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('ourts of common


SECTION 14. District election boards shall consist of a judge and Election boards, two inspectors, who shall be chosen annually by the citizens. Each elector shall have the right to vote for the judge and one inspector, and each inspector shall appoint one clerk. The first election board Clerks. for any new district shall be selected, and vacancies in election Vacancies. boards filled, as shall be provided by law. Election officers shall

Privileges of roleebe privileged from arrest upon days of election, and while engaged Hunonicers. in inaking up and transmitting returns, except upon warrant of a court of record or judge thereof, for an election fraud, for felony, or for wanton breach of the peace. In cities they may claim exemption from jury duty during their terms of service.

SECTION 15. No person shall be qualified to serve as an election Government offiofficer whoshall hold, or shall within two months have held any office, disqualified to appointment or employment in or under the government of the serve its election United States or of this state, or of any city, or county, or of any municipal board, commission or trust in any city, save only justices of the peace and aldermen, notaries public and persons in the militia service of the State ; nor shall any election officer be eligi- Ineligibility of ble to any civil office to be filled at an election at which he shall election officers. serve, save only to such subordinate municipal or local offices, below the grade of city or county offices, as shall be designated by general law.

SECTION 16. The courts of common pleas of the several counties of the Commonwealth shall have power, within their respective ju- pleas may appoint risdictions, to appoint overseers of election to supervise the pro- verseers of ikerceedings of election officers and to make report to the court as may he required; such appointments to be made for any district in a city or county upon petition of five citizens, lawful voters of such election district, setting forth that such appointment is a reasonable precaution to secure the purity and fairness of elections; overseers shall be two in number for an election district, shall be residents therein, and shall be persons qualified to serve upon election boards, and in each case members of different political parties; whenever Overseers may dethe members of an election board shall differ in opinion the over

cide questions of spers, if they shall be agreed thereon, shall decide the question of difference; in appointing overseers of election all the law judges of the proper court, able to act at the time, shall concur in the appintments made.

SECTION 17. The trial and determination of contested elections of Trial of contested electors of President and Vice-President, members of the General

elections. Assembly, and of all public officers, whether State, judicial, mupicipal or local, shall be by the courts of law, or by one or more of the law judges thereof; the General Assembly shall, hy general law, designate the courts and judges by whom the several classes of plection contests shall be tried, and regulate the manner of trial and all matters incident thereto; but no such law assigning juris(liction, or regulating its exercise, shall apply to any contest arising out of an election held before its passage.


Taxation and Finance. SECTION 1. All taxes shall be uniform, upon the same class of Taxes to be unisubjects, within the territorial limits of the authority levying the forin.

, and shall be levied and collected under general laws; but the Central Assembly may, by general laws, exempt from taxation Exemptions. public property used for public purposes, actual places of religious Borship, places of burial not used or held for private or corporate protit, and institutions of purely public charity.

SEATION 2. All laws exempting property from taxation, other Limitation of than the property above emunerated, shall be void.

SECTION 3. The power to tax corporations and corporate pro- Power to tax cor#rty shall not be surrendered or suspended by any contract or porations not to be grant to which the State shall be a party.

SECTION 4. No debt shall be created by or on behalf of the State, lower to make except to supply casual deficiencies of revenue, repel invasions,


power to exempt.




Pose specified.

State credit not to be loanedl. &c.

to wxcome stockholders, &c.

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suppress insurrection, defend the State in war, or to pay existing

and the debt created to supply deficiencies in revenue shall never exceed, in the aggregate at any one time, one million of dol

lars. Money's borrowed SECTION 5. All laws, authorizing the borrowing of money by and to bwizsed for par- on behalf of the State, shall specify the purpose for which the money

is to be used, and the money so borrowed shall be used for the purpose specified and no other.

SECTION 6. The credit of the Commonwealth shall not be pledgel or loaned to any individual, company, corporation or association, nor shall the Commonwealth become a joint owner or stockholder

in any company, association or corporation. Monieipalities not

SECTION 7. The General Assembly shall not authorize any county, city, borough, township or incorporated district to become a stockholder in any company, association or corporation, or to obtain or appropriate money for, or to loan its credit to, any cor

poration, association, institution or individual. Municipal debes

SECTION 8. The debt of any county, city, borough, township, school district or other municipality or incorporated district, except as herein provided, shall never exceed seven per centum upon the assessed value of the taxable property therein, nor shall any such municipality or district incur any new debt, or increase its indebtedness to an amount exceeding two per centum upon such assessed valuation of property, without the assent of the electors thereof at a public election in such manner as shall be provided by law; but any city, the debt of which now exceeds seven per centum of such assessed valuation, may be authorized by law to increase the same three per centum, in the aggregate at any one time, upon

such valuation. No assumption of SECTION 9. The Commonwealth shall not assume the debt, or any unicipal debts by part thereof, of any city, county, borough or township, unless such

debt shall have been contracted to enable the State to repel invasion, suppress domestic insurrection, defend itself in time of war, or to assist the State in the discharge of any portion of its present

indebtedness. Re-payment of SECTION 10. Any county, township, school district or other muniDie pod torto cipality incurring any indebtedness shall, at or before the time of so

doing, provide for the collection of an annual tax sufficient to pay

the interest and also the principal thereof within thirty years. Sinking fund.

