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BUFFALO JUVENILE COURT.
Police Justice Thomas Murphy of Buffalo, in a recent address, described the new Juvenile Court which has been established in that city. Immediately upon his accession to office, Judge Murphy made an innovation in the court system by trying children at a separate hour from other offenders. Shortly afterward, he opened a children's court several blocks from the Police Court. He also made use of the juvenile-probation law which was passed through the efforts of a committee of the Charity Organization Society, of which he was an active member. The law is permissive, not mandatory, and, without the support and interest of the justice, its provisions would be ineffective.
Justice Murphy said:
"The Juvenile Court and the probation system is not a departure in any new line of ought; it is rather the development of the idea: reformation-not punishment.
"It had its birth many years ago in our system of treating juvenile offenders and delinquents. We find one of the old sections in the Penal Code gives to the courts the discretion of sending children, when convicted of crime, to prison, or placing them in charge of any suitable person or institution willing to receive them. That courts have generally exercised their discretion in favor of sending juvenile offenders to institutions where the intellect, conscience and conduct are cultivated, instructed and improved is well known.
“The idea of committing children to prison has long been recognized as a vital error. Instead of deterring crime, it breeds criminals. The association there formed and the criminal record attached make the child's future well-nigh hopeless.
"Following along this line of thought, six years ago the Legislature passed a law giving police courts and courts of special sessions the right to hold the trials of children separate and apart from other criminal cases. The first separate court in this state for the trial of children was established in this city over two years ago. Juvenile court, as now constituted, is the natural result of experience along the lines indicated. It is a great stride along the pathway of progress, but the millennium has not arrived yet. Our court is separate and apart from the Police Court. None but children are tried there, and there is no danger of contact with hardened criminals.
"When convicted, the child may be sent to some institution of correction or to some suitable person willing to receive it. Sentence may be suspended and he may or may not be placed on probation.
“The city of Buffalo was the first in the state to adopt the probation policy, yet it is the most important part of the entire
system. We felt that much had been accomplished when a separate court was instituted but our fondest hopes would have been shattered had probation proved a failure.
“The child when placed on probation is given to understand that by good conduct thereafter he will, in due time, be discharged, and if his conduct is not good, he will be punished by the court.
"In other words, he is given an opportunity to redeem himself. I am pleased beyond expression to be able to say that in the great majority of cases he appreciates the privilege.
"During the probationary period,” said Judge Murphy, "he is in charge of one of our probation officers, to whom he reports at certain intervals and whose duty it is to ascertain his behavior and report to the court.
"It was believed by some that this system would operate as a convenient way of getting boys out of trouble and would eventually prove a farce, but the very opposite is true. When a child is placed on probation for a certain length of time he is set to thinking, and that in itself is of inestimable benefit to him. As a rule, when a child commits a wrong, it is because he didn't think. We can, in our short experience, point to many specific cases where children have gone beyond control of parents and friends and have been brought back to the correct path by this system. I cannot say that in any case has there been an absolute failure, though it has been necessary at times to send some boys to institutions as an example to others.
"We started out to reform the children only,” said Judge Murphy, “but often found that nothing could be accomplished in that direction until parents were brought to their sense of duty. The parent is the natural probation officer, and, as a rule, when he does his duty conscientiously, we have but little trouble with the child. On the other hand, the good influence of the officer may be impaired by the environments and bad example of the child's home life. In such cases extra efforts are necessary to produce the desired results. In almost every case, the parents are working harmoniously with us and are the most enthusiastic supporters of this method of dealing with children. Of the hundreds of children brought before me, but few return. The child is made to feel that the law, its officers, are his friends, and that his happiness largely depends on how well that law is obeyed.
"The future of this court can only be judged by its past. With the same zealous interest in the work which the officers have ever shown, it cannot be a failure. The court as an individual may fail, but the system is based upon the solid ground of experience and common sense, and will endure.”
