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they generally scatter in all directions. The Apaches are not a strong tribe, but very few of them can, under the circumstances, do a great deal of damage, and effectually prevent the settlement of the country, as long as it is not better connected with other parts of the Union. But what the Government has not been able to do in the past the South Pacific or Texas Pacific Railroad will certainly do. As in the case of the Union and Central Pacific roads, it will attract population, and the citizens, less hampered in regard to Indians than the mili tary powers, will soon dispose of the question in their own way. Sup. plies will be brought to the mines at rates permitting the industry to prosper, and safety of life and property will continually tend to expand it. As to the basis of all mining operations, the existence of the mineral veins, the foregoing report amply affirms their abundance, though not one-third of Arizona has been prospected, or even visited by white men. It must not be understood that the mineral deposits of Arizona, as a whole, are richer in the precious metals, per ton of ore, than those of other countries. If they were, they would be the only exception in the world. But the number of veins in these barren, rough mountains, and their close proximity to each other, are surprising.
It is, in this connection, remarkable that all the veins of Arizona have either a northwest and southeast or a northeast and southwest strike. This points to the formation of these two classes of veins at two different periods, and it will be interesting, at some future time, when the action of the eruptive forces in Arizona is better understood, to follow this subject further.
One class of mineral veins in Arizona, though very valuable, will require much capital and skill in their development, and in the extrac tion of the precious metals from their ores. These are the gold-bearing sulphurets of the Sierra Prieta, very much like those of a portion of Colorado, and equally difficult to treat. But even if none of the new processes now contemplated for the cheap beneficiation of such ores (by a roasting which will effectually free the gold, and by subsequent amalgamation) should prove successful, the construction of the Texas Pacific Railroad will render the application of the Plattner chloridizing process remunerative. Besides, many of those ores are sufficiently concentrated to permit the introduction of smelting works, by the use of which the highest and most perfect yield of the precious metals may be obtained, as soon as the railroad shall lessen the cost of transportation sufficiently to permit the shipment of base metals.
After the construction of the great southern transcontinental railway, Arizona will have nothing to fear in regard to its speedy development, and the mines especially will be foremost to build up a country which, so far, has been persistently decried by those who do not know or acknowledge the half of its internal resources.
Even for the present the mining districts adjacent to the Colorado River offer excellent chances for the investment of capital. But to build up a successful mining industry in those districts the ores must be beneficiated on the spot, and land transportation must be limited to that of the metals only. At the same time professional skill and economical business habits must be employed to work these ores. These qualifications, which cannot be acquired except by a thorough theoret ical and practical education in mining have, so far, not been brought to bear in Arizona, except in isolated cases.
The total product of Arizona during the fiscal year 1869-'70, in gold and silver, does not exceed $800,000, coin value. This includes the value of several hundred tons of argentiferous lead ores, shipped from
the Lower Colorado. While this estimate may be too low on account of the omission of such amounts as have undoubtedly been carried off by Mexican placer miners into Sonora, it embodies all those values of which reliable information can be obtained in the Territory itself.
The decrease from last year's production is partly due to the stoppage during a great part of the year of the mills on Lynx Creek; principally, however, to the unexampled drought, which impeded both placer and :quartz mining, and to the extraordinary activity of the hostile Apaches during the year.
The product of gold in the Territory of New Mexico during the last year has been little in excess of that of the year before.
The Moreno gold fields, the principal part of which, the Maxwell grant, is said to have been sold to an English company during the year, have held their own, as a whole, the Aztec Mill having made up by an increased yield what was lost by the placers. The latter have had a better supply of water than last year, the Moreno ditch having been partly puddled and connected with additional sources of a water supply. Only the larger placer mining claims, however, have been worked during any considerable portion of the season.
Of twelve claims reported six have produced over $10,000, and the product of all the claims is about $110,000. The twelve claims mentioned have employed sixty-six men on an average of six months, paying wages of about $60 per month. The average yield per day per hand of these claims has been $9 70. The most productive claim has been that of Arthur & Co., which yielded $20,000, employing ten men during eight months.
The Aztec Mining Company, whose mine has been described in last year's report, has employed thirty men steadily for twelve months at average wages of $3 25 per day. They have extracted during that time over 3,500 tons of quartz, which yielded $76 76 per ton, or an aggre gate of about $260,000. This yield is higher per ton than that of last year, and perhaps unique in the United States for so large an amount of ore.
