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hive of industry, where science and labor are intelligently combined to unlock the treasures of the mine to the purposes of trade and commerce. Everywhere the attention is called to interesting and instructive processes. In one furnace we are shown about 6,000 ounces of melted silver. From others liquid lead is being ladled into molds placed in rows ready to receive it. Beyond, a stream of red-hot litharge is being run from a cupelling furnace. In another direction pyramids of pigs of crude bullion are being carefully sampled, by clipping off with chisels pieces from the corners and edges. Further on a gang of men are piling up 1,200 pigs of market lead, weighing 115 pounds each, the result of one week's work. In a huge iron safe are stored quantities of silver in sheets and heavy fragments, ready for transportation to the United States Mint. Near one of the desilverizing furnaces is piled a mass of silver “dross” (the residue which has been separated from the lead, and carrying from 1,200 to 1,500 ounces of silver to the ton) awaiting the process of the cupel furnace.
X The lead, after each smelting, is run into pig-molds, and is conveyed to the saccessive furnaces by a system of miniature railroads, branching off in all directions to distant parts of the works.
Following our conductor, we enter the assaying department, where exist all the most approved modern appliances for dispatch and accuracy. This department is a scene of scientific industry, in which many interesting experiments are made in fur. therance of the object of the works.
Situated over the main works, and reached by an inclined road, is an extensive platform on which are collected and arranged the various substances which are fed down as fluxes into the smelting-furnaces below, in quantities as required-such as scraps and cuttings of iron and other metals, lime, and a general mixture of the by-products of the works-dross, agglomerated ore, &c., which are worked over and made to serve a profitable purpose.
The remarkable success now attending the works was only reached through years of heavy outlay and careful study. The idea that smelting is a simple affair, requiring only the throwing in of the ore and the running out of the metal, is effectually dispelled after an examination of the intricate process--the skill and experience required in the business. To an uninitiated spectator there is a strange fascination in these rills of liquid silver pouring from flaming furnaces—these pools of molten lead codfined within margins of white-hot masonry and reflecting like mirrors the delicate and ever-changing colors produced by the mysterious action of heat and chemicals. In these smelting-works fourteen furnaces are kept constantly employed, and that number will be doubled as the supply of ore increases.
The most valuable ores are received from Arizona, and localities too remote from any Eastern market to admit of shipment there, even were it desirable. The works take, without hesitation, all available ores that are offered. One firm in the neighborhood of Salt Lake bave received $40,000 for ores shipped by the Pacific Railroad. Another located in the southern part of this State has been paid upwards of $100,000 for lead bullion. So extensive has the business become under the intelligent management of Mr. Selby, that his works have stopped the importation of lead to the Pacific coast as effectually as his shot-tower has driven all other shot out of the market; although in both enterprises he commenced against heavy Eastern competition and with the general prediction that the attempt would prove a failure.
Not only have the works grown into the largest producer of lead in the United States, (of which the shipment to Mr. Naylor in New York, will this year be 1,200 or 1,500 tons, constitating a valuable item in our home industry,) but they are yielding silver bullion at the rate of $30,000 per month, which is extracted from the lead, all resulting from the enterprise of one firm, and redounding largely to the credit of California. The growth of this branch has been such that furnaces especially for smelting gold and silver ores are about to be erected. These will also work up the jewelers' and mint sweepings, which, in the long run, is a substantial item; and there is no reason why the smelting of copper and tin ore should not be snccessfully carried on at the same establishment, which, if its transactions continue to increase as rapidly as they have done for the few years past, seems likely to rank with the well known ones of England, Wales, and Germany.
While the yield of all other branches of mining on the Pacific coast bas declined, that of lead mining has steadily increased, under the encouragement created by the persistent energy of one firm. Of the 30,000 tons of lead ríow annually used in the United States, less than 20,000 tons are produced in our own country. Statistics show that the home product has been lessening since 1862, while the annual consumption, and consequently the importation from foreign countries, is largely increasing. Thus, there is no danger of overstocking the market. The above amount, annually consumed in our country, is used in a multitude of ways; for lead pipe, lining of tnus, vats, etc.; soldering, preparing chemicals and dyes; bullets, type-metal; weights, plumbing for houses, steamships, etc.; pipe and sheet lead and shot, of whicb 12,000.000 pounds-and paints, including white lead, of which no less than 40,000,000 poundsare annually mannfactured and used in the United States.
LIST OF STAMP-MILLS.
The following list is based upon that in Langley's excellent ! Pacific Coast Directory.” Many alterations have been made, however, and several districts, and two whole Territories, are represented by entirely new lists, prepared without reference to Langley's. Indeed, his catalogue does not include Colorado at all; and his list of mills in Montana has been complained of by the press of that Territory as not sufficiently modern. The chief criticism of the newspapers upon it, however, will be equally applicable to the very full and complete list of Montana stamp-mills which I present, namely, there is no distinction made between the mills now running and those standing idle. The citizens naturally do not like, on the one hand, to confess that the majority of the stamp-mills are idle, nor, on the other hand, to have the comparatively small amount of gold produced from quartz charged to so large a number of mills. The truth is that Montana quartz-mining is still a subordinate industry, compared with the working of gulches and placers, though it will undoubtedly become the more important industry of the two, when the Northern Pacific Railroad shall have opened the Territory to cheap labor and freights. The idle mills will then find opportunity for profitable activity.