CHILD ARRESTS TO STOP--POLICE TO ACT ON JUDGE
TUTHILL'S SUGGESTIONS. Wholesale arrests of children and their imprisonment in police violating the law, or upon a special order from the police magisstations for trivial offenses was ordered stopped last week in Chi trate? In case complaint is made before any police magistrate of cago by Mayor Harrison after he had received a letter from Judge an offense having been commited by any child under 16 years of R. S. Tuthill of the Juvenile court. The order was given to Chief age, have the parent notified to produce the child in court on a of Police O'Neill to carry out the suggestions made by Judge certain day. Tuthill in his letter.
As your honor is aware, no child under 12 years of age can According to Superintendent Bodine of the Department of Com legally be detained in a police station, nor can any child under pulsory Education, 17,000 children under the age of 16 were ar 16 years of age be confined in the same building with adult prisrested in Chicago last year, a large proportion of whom were ex oners. Hence, no good purpose is being served by arresting chilposed to the contaminating influences of the cellrooms of police dren that cannot be confined in police stations. stations. The mayor's attention was called to the law which makes Thanking your honor for the many favors shown the Juvenile it illegal to detain a child under 12 years of age in a police station, court, and assuring you that they have been fully appreciated by or confine one under 16 years in the same building with adult me, I remain respectfully yours, RICHARD S. TUTHILL. prisoners.
Judge of the Juvenile Court. Judge Tuthill's letter to Mayor Harrison reads as follows: Carter H. Harrison, Mayor-Dear Sir: My attention has been
The action of Judge Tuthill was taken after a long consultacalled to the practice prevailing before police magistrates of hav
tion with the editor of the Juvenile Record, formerly chief probaing children under 16 years of age arrested and required to give
tion officer of the court, now a city police magistrate. bonds. The Juvenile court law provides that the parents or
In the Thirty-fifth street police court, where Mr. Hurley preguardians of any child must be notified in the first instance to
sides, instances of how the old system has worked were numerous. produce said child in court, and that no child shall be arrested In one case some children got into a dispute. One of them, II unless a petition is filed showing facts which require the necessity years old, the other 9. The 11-year-old was arrested by a policeof arresting the child.
man and brought to the police station in the evening. He might Will you please have the police department notified not to ar have been dragged from his bed to the station at 10 or 12 o'clock Test children hereafter unless caught by the officer in the act of at night, just as well, under that way of doing things.
ILLINOIS JUVENILE COURT LAW.
AN ACT TO REGULATE THE TREATMENT AND CONTROL OF DEPENDENT, NEGLECTED AND
DELINQUENT CHILDREN. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois represented in
the General Assembly: Section 1. Definition.—This act shall apply only to children under the age of sixteen (16) years, not now or hereafter, inmates of a State institution, or any training school for boys or industrial school for girls, or some institution incorporated under the laws of this State, except as provided in Sections twelve (12) and eighteen (18). For the purpose of this act the words “dependent child” and “neglected child” shall mean any child who for any reason is destitute or homeless or abandoned; or dependent upon the public for support; or has not proper parental care or guardianship; or who habitually begs or receives alms; or who is found living in any house of ill fame or with any vicious or disreputable persons, or whose home, by reason of neglect, cruelty or depravity on the part of its parents, guardian or other person in whose care it may be, is an unfit place for such a child; and any child under the age of ten (10) years who is found begging, peddling or selling any article, or singing or playing any musical instrument upon the street, or giving any public entertainment, or who accompanies or is used in aid of any person so doing. The words "delinquent child” shall include any child under the age of sixteen (16) years who violates any law of this State or any city or village ordinance; or who is incorrigible; or who knowingly associates with thieves, vicious or immoral persons; or who is growing up in idleness or crime; or who knowingly frequents a house of ill fame; or who knowingly patronizes any policy shop or place where any gaming device is or shall be operated. The word "child" or "children” may mean one or more children, and the word "parent" or "parents” may be held to mean one or both parents, when consistent with the intent of this act. The word "association” shall include any corporation which includes in its purposes the care or disposition of children coming within the meaning of this act.