The discovery of extensive deposits of bituminons coal on the Maxwell grant is important for the future of that portion of New Mexico. Several beds, some of which are reported to be 10 feet thick, have been found in the Raton Mountains, along the Red River and on the Vermejo. Along the course of the Upper Poñil and the Cimanoa Rivers other beds are said to have been traced. All of these are probably not coals, but rather lignites; but even if so, their discovery is a very fortunate event for a country in which timber is not overabundant.
The mines of the Arroyo Hondo Mining and Ditch Company, near San Antonio, in Taos County, which were mentioned in last year's report, on account of their great extent and the extraordinary facilities offered here for cheap reduction, on account of the low price of labor and the abundance of wood and water, the latter sufficient to drive a twenty-stamp mill, have not yet realized the expectations entertained in regard to them. The company have employed fifteen men during nine months, but realized only a little over $8,000. Wages are still low, $1 per day and board.
In Santa Fé County the old and new placers have again been worked, to a limited extent only, and the project of bringing water to these localities from the Pecos River has not yet been carried out.
The New Mexico Mining Company and the Candelaria Company are the only quartz mining companies reported at work during a part of the year. The New Mexico Mining Company at Real de Dolores has em ployed eighty men and some boys during nine months, and has crushed 1,800 tons of quartz, yielding a little less than $18,000, or nearly $10 per ton. This yield does not at all come up to the expectations entertained last year in regard to the ores of the Ortiz and Brehm lodes.
The Candelaria Company at Real del Tuerto has worked eight men for ten months, and 1,200 tons of quartz were mined by them. I am not informed of the yield of this ore; but as the company bought a ten-stamp mill last year, which had before crushed ore from the same mines with satisfactory results, it may be expected that the business of the company was a paying one, though wages have been much higher in this part of New Mexico than elsewhere. The Candelaria has paid $83 per month to its hands, without board; and the New Mexico Mining Company about $60 with board.
In Grant County little real mining has been carried on, while much prospecting has taken place.
The placers in the vicinity of Pinos Altos have produced little, partly on account of drought and the hostility of the Apaches, and partly be cause nearly all the floating population in this camp was carried off to the Burro Mountains by the excitement which broke out in the early part of 1870, on account of alleged rich discoveries of silver veins.
The quartz mines, too, have done little during the year, and of four companies reported only one has worked twelve months, the remainder having been active from one to four months.
The Pinos Altos Mining Company has only worked one month, and its product is less than $3,000. The remaining three companies, Reynolds & Griggs, Ryerson & Co., and the Asiatic Mining Company, have employed sixteen men, on an average of eight months, at $2 per day. They have crushed 3,970 tons of quartz, which yielded $60,900, an average of $15 33 per ton. The largest product is that of Messrs. Reynolds & Griggs, who crushed 2,880 tons, yielding $48,500.
The Pinos Altos region is one of the most exposed to the depredations of the Apache in all New Mexico, the distance to the Sierra Blanca and the Pinal Mountains, the strongholds of the worst bands of Apaches, being short, and military protection not in the immediate vicinity.
The celebrated copper mines of this region, in Central City district, which were described at length in last year's report, have not been in operation. But steps have been taken to secure United States title to the Santa Rita mines, and an early resumption of operations at this mine is expected.
The great events in reference to mining in the Territory of New Mexico are the simultaneous discoveries at widely remote localities of extensive silver veins and deposits. I refer to those made at the Burro or Pyramid Mountains, in Mesilla County, those in the Cienega and Chloride districts, in Grant County, and finally, those near the Rio Dolores, an affluent of the Rio San Juan, in the northwestern part of the Territory. The latter, though reported to be rich and extensive, have been less explored than those first named, the Ute Indians having prevented the prospecting party, when attempting to reach the mines the second time, from advancing in that direction, forcing them to turn north, where they are said to have discovered rich gold mines in the San Luis Park in Colorado.