I may say in general of the following list, that it does not pretend to distinguish between works now running, and those which are either temporarily or permanently closed, except when such a statement is explicitly made. The quotations from the census returns, however, refer (if the assistant marshals have followed the instructions they received) to establishments in operation during some part of the year ending June 1, 1870.
It is possible that in attempting to combine the data afforded by personal observation, official reports, private correspondence, the census, and Mr. Langley's catalogue, some errors have been committer, in consequence of the different names frequently attached to the same establishment. The danger of such mistakes has, however, been constantly kept in view, and guarded against, so far as the nature of the case would permit; and it is believed that the list here presented is the most comprehensive and accurate that has been published up to the presenti time.
List of quartz mills, with the location, name of mill, date of erection, number of stamp,
cost of machinery, and the director's or owner's name of each.
Steam. $50, 000 Silver Jones, Wade & Co.
36,000)..do D. Davidson.
1856 10. . Steam 10,000 Gold .. Jno. A. Faull & Co. Fleehart's
1866 10 .do 10, 000..do A. Hayward.
1856 40 Steam 80,000 do Gashweiler & Co.
1865 10 Steam 10,000 ..do Henry D. Bacon.
10, 000..do E. P. Steen.
1860 20 S. & W. 20,000..do Plymouth Mining Ce. Potosi
1857 16 Water. 10, COU..do W. H. IIooper & Co. Richmond
1865 10 S. & W. 10, 000..do Pbiladelphia Co.
10,000 do Haley & Hardenburg.
12, 000..do Kennedy Mining Co. Kearsings 1802 10 Water
5, 000..do Kearsing Bros. Oneida.
1857 60 Steam. 100, 000..do Oncida Mining Co. Tub'ss's. 1866 101
10,000..do Tubbs & Co. Zeilo Mining Co 1264 16 ..de
10, 000..do Zeile Mining Co. Tellurium
1864 10 do 10, 000..do Ryder & Co. Badger
1838 16 Water. 10,000..do Amador Vining Co. Dowus.
1858 10 .do 10, 000..do R. C. Downs. Eureka
1869 40 S. & W. 100,000..do Amador Mining Co. Lincoln Quartz M.Co 20 .do 10,000..do R.C. Downs, supt. Mahoney
1859 16 Water
15, 000..do Maboney Brothers. Rose's
20,000..do Amador Mining Co. Wildman's.
1859 12 ..do 10, 000..do C. T. Wheeler. Belding.
1865 10 S. & W. 12, 000..do California Furnace Co.
1865 10 Water. 10, 000..do Woodcock & Co.
1865 10 S. & W. 20, 000..do P. A. Clute. Italian..
1862 10 Water. 8,000..do Rose & Ce. Mitchell's.
1863 20 ..do 20,000..do McLane & Sirocco. Monday 1600 10
4,000..do Fogus & Co. Pioneer
1835 10 S. & W. 15, 000..do L. R. L'oundstone. Sirocco 1860 20
20, 000..do McLane & Siroeco. Sulphuret.
1864 5 ..do 9, 000..do H. Schultz.
11865 15 Steam 8,000)..do Lawton & Co.
8,000)..do Marklee & Co.
Binney & Co's
1866' 4. Water.
3,000 Gold .. Binney & Co.
5, 000)..do J. W. Riant.
Grummet & Stempel. ..do
W. S. Reese. 10,000 .. do ... Warten & Co.
1868 10. Steam.
Water. 15,000 Gold .. Larco, Prince & Co. Angel Creek
Spence & Co.
1862 30 Steam. 40,000..do Angel's Q. M. CO Angel's Camp. Billings...
1868 3 Water
..do E. Billings. Angel's Camp. Doe & Brother 1860 10 Steam. 10,000 ..do Doo & Brother, Angel's Camp.
Larco & Co
N. Larco & Co.
1866 10:1..do ... 5, 0001..do Stickles & Co. * The list of will reported in June, 1870, to the Census Burean, differs somewhat from this, both in the number of mills and in the number of stamps, but the carelessness of clerks in regard to names of owners (not to be published in the census) renders detailed comparison in possible.
Finigan & Co 1866 6 .. Steam. $50,000 Gold .. rinigan & Co.
do G. K. Stevenot.
Union Quartz Co. Cherokeo Flat
Cherokee Mining Co. Copperopolis..
15, 000..do Duncan & Co.
1862 10....do 10, 000..do Knox & Co. El Dorado
..do 10, 000..do William Irvine. Lower Rich Gulch Alexander's.