Sec. 2. Jurisdiction.-The circuit and county courts of the several counties in this State shall have original jurisdiction in all cases coming within the terms of this act. In all trials under this act any person interested therein may demand a jury of six or the judge of his own motion may order a jury of the same number to try the case.
Sec. 3. Juvenile Court.—In counties having over 500,000 population, the judges of the circuit court shall, at such times as they shall determine, designate one or more of their number, whose duty it shall be to hear all cases coming under this act. A special court room, to be designated as the Juvenile court room, shall be provided for the hearing of such cases, and the finding of the court shall be entered in a book or books to be kept for that purpose, and known as the “Juvenile Record," and the court may for convenience be called the "Juvenile Court.”
Sec. 4. Petition to the Court.-Any reputable person being a resident in the county, having knowledge of a child in his county who appears to be either neglected, dependent or delinquent, may file with the clerk of a court having jurisdiction in the matter a petition in writing, setting forth the facts verified by affidavit. It shall be sufficient that the affidavit is upon information and belief.
Sec. 5. Summons.-Upon the filing of the petition a summons shall issue requiring the person having custody or control of the child or with whom the child may be, to appear with the child at a place and time stated in the summons, which time shall not be less than 24 hours after service. The parents of the child, if living, and their residence, if known, or its legal guardian, if one there be, or if there is neither parent nor guardian or if his or her residence is not known, then some relative, if there be one and his residence is known, shall be notified of the proceedings and in any case the judge may appoint some suitable person to act in behalf of the child. If the person summoned as herein provided shall fail without reasonable cause to appear and abide the order of the court, or bring the child, he may be proceeded against as in case of contempt of court. In case the summons cannot be served or the party served fails to obey the same, and in any case when it shall be made to appear to the court that such summons will be ineffectual, a warrant may issue on the order of the court, either against the parent or guardian or the person having custody of the child or with whom the child may be or against the child itself. On the return of the summons or other process, or as soon thereafter as may be, the court shall
proceed to hear and dispose of the case in a summary manner. Pending the final disposition of any case, the child may be retained in the possession of the person having the charge of the same, or may be kept in some suitable place provided by the city or county authorities.
Sec. 6. Probation Officers.—The court shall have authority to appoint or designate one or more discreet persons of good character to serve as probation officers during the pleasure of the
court; said probation officers to receive no compensation from the public treasury. In case a probation officer shall be appointed by any court, it shall be the duty of the clerk of the court, if practicable, to notify the said probation officer in advance when any child is to be brought before the said court; it shall be the duty of the said probation officer to make such investigation as may be required by the court; to be present in court in order to represent the interests of the child when the case is heard; to furnish to the court such information and assistance as the judge may require, and to take such charge of any child before and after trial as may be directed by the court.
Sec. 7. Dependent and Neglected Children.—When any child under the age of sixteen (16) years shall be found to be dependent or neglected, within the meaning of this act, the court may make an order committing the child to the care of some suitable State institution, or to the care of some reputable citizen of good moral character, or to the care of some training school or an industrial school, as provided by law, or to the care of some association willing to receive it, embracing in its objects the purpose of caring or obtaining homes for dependent or neglected children, which association shall have been accredited as hereinafter provided. The court may, when the health or condition of the child shall require it, cause the child to be placed in a public hospital or institution for treatment or special care, or in a private hospital or institution which will receive it for like purpose without charge.
Sec. 8. Guardianship.-In any case where the court shall award a child to the care of any association or individual in accordance with the provisions of this act, the child shall, unless otherwise ordered, become a ward, and be subject to the guardianship of the association or individual to whose care it is committed. Such association or individual shall have authority to place such child in a family home, with or without indenture, and may be made party to any proceeding for the legal adoption of the child, and may by its or his attorney or agent appear in any court where such proceedings are pending and assent to such adoption. And such assent shall be sufficient to authorize the court to enter the proper order or decree of adoption. Such guardianship shall not include the guardianship of any estate of the child.