SECTION 11. To provide for the payment of the present State debt. and any additional debt contracted as aforesaid, the General Assembly shall continue and maintain the sinking fund, sufficient to pay the accruing interest on such debt, and annually to reduce the principal thereof by a sum not less than two hundred and fifty thousand dollars; the said sinking fund shall consist of the proceeds of the sales of the public works or any part thereof, and of the income or proceeds of the sale of any stocks owned by the Commonwealth, together with other funds and resources that may be designated by law, and shall be increased from time to time by assigning to it any part of the taxes or other revenues of the State not required for the ordinary and current expenses of government; and unless in case of war, invasion or insurrection, no part of the said sinking fund shall be used or applied otherwise than in the extinguishment of the public debt.

SECTION 12. The moneys of the State, over and above the necessary reserve, shall be used in the payment of the debt of the State, either directly or through the sinking fund, and the moneys of the sinking fund shall never be invested in or loaned upon the security of anything, except the bonds of the United States or of this State.

SECTION 13. The moneys held as necessary reserve shall be limited by law to the amount required for current expenses, and shall be secured and kept as may be provided by law. Monthly statements shall be published showing the amount of such moneys, where the same are deposited, and how secured.

SECTION 14. The making of profit out of the public moneys or converted 10 pri- using the same for any purpose not authorized by law by any oilicer

nerve in the Ir.

Reserve not to be

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of the State, or member or officer of the General Assembly, shall be a misdemeanor and shall be punished as may be provided by law, but part of such punishment shall be disqualification to hold office for a period of not less than five years


Education. SECTION 1. The General Assembly shall provide for the mainte- Palle schools 10 nance and support of a thorough and efficient system of public

be maintained. schools, wherein all the children of this Commonwealth above the age of six years may be educated, and shall appropriate at least armatun approone million dollars each year for that purpose.

SECTION 2. No money raised for the support of the public No appropriation schools of the Commonwealth shall be appropriated to or used for to sectarian sebels the support of any sectarian school.

SECTION 3. Women twenty-one years of age and upwards, shall Women cligilvie to be eligible to any office of control or management under the school school offices. laws of this State.


Militia. SECTION 1. The freemen of this Commonwealth shall be armed, Organization of organized and disciplined for its defence when and in such manner as may be directed by law. The General Assembly shall provide for maintaining the militia by appropriations from the Treasury of

Exemption authe Commonwealth, and may exempt from military service persons iborized. having conscientious scruples against bearing arms.


Public Officers. SECTION 1. All officers, whose selection is not provided for in Selection of public this Constitution, shall be elected or appointed as may be directed officers. by law.

SECTION 2. No member of Congress from this State, nor any Federal officers person holding or exercising any office or appointment of trust or disqualified for profit under the United States, shall at the same time hold or exercise any office in this State to which a salary, fees or perquisites shall be attached. The General Assembly may by law declare what offices are incompatible. SECTION 3. Any person who shall fight a duel or send a challenge

Dueling disqualififor that purpose, or be aider or abettor in fighting a duel, shall cation for orūce. be deprived of the right of holding any office of honor or profit in this State, and may be otherwise punished as shall be prescribed by law.

State office,



New Counties. SECTION 1. No new county shall be established which shall re- Limitation o duce any county to less than four hundred square miles, or to less power to creat than twenty thousand inhabitants; nor shall any county be formed of less area, or containing a less population ; nor shall any line thereof pass within ten miles of the county seat of any county proposed to be divided.


County Officers. SECTION 1. County officers shall consist of sheriffs, coroners, County officers. prothonotaries, registers of wills, recorders of deeds, commissioners, treasurers, surveyors, auditors or controllers, clerks of the

Faction and ten


Ridence of county uticers.

Ome's to be kept in county town.

Accountaoility of
1 Micipal officers.

be established by law; and no sheriff or treasurer shall be eligible 'for the term next succeeding the one for which he may be elected.

SECTION 2. County officers shall be elected at the general elections and shall hold their offices for the term of three years, beginning on the first Monday of January next after their election, and untii their successors shall be duly qualified; all vacancies not otherwise provided for shall be filled in such manner as may be provided by law.

SECTION 3. No person shall be appointed to any office within any county who shall not have been a citizen and an inhabitant therein one year next before his appointment, if the county shall have been so long erected, but if it shall not have been so long erected, then within the limits of the county or counties out of which it shall have been taken.

SECTION 4. Prothonotaries, clerks of the courts, recorders of deeds, registers of wills, county surveyors and sheriffs, shall keep their offices in the county town of the county in which they re

spectively shall be officers. Compensation. SECTION 5. The compensation of county officers shall be regu

lated by law, and all county officers who are or may be salaried shall pay all fees which they may be authorized to receive, into the treasury of the county or State, as may be directed by law. In counties containing over one hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants all county oflicers shall be paid by salary, and the salary of any such otticer and his clerks, heretofore paid by fees, shall not exceed the aggregate amount of fees earned during his term and collected by or for him.