5, 000..do Alexander & Co. Lower Rich Gulch Coloma
1869 36 ...do 45, 000..do Gwin & Colman. MF. Mokelumne Riv Carlton's Arastras 1860 3 2 .do
200..do B. F. Carlton. Mosquito
Musquito Q. M. Co.. 1863 15 .. Steam 15, 000..do Cutter & Waters. Railroad Flat Hepburn & Co.. 10....do 8,000..do Hepburn & Co., apd
Burr & Co. Railroad Flat
Lewis & Brother.. 1870 5....do 5, 000..do Lewis & Brother.
G. W. Hopkins.
16, 000..do Clero & Co.
1859 15 ..do
15, 000..do C. Smith. Skull Flat Tacatéro..
1859 10 ..do 3,000..do Gauno & Co. West Point
3, 000..do A. Harris.
A. Lacey. West Point
William H. Thoss. Thorpe & Co.. 2
Thorpe & Co.
1860 15 1861 5
EL DORADO COUNTY.*
Gold J.C. McFarnahan, s't
Philo Isabell, sup't. Cosumnes.
Stillwagon & Norton 1866 4 1..do 1,500..do Stillwagon & Norton. Cosumnes Tulloch & Ault 1866 8
4, 000..do Tulloch & Ault.
1,000..do J. Cooke & Co.
1868 40.. Water
9, 000..do Pocahontas G. M. Co. El Dorado Montezuma..
20, 000..do N. Y. & El Dorado Co. El Dorado
15, 000..do C. McGuire, sup't. El Dorado
12, 000..do W. E. Church, sup't. El Dorado Wilder 1865 8 Water
2,500..do B. W. Wilder. Georgetown
Clipper G. & S. M. Co 1863 5 .do 12, 000..do R. Cushman, sup't. Georgetown Woodside... 1863 2 Steam.
6, 000..do Ash, Lane & Knox. Georgia Slide Blue Rock
1,000..do John Hines & Co. Grizzly Flat Eagle..
1866 20 .do
12, 000..do Wiliiam Bigler. Grizzly Flat
Mount Pleasant. 1867 20 Steam. 60, 000..do 0. D. Lombard.
A. M. Stetson, sup't.
Potter, sup't. Placerville. Harmon
20,000..do Ilarmon G. &. S. M. Co. Placerville. Jess's.
1870 10 Water 1, 500)..do W. F. Jess. Placerville.
Loafer's Hollow 1866 10 Steam 12, 000)..do C. W. Moulthrop, s't. Placerville. Lyon. 1870 10
2,500..do H. L. Robinson, sup't. Placerville. Manning.. 1864 4
5, 000..do Blain, Alderson, & Co. Placerville New York
1862 20 ..do 10,000..do F. Reed. Placerville Pacific
1857 10 ..do 15, 000..do J. M. Douglass. Placerville Poverty Point 1864 10 ..do
8,000..do Burdick & White. Placerville Rising Hope 1870 10 do
2,500..do J. Blair. Placerville Shepherd's. 1870 10
3, 000..do Shepberd & Witten. Placerville. U. S. Grant
1870 10 ..do 2, 300..do Shingle Springs. Gray's .....
1863 10 do 1,500..do Gray Bros. & Son. Smith's Flat Brewster & Co'st 1866 12 Water
6,000..do Brewster & Co. Smith's Flat Hook and Laddert 1866 4 do
500..do Anderson & Redd. Smith's Flat Taft'st..
1860 10 Steam. 2, 000..do P. M. Taft. Soap Weed
Cobb & Co.
4, 000..do Cobb & Co. Texas Hill
1866 10 do , 3, 000..do Stewart & Hall. Volcanoville
40,000..do French Company. White Rock Live Oakt 1866 Water.
2, 000..do Warıl Bros. Dead Broke.. 1670.1 1..do ... 500..do ... Burlingham & Jayco. * The list of mills reported in June, 1870, to the Census Bureau, differs somewhat from this, both in tho number of mills and in the number of stamps, but the carelessness of clerks in regard to names of own ers (not to be published in the census) renders detailed comparison impossible.
Big Bend, Salmon Riv. Abrams & Co's.
1868).. 1 1802 12
Water. 1804 12 Steam. 1861 8
Abrams & Co.
Klamath. Eddy's Gulch
Lire Yankee.. Jackass Gulch
Water 18708 .do
LOS ANGELES COUNTY.
1868 102 S. & W. 20,000 Gold .. Hayward, Clark
Agua Fria Creek. Hambleton's
1857 4 1 Water. 2, 000 Gold J. Hambleton. Agua Fria Creek
1869 4 1..do 4,000..do J. H. Neal Bear Creek Bobbio's
1865 4 2..do 4,0001..do Juan Bobbio. * The Census Report of 1870 contains the following additional arrastras in this county:
No. of arrastras.
Gold or silver.
Peduck & Co..
The Cersus Report contains the mill of the Delphi Mining Company, with ten stanips, driven by steam power, and that of the Kern River Mining Company, with sixteen stamps and one crusher, alse moved by steam, neither of which I can identify in the above list.