Sec. 9. Disposition of Delinquent Children.-In the case of a delinquent child the court may continue the hearing from time to time, and may commit the child to the care or custody of a probation officer, and may allow said child to remain in its own home, subject to the visitation of the probation officer; such child to report to the probation officer as often as may be required, and subject to be returned to the court for further or other proceedings whenever such action may appear to be necessary; or the court may cause the child to be placed in a suitable family home, subject to the friendly supervision of a probation officer and the further order of the court; or it may authorize the child to be boarded out in some suitable family home, in case provision is made by voluntary contribution or otherwise for the payment of the board of such child, until a suitable provision may be made for the child in a home without such payment; or the court may commit such child, if a boy, to a training school for boys, or, if a girl, to an industrial school for girls, or the court may commit the child to any institution within the county, incorporated under the laws in this State, that may care for delinquent children, or be provided by a city or county suitable for the care of such children, or to any State institution which may be established for the care of delinquent boys, or, if a girl over the age of ten (10) years. to the State Home for Juvenile Female Offenders. In no case shall a child be committed beyond his or her minority. A child committed to such institution shall be subject to the control of the board of managers thereof, and the said board shall have power to parole such child on such conditions as it may prescribe; and the court shall, on the recommendation of the board, have power to discharge such child from custody whenever, in the judgment of the court, his or her reformation is complete; or the court may commit the child to the care and custody of some association that will receive it, embracing in its objects the care of neglected or dependent children, and that has been duly accredited as hereinafter provided.
Sec. 10. Transfer from Justices and Police Magistrates.When in any county where a court is held, as provided in Section three (3) of this act, a child under the age of sixteen (16) years is arrested with or without warrant, such child may, instead of being taken before a justice of the peace, or police magistrate, be taken directly before such court; or, if the child is taken before a justice of the peace, or police magistrate, it shall be the duty of such justice of the peace, or police magistrate, to transfer the case to such court, and the officer having the child in charge to take the child before that court, and in any case the court may proceed to hear and dispose of the case in the same manner as if the child had been brought before the court upon petition, as herein provided. In any case the court shall require notice to be given and investigation to be made as in other cases under this act, and may adjourn the hearing from time to time for the purpose.
Sec. II. Children Under Twelve Years not to be Committed to Jail.—No court or magistrate shall commit a child under twelve (12) years of age to a jail or police station, but if such a child is unable to give bail it may be committed to the care of the sheriff, police officer or probation officer, who shall keep such child in some suitable place provided by the city or county outside of the enclosure of any jail or police station. When any child shall be sentenced to confinement in any institution to which adult convicts are sentenced, it shall be unlawful to confine such child in the same building with such adult convicts, or to confine such child in the same yard or enclosure with such adult convicts, or to bring such child into any yard or building in which adult convicts may be present.
Sec. 12. Agents of Juvenile Reformatories.-It shall be the duty of the superintendent of the State Reformatory at Pontiac, and the board of managers of the State Reformatory at Pontiac, and the board of managers of the State Home for Juvenile Female Offenders at Geneva, and the board of managers of any other institution to which juvenile delinquents may be committed by the courts, to maintain an agent of such institution, whose duty it shall be to examine the homes of children paroied from such institution for the purpose of ascertaining and reporting to said court whether they are suitable homes; to assist children paroled or discharged from such institution in finding suitable employment, and to maintain a friendly supervision over paroled inmates during the continuance of their parole; such agents shall hold office subject to the pleasure of the board making the appointment, and shall receive such compensation as such board may determine out of any funds appropriated for such institution applicable thereto.
