbers will treat of sub- ject next year.
The National Conference apparently jects of current interest in connection with Juvenile overlooks the fact that the Juvenile court is the hub of courts in the United States. Copies may be secured by the social question. There is no question that a Juveaddressing the Juvenile Record.
nile court is the essential factor in effective child sav
ing. There is hardly less doubt that a Juvenile court A bill is now being prepared by the Juvenile Record to
is necessary to benefit the fathers and mothers who are be presented to the next legislature to regulate the trans
to be reached by charity. fer of children. Children in Illinois now have no pro
It is interesting and instructive to consider papers and tection in this respect. A child can be picked up from
debate on how to construct and manage institutions. The the street or given away by its parents without the
direction and regulation of people within walls has been slightest formality. Property can not be transferred as
reduced to a science and is worthy of extended consideasily as can children. As we have announced before,
eration. It is still a problem how to immure a child in the Juvenile Record's bill will provide that no child can
an institution and still raise it filled with the aggressive
ness and reliance of the home raised child. It is an unbe transferred or adopted into a home without the written consent of the parents or sanction of a competent
solved problem how to separate children from parents court of jurisdiction.
without heart rending on both sides.
But a better problem is how to keep the children and Summer Outings.
parents together. This question simmers down to the
consideration of the merits of the Juvenile court law. The parents whose children live in the country or
The Juvenile court is primarily opposed to breaking up even in homes that have a little grass plat do not realize the home until there is no other hope for the child's rewhat is lacking to the child of the tenements or poorer demption. Where state conferences and charity workquarters of a large city. Though they may not recog- ers have discussed the Juvenile court law there has been nize the cause, children instinctively feel happy when
one invariable result and in Maryland, New York,
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Missouri, Wisconsin and other playing near shady trees, running water and under a
states Juvenile courts have been established in bright sky. The country child has all the blessed herit
quence of such discussion. age of nature around him. He may roam the fields, If the National Conference would devote a day and pluck flowers, dabble for fish, and his work only gives an evening to this vital question, there is no doubt what zest to his play. With the city boy or girl all is differ
would be the result. Such a spirit would go forth that ent.
Juvenile courts would be established in every state in House after house takes possession of vacant lots
the Union. The most popular topic in the hotels and and the size of the school ground is limited by the value lobbies where the members of the last two conferences of the land. Usually no play ground is left except the gathered was Juvenile courts and their work.