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ADDRESSES AND MESSAGES
PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES,
INAUGURAL, ANNUAL, AND SPECIAL,
1789 TO 1851;
A MEMOIR OF EACH OF THE PRESIDENTS
A HISTORY OF THEIR ADMINISTRATIONS:
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, AND A SELECTION OF
COMPILED FROM OFFICIAL SOURCES,
EMBELLISHED WITH PORTRAITS OF THE PRESIDENTS,
ENGRAVED ON STEEL BY VISTUS BALCH.
IN FOUR VOLUMES,
NEW AND ENLARGED EDITION.
EDWARD WALKER, 114 FULTON STREET.
HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1849,
BY EDWARD WALKER,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, in and for the Southern District of New York.
STEREOTYPED BY C. C. SAVAGE,
13 Chambers Street, N. Y.
Special Message, December 17, 1819.
Special Message, February 25, 1822..
Special Message, March 8, 1822.
Special Message, March 26, 1822.
Cumberland Road Message, May 4, 1822.
Special Message, January 5, 1825.
Special Message, January 10, 1825
Special Message, January 27, 1825.
Special Message, February 14, 1825.
Special Message, February 17, 1825..
Special Message, February 21, 1825..
Special Message, February 26, 1825..
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF ANDREW JACKSON.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF JOHN QUINCY ADAMS...
Inaugural Address, March 4, 1825...
First Annual Message, December 6, 1825..
Second Annual Message, December 9, 1826..
Third Annual Message, December 8, 1827..
Fourth Annual Message, December 2, 1828..
Special Message, February 16, 1826.
Special Message, March 15, 1826..
Special Message, March 30, 1826.
Special Message, February 5, 1827.
Special Message, March 4, 1828.
Special Message, April 17, 1828..
Special Message, April 30, 1828.
Special Message, March 3, 1829..
Second Annual Message, December 7, 1830.
Special Message, December 15, 1830.
Third Annual Message, December 6, 1831.
Special Message, December 13, 1831.
Special Message, February 15, 1832.
Bank Veto Message, July 10, 1832
Fourth Annual Message, December 4, 1832.
Special Message, December 6, 1832..
Proclamation, December 11, 1832.
Nullification Message, January 16, 1833.
Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1833.
Fifth Annual Message, December 3, 1833.
Special Message, January 6, 1834..
Special Message, February 4, 1834
Special Message, June 21, 1834.
Sixth Annual Message, December 2, 1834
Special Message, December 4, 1834..
Special Message, December 10, 1834.
Special Message, February 25, 1835..
Seventh Annual Message, December 2, 1835
Special Message, December 9, 1835.
Special Message, December 9, 1835.
French Message, January 15, 1836.
Special Message, February 8, 1836..
Special Message, February 22, 1836.
Special Message, May 10, 1836..
Eighth Annual Message, December 6, 1836.
Message in relation to Texas, December 21, 1836.
Special Message, January 17, 1837....
Special Message, January 17, 1837..
Special Message, February 6, 1837.
30 other light. The people, the highest authority known to our system, from whom all our institutions spring, and on whom they depend, formed it. Had the people of the several states thought proper to incorporate themselves into one community, under one government, they might have done it. They had the power, and there was nothing then, nor is there anything now, should they be so disposed, to prevent it. They wisely stopped, however, at a certain point, extending the incorporation to that point, making the national government, thus far, a consolidated government, and preserving the state governments, without that limit, perfectly sovereign and independent of the national government. Had the people of the several states incorporated themselves into one community, they must have remained such; their constitution becoming then, like the constitution of the several states, incapable of change, until altered by the will of the majority. In the institution of a state government by the citizens of a state, a compact is formed, to which all and every citizen are equal parties. They are also the sole parties, and may amend it at pleasure. In the institution of the government of the United States, by the citizens of every state, a compact was formed between the whole American people, which has the same force, and partakes of all the qualities, to the extent of its powers, as a compact between the citizens of a state, in the formation of their own constitution. It can not be altered, except by those who formed it, or in the mode prescribed by the parties to the compact itself.
This constitution was adopted for the purpose of remedying all the defects of the confederation, and in this it has succeeded, beyond any calculation that could have been formed of any human institution. By binding the states together, the constitution performs the great office of the confederation; but it is in that sense only, that it has any of the properties of that compact, and in that it is more effectual, to the purpose, as it holds them together by a much stronger bond; and in all other respects, in which the confederation failed, the constitution has been blessed with complete success. The confederation was a compact between separate and independent states; the execution of whose articles, in the powers which operated internally, depended on the state governments. But the great office of the constitution by incorporating the people of the several states, to the extent of its powers, into one community, and enabling it to act directly on the people, was to annul the powers of the state governments to that extent, except in cases where they were concurrent, and to preclude their agency in giving effect to those of the general government. The government of the United States relies on its own means for the execution of its powers, as the state governments do for the execution of theirs ; both governments having a common origin, or sovereign, the people; the state governments the people of each state, the national government the people of every state, and being amenable to the power which created it. It is by executing its functions as a government, thus originating and thus acting, that the constitution of the United States holds the states together, and performs the office of a league. It is owing to the nature of its pow ers, and the high source whence they are derived, the people, that it performs that office better than the confederation, or any league which ever existed, being a compact which the state governments did not form, to which they are not parties, and which executes its own powers independently of them.
Thus were two separate and independent governments established over our Union, one for local purposes, over each state, by the people of the