Sec. 13. Supervision of State Commissioners of Public Charities:-All associations receiving children under this act shall be subject to the same visitation, inspection and supervision by the board of State commissioners of public charities as are the public charitable institutions of this State, and it shall be the duty of the said board of commissioners to pass annually upon the fitness of every such association as may receive, or desire to receive, children under the supervision of this act, and every such association shall annually, at such time as said board shall direct, make report thereto, showing its condition, management and competency to adequately care for such children as are, or may be committed to it, and such other facts as said board may require, and upon said board being satisfied that such association is competent and has adequate facilities to care for such children, it shall issue to the same a certificate to that effect, which certificate shall continue in force for one (1) year, unless sooner revoked by said board, and no child shall be committed to any such association which shall not have received such a certificate within fifteen (15) months next preceding the commitment. The court may, at any time, require from any association, receiving or desiring to receive, children under the provisions of this act, such reports, information and statements as the judge shall deem proper or necessary for his action, and the court shall in no case be required to commit a child to any association whose standing, conduct or care of children, or ability to care for the same, is not satisfactory to the court.
Sec. 14. Incorporation of Associations.—No association whose objects may embrace the caring for dependent, neglected or delinquent children shall hereafter be incorporated unless the proposed articles of incorporation shall first have been submitted to the examination of the board of State commissioners of public charities, and the Secretary of State shall not issue a certificate of incorporation unless there shall first be filed in his office the certificate of said board of State commissioners of public charities that said board has examined the said articles of incorporation and that, in his judgment, the incorporators are reputable and respectable persons, the proposed work is needed and the incorporation of such association is desirable and for the public good; amendments proposed to the articles of incorporation or association having as an object the care and disposal of dependent, neglected or delinquent children shall be submitted in like manner to the board of State commissioners of public charities, and the Secretary of State shall not record such amendment or issue his certificate therefor unless there shall first be filed in his office the certificate of said board of State commissioners of public charities that they have examined the said amendment, that the association in question is, in their judgment, performing in good faith the work undertaken by it, and that the said amendment is, in their judgment, a proper one and for the public good.
Sec. 15. Surrender of Dependent Children-Adoption.-It shall be lawful for the parents, parent, guardian or other person having the right to dispose of a dependent or neglected child to enter into an agreement with any association or institution incorporated under any public or private law of this State for the purpose of aiding, caring for or placing in home such children, and being approved as herein provided, for the surrender of such child to such association or institution, to be taken and cared for by such association or institution or put into a family home. Such agreement may contain any and all proper stipulations to that end, and may authorize the association or institution, by its attorney or agent, to appear in any proceeding for the legal adop
tion of such child, and consent to its adoption, and the order of the court made upon such consent shall be binding upon the child and its parents or guardian or other person the same as if such person were personally in court and consented thereto, whether made party to the proceeding or not.
Sec. 16. Foreign Corporations.—No association which is incorporated under the laws of any other State than the State of Illinois, shall place any child in any family home within the boundaries of the State of Illinois either with or without indenture or for adoption, unless the said association shall have furnished the board of State commissioners of public charities with such guaranty as they may require that no child shall be brought into the State of Illinois by such society or its agents, having any contagious or incurable disease, or having any deformity, or being of feeble mind, or of vicious character, and that said association will promptly receive and remove from the State any child brought into the State of Illinois by its agent, which shall become a public charge within the period of five (5) years after being brought into this state. Any person who shall receive to be placed in a home, or shall place in a home, any child in behalf of any association incorporated in any other State than the State of Illinois, which shall not have complied with the requirements of this act shall be imprisoned in the county jail not more than thirty days, or fined not less than $5 or more than one hundred ($100) dollars, or both in the discretion of the court.
Sec. 17. Religious Preference.—The court in committing children shall place them as far as practicable in the care and custody of some individual holding the same religious belief as the parents of said child, or with some association which is controlled by persons of like religious faith of the parents of the said child.
Sec. 18. County Boards of Visitors.—The county judge of each county may appoint a board of six reputable inhabitants, who will serve without compensation, to constitute a board of visitation, whose duty it shall be to visit, as often as once a year, all institutions, societies and associations receiving children under this act; said visits shall be made by not less than two of the members of the board, who shall go together or make a joint report; the said board of visitors shall report to the court, from time to time, the condition of children received by or in the charge of such associations and institutions, and shall make an annual report to the board of State commissioners of public charities in such form as the board may prescribe. The county board may, at their discretion, make appropriations for the payment of the actual and necessary expenses incurred by the visitors in the discharge of their official duties.