SECTION 6. The General Assembly shall provide by law for the strict accountability of all county, township and borough oflicers, as well for the fees which may be collected by them, as for all public or municipal moneys which may be paid to them.

SECTION 7. Three county commissioners and three county audi

tors shall be elected in each county where such officers are chosen, in by limited vote. the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five and every

third year thereafter; and in the election of said oflicers each qualified elector shall vote for no more than two persons, and the three persons having the highest number of votes shall be elected; any casual vacancy in the office of county commissioner or county auditor shall be filled by the court of common pleas of the county in which such vacancy shall occur, by the appointment of an elector of the proper county who shall have voted for the commissioner or auditor whose place is to be filled.


Cities and City Charters. tablislı cities.

SECTION 1. Cities may be chartered wlienever a majority of the electors of any town or borough having a population of at least

ten thousand shall vote at any general election in favor of the saine. Niunicipal com- SECTION 2. No debt shall be contracted or liability incurred by cordebts except out any municipal commission, except in pursnance of an appropriaappropriations. tion previously made therefor by the municipal government. Suuking funds in SECTION 3. Every city shall create a sinking fund, which shall be inviolably pledged for the payment of its funded debt.


Private Corporations. SECTION 1. All existing charters, or grants of special or exclusive privileges, under which a bona fide organization shall not have taken place and business been commenced in good faith, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall thereafter have no validity.

SECTION 2. The General Assembly shall not remit the forfeiture of the charter of any corporation now existing, or alter or amend the same, or pass any other general or special law for the benefit of

County commissioners and auditors to be chosen

Vacancies -how

Gipucral laws to es

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Unused charters to
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No charter to be validated or

uended except in condition.


in stockholder

bonds forbidden,

shall thereafter hold its charter subject to the provisions of this Constitution.

SECTION 3. The exercise of the right of eminent domain shall light of eminant never be abridged or so construed as to prevent the General As- abridged or polia sembly from taking the property and franchises of incorporated com- power to bollinited panies, and subjecting them to public use, the same as the property of individuals ; and the exercise of the police power of the State shall never be abridged or so construed as to permit corporations to conduct their business in such manner as to infringe the equal rights of individuals or the general well-being of the State.

SECTION 4. In all elections for directors or managers of a cor- Cumulative voting poration each member or shareholder may cast the whole number

elections. of his votes for one candidate, or distribute them upon two or more candidates, as he may prefer.

SECTION 5. No foreign corporation shall do any business in this Foreign corporaState without having one or more known places of business and of business in Stats an authorized agent or agents in the same upon whom process may be served.

SECTION 6. No corporation shall engage in any business other Corporations not than that expressly authorized in its charter, nor shall it take or ness unauthorized hold any real estate except such as may be necessary and proper by their charters. for its legitimate business.

SECTION 7. No corporation shall issue stocks or bonds except for the fictitious inmoney, labor done, or money or property actually received ; and all crease of stocks or tictitious increase of stock or indebtedness shall be void. The stock and indebtedness of corporations shall not be increased except in pursuance of general law, nor without the consent of the persons holding the larger amount in value of the stock, first obtained at a neeting to be held after sixty days notice given in pursuance of law.

SECTION 8. Municipal and other corporations and individuals in- The taking and inVested with the privilege of taking private property for public use jury of private proshall make just compensation for property taken, injured or de- bertseter borte com

pensated. stroyed by the construction or enlargement of their works, highways or improvements, which compensation shall be paid or secured before such taking, injury or destruction. The General Assembly is hereby prohibited from depriving any person of an appeal from any preliminary assessment of damages against any such corporations or individuals made by viewers or otherwise ; and the amount of Appeals from assuch damages in all cases of appeal shall on the demand of either sessment of daiuparty be determined by a jury according to the course of the common law.

SECTION 9. Every banking law shall provide for the registry and Bank notes or bills countersigning, by an officer of the State, of all notes or bilis de- to be secured. signed for circulation, and that ample security to the full amount thereof shall be deposited with the Auditor General for the redemption of such notes or bills.

SECTION 10. The General Assembly shall have the power to alter, Repal of charter Tevoke or annul any charter of incorporation now existing and re- authorized. vocable at the adoption of this Constitution, or any that may hereafter be created, whenever in their opinion it may be injurious to the citizens of this Commonwealth, in such manner, however, that no injustice shall be done to the corporators. No law hereafter No law to create, enacted shall create, renew or extend the charter of more than one corporatios.

SECTION 11. No corporate body to possess banking and discount- Notice of bills 20 ing privileges shall be created or organized in pursuance of any law create banks, without three months' previous public notice, at the place of the intended location, of the intention to apply for such privileges, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law, nor shall a charter for ited to twenty such privilege be granted for a longer period than twenty years.

SECTION 12. Any association or corporation organized for the purpose, or any individual, shall have the right to construct and maintain lines of telegraph within this State, and to connect the same with other lines, and the General Assembly shall, by general law of uniforin operation, provide reasonable regulations to give


&c., more than one clarter,

Bank charters limi


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