Sec. 19. Powers of Juvenile Court.—The powers and duties herein provided to be exercised by the county court or the judges thereof may, in counties having over 500,000 population, be exercised by the circuit courts and their judges as hereinbefore provided for. Sec. 20.
Industrial and Training Schools Not Affected. — Nothing in this act shall be construed to repeal any portion of the act to aid industrial schools for girls, the act to provide for and aid training schools for boys, the act to establish the Illinois State Reformatory or the act to provide for a State home for juvenile female offenders. And in all commitments to said institutions acts in reference to said institutions shall govern the same.
Sec. 21. Construction of the Act.—This act shall be liberally construed to the end that its purpose may be carried out, to-wit: That the care, custody and discipline of a child shall approximate as nearly as may be that which should be given by its parents, and in all cases where it can properly be done, the child to be placed in an approved family home and become a member of the family by legal adoption or otherwise. Sec. 22.
In any case in which the court shall find a child neglected, dependent or delinquent, it may, in the same or subsequent proceeding, upon the parents of said child, or either of them, being duly summoned or voluntarily appearing, proceed to inquire into the ability of such parent or parents to support the child or contribute to its support, and if the court shall find such parent or parents able to support the child or contribute thereto, the court may enter such order or decree as shall be according to equity in the premises, and may enforce the same execution, or in any way in which a court of equity may enforce its orders or decrees.
Every homeless child is a menace to society and the state.
THE NEW JUVENILE COURT OF NEW YORK CITY WILL SAVE
SAVE THE CHILDREN.
By Miss Katherine Leckie.
To save dependent and delinquent boys and girls from becom Judge Olmsted is prepared to listen to the tales of sins coming the enemies of society the Children's Court has been estab mitted by or against his little prisoners as soon as a room is made lished. To save each child from becoming its own worst enemy ready for him. The building wherein his court is to be located will be the self-imposed task that Judge Willard H. Olmsted will is at the corner of Third avenue and Eleventh street, and is being assume when ascending the bench of that youthful tribunal. It is thoroughly renovated and made new for the Children's Court. a great work that this jurist, recently appointed by Mayor Low, It is expected that it will be finished by the middle of June. is to begin, and one that will reach throughout time in its good If the judge can find time before assuming his new duties with effect.
the youthful delinquents he will pay a visit to the Juvenile Court “Never a year passes that there is not brought before the police of Chicago, the first ever established, wherein the misdemeanors magistrates of this city thousands of boys and girls who have and misfortunes of child life are considered apart from those of committed some wrong," said Judge Olmsted, “and it is right their elders. that they should have a court where their misdemeanors, mis Here twice a week boys and girls who have committed a wrong deeds, mistakes or misfortunes should be considered apart from are brought before Judge Tuthill, while on Monday mornings those hardened criminals who have time and time again offended this jurist decides which parents are unfitted to have the care of against society and the law.
their offspring. "In the year that has just passed over eight thousand children, Sitting beside this brother jurist, Judge Olmsted hopes to gain for one cause or another, have been brought into court, and while some knowledge that will help to guide him in the discharge of many of them are guiltless of wrong-doing, their presence being his duty toward the small mites of humanity who will come required in court to place them in the care of others, still the under his jurisdiction here. number is sufficiently large to cause sociologists to pause and Judge Olmsted will hold court each week day, and at the end consider what is for the best good of the child, and this court of the year probably will have decided the future fate for good is one of the results."
or for ill, of ten thousand little ones. From either an unfortunate heritage or environment come these thousands of little children, who have so early gone from the narrow path of rectitude to the sorrowful, easy ways of vice, and it is to save them from ways into which they have fallen.
"It is the earnest hope of those interested in the new court that these boys and girls may be saved from becoming the enemies of society," was what Judge Olmsted had to say of the future charges upon his mercy. "The thought of the tribunal will be not so much that of punishment as to redeem these children from the unfortunate condition in which their parents have placed them."
This may come through what to many will seem a great wrong, for one of the duties of the Children's Court is to separate these little ones from their natural protectors. Day after day scores of little ones are taken from their parents because the latter are not deemed fit and proper to care for the moral, physical or material welfare of their children. When the judge finds that the parents are unworthy of the name, and that the natural rights of the child is being neglected, it will be his duty to pronounce the child a ward of his court.
MILWAUKEE PROBATION WORK.
A reading of the JUVENILE RECORD for April gives one many ditions of the child's life and make himself his friend. The officer suggestive thoughts. Of late years attention has been directed has often to protect the child from neglect or abuse in his home. towards the care of children and in particular with reference to Where the child has no home, one is found for him. Advice, enthe prevention of crime. This is wise. Juvenile courts have been couragement and protection are given. but lately established, but from every quarter where put in prac The good results from this relationship may be imagined from tice, reports come of good results. In no state where such court statements made by Marion Ogden in the JUVENILE RECORD for does not exist, should there be delay in establishing it.
April in regard to the effects of the Juvenile court in Milwaukee. The first good arising from the Juvenile court is, that a child Under the old rule it appears that out of eleven arrested, one was under 15 years of age is not arrested. It often happens that a brought back into court the second, third and even the fourth boy with many worthy qualities, either from ignorance, thought time. Since the Juvenile court was established only one boy in lessness influence of companions, and sometimes by accident or fifty-six has been returned the second time. This is due to the mistake, have been arrested for crime. The fact clings to him good influence of the probation officer. If such results can be and often in after life is brought up against him to his detriment. shown in less than a year's experience, how far-reaching and how In the Juvenile court no arrest is made. The child, on petition, great the benefits which may be looked for. is brought before the court by his parents or guardians. He is Transgressions of children are largely due to neglect, ignorance seldom in the hands of police. Only in extreme cases is the and cruelty in the home. The pampered, indulged child of the child committed for detention. Then it must not be in the com rich is quite as likely to go wrong as the neglected child of povmon jail, but a separate place, where the child does not come in erty. What children need is sensible, kindly, definite care, incontact with hardened criminals.
struction and guidance. This the probation officer sees that the The rule is to put him in charge of a probation officer. The child has. The advice and instruction, the reprimands, are often duties and responsibilities of a probation officer are great and the given to parents instead of the children. Such training for chilgood he may do is incalculable. The probation officer must visit dren will make the future parents more capable and efficient the child in his home, make himself acquainted with all the con guardians of their children.– Milwaukee Sentinel.
The school, though it has been opened but a few Juvenile Record
weeks, is already overcrowded and Judge Tuthill does
not commit one-half of the children brought before him. Published by the Visitation and Aid Society.
It is evident that in order to effectively decrease truancy T. D. HURLEY, Editor, 79 Dearborn St., Chicago, Ill. in Chicago or any other city, the parents must be
brought to a realization that the state can compel them Eastern Office, 53 W. 24th St., New York City.
to educate their children. Western Office, Portland, Oregon.
The parent who allows his or her child to run the Tho JUVENILE RECORD is published monthly, except in the
streets and learn habits of viciousness dangerous to month of July. Single copies, 10 cents. Subscription
society is frequently punished, though usually the punprice, $1.00 per year.
ishment falls upon the child. With the truant it is possi
ble to directly punish the parent who is responsible for Batared in Post Ofice at Chicago, Ill., as second-class matter. the child's lack of schooling. More than a score of
prosecutions have been started against parents by the The JUVENILE RECORD is the official organ of and published by the
compulsory education department, and in all cases Visitation and Aid Society and will deal with social problems in child-saving work and give an account of the workings of the Juvenile Court.
which have come to trial fines have been assessed against
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At this season of the year public charities, social setCHANGE OF ADDRESS—Always give both your old and your new address when you ask us to change.
tlements and churches are looking up their railroad and PAYMENT FOR THE PAPER, when sent by mail, should be made in a steamboat folders and renewing correspondence with postoffice money order, bank check or draft, or an express money order. WHEN NEITHER OF THESE CAN BE PROCURED, send 2-cent United States their rural directors preparatory to summer outings and postage stamps; only this kind can be received.
camps for their charges. To the city child who has LETTERS should be addressed and checks and drafts made payable to JUVENILE RECORD, 79 Dearborn Street, Chicago.
spent at least one summer week in the country, dreams ADVERTISING RATES made known on application.
of the next summer outing arise in his mind as soon as AGENTS are authorized to sell single copies and take subscriptions, who bear credentials signed by the President and Secretary of the Visitation and
the first open street car appears. To the gamin who has Aid Society.
stayed at home while an older brother, sister or play
mate has disappeared in the country for a week, the OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY.
summer outing is anticipated with mingled feelings of
joy and dread of hornless cattle and nights whose counT. D. Hurley, President.
try quiet is absolutely terrifying to the lad accustomed to F. W. Bowers, Treasurer.
the din of a city levee. Helen C. Orr, Recording Secretary.
The influences which a child receives from the outMay Mallanny, Corresponding Secretary.
ings is varied and it is assumed they are all for the Esther J. Mercer, Financial Secretary.
better. · The boy who stays with the quiet family of
some farmer and the one who with a score of companDEPARTMENTS.
ions camps under the supervision of a settlement worker Finance
...John Cudahy are alike benefited. Both learn an observance of the Office
.T. D. Hurley Sabbath which is new to them, accustomed to the city Institutions
..F. W. Young with its Sunday games and amusements. During the Library
Mary Hummelsheim outing the city child attends church or religious service Children
Jas. F. Bowers in the camp and even if familiar with church service, Men's Auxiliary
Michael Cudahy cannot fail to be impressed with the surroundings. Women's Auxiliary
.Mrs. W. P. Nelson This phase of the summer outing, though it is an
important one with the child, is seldom considered by The compulsory education department of the Chicago the public or even by the charity worker. Different Board of Education and the Illinois state factory inspec- religions, which are so jealous of their children in the tor are co-operating to enforce the truancy and child city that they each have separate institutions, fail to labor laws in Chicago. Within two months 124 prose make this distinction during the few Sundays in the cutions have been started under the truancy act and country, though the service in the quiet country church evidence secured to be presented to the grand jury will be more impressive and remembered longer by the against eighteen parents alleged to have made false age child than a score of services in a familiar city church. affidavits, so that their children could work. A simul- If the distinction in religions is to be maintained in taneous canvass of residences and factories is being made charity it certainly should be made in the summer outby the two departments. It has disclosed that frequently ings. an affidavit of an older brother or sister is passed down Children should be placed in families of the same through a family like a discarded garment, unlawfully religions as their parents. In some cities the public serving for several children.
donations for summer outings are collected in a general
fund and then pro rated among different churches which PARENTAL TRUANCY IS A CRIME IN CHICAGO
take charge of the work. Whether this method will
produce the best results remains to be seen. Chicago The truant parent is to be punished in Chicago. The has always been in the van in providing fresh air funds delinquent parent is recognized in every city, but the for the city child, but only one sect takes exclusive truant parent is a new development in juvenile charity. charge of its children. The Episcopal churches each Since the establishment of the new truant school at summer furnish outings to their choir boys and to cerBowmanville, a suburb of Chicago, a day has been set tain of the members of their Sunday schools. 2part in the Juvenile court for the hearing of truant cases only. The surprising fact has been brought out
NO MORE POLICE STATION CELLS FOR BOYS. that the larger share of the truants in Chicago remain away from school either on account of the wishes or The dominant idea in present day juvenile charity is through the connivance of their parents.
that the delinquent child should be separated from the