The Burro and Cienega mines are better known, and, though no active mining of any account has been carried on in either of these localities, many outsiders, and among them intelligent mining men, have visited them and reported on their merits, as far as developed at present. Various accounts have appeared in the press from time to time in regard to the Burro mines. The following is from the pen of Mr. J. Wasson, surveyor general of Arizona Territory:
As these mines have attained celebrity, and are destined to be more widely and favorably known, their location should be described with approximate accuracy-all that any man can do at present. New Mexico claims them, and while Arizona does not deny
it, she does not admit it. The line between New Mexico and Arizona is established on the one hundred and ninth meridian of longitude west of Greenwich, and no line has ever been run or observations taken on it, not even at its intersection with the international boundary between Mexico and the United States; hence any positive opinion as to the territory in which these mines are situate would be presumption. Yet it is generally believed that the line between the Territories lies to the west about fifteen miles, and for legal purposes the authority of New Mexico is recognized. The mines lie just south of the Overland Mail and Stage road, and the bold croppings may be seen distinctly fifteen miles distant either way on the road. They lie at the extreme north end of the Pyramid range of mountains, where they lose themselves in the open, level country, forty-five miles east of Camp Bowie, at Apache Pass, and seventy miles southwest of Camp Bayard; by the sinuous road of Tucson, one hundred and fifty; and west of Mesilla, on the Rio Grande, one hundred and twenty. The stage passes weekly over this route, once each way, with the mails and passengers to Tucson and Mesilla. Fare to Mesilla, $35; to Tucson, $42 50; and thence to San Diego, $90-two trips each week west of Tucson.
Up to May 21st there were 1,257 original claims recorded, and they cover a scope of country about six miles in extent. But three monster veins are prominent-Harpending, Brown, and Arnold. They crop out for miles, in places 50 feet above the surface, and verging from a few to hundreds of feet in width. Between the lodes is a network of smaller ones, many of which are from 10 to 50 feet in thickness. The limited amount of labor performed forbids any correct opinion of worth, regarding the casing of the veins, extent or character much below the surface. In a few places slate walls have been exposed by the miners to a depth of several feet. Quite an extended observation of quartz operations in the Pacific States and Territories has convinced me that more failures have ensued because of a lack of ore than on account of its barrenness of gold and silver. Here the quantity is apparently unlimited. I was disgusted in advance with what I considered the same old stories about "any amount of ore-rely upon that." I felt that all former lying had been rendered insignificant in comparison. Yesterday and to-day I carried a hammer, climbed up over the scraggy croppings in scores of places, and knocked off pieces where others had not, and the amount of quartz in sight is so great as to make one doubt his sight-almost regard himself in the midst of a wild dream. I have neither seen nor heard any exaggerations with reference to the quartz in this district.
The quality is still a matter upon which the honest and well-informed may and do differ. I to-day saw boxed some forty pounds of ore from various mines, and addressed to A. Harpending, San Francisco, to be forwarded by stage to-morrow. It may be taken for specimens, but I am sure there are many thousands of tons equally as good in plain sight. If the ore which P. Arnold has forwarded to Mr. Harpending gives satisfactory returns of gold and silver, there can hardly be a doubt that this is the most extensive deposit of rich quartz ever found in America. The same quality of ore is abundant throughout the district. It is exposed in thousands of places, and not in small bunches. Speaking only in comparison with other ores, I believe those of this district will be proved of great average richness. I understand the tests so far made have shown but little gold; yet to-day I struck a small pocket which contained much free gold, as was verified by pulverization and careful washing. Unquestionably silver largely predominates.
There are many evidences that these mines have at one time been worked in a crude way, and the ore taken elsewhere for reduction, and that some of the mysterious aud fabulous tales of silver mines in Mexico had their origin here. On the Roberts claim, on the Brown lode, is an old stone cabin. It was covered in the usual Mexican style until recently, when some soldiers set fire to it and burned off the roof. It was covered with cedar poles, thatch, and dirt. A hole near by, where the mortar was probably mixed, is grown up with small shrubs, and a portion of the limbs of a cedar tree adjacent have been cut off, and the marks of the ax are yet visible in the dead branches. The work must have been done many years ago. In the quartz near by there are crevices worked out into the heart of the ledge, some of the cavities being large enough to admit a man on his knees, and when discovered, the entrances were closed with rocks. In other places ore has evidently been taken from the surface, as the "deads" are as orderly placed to one side as is the practice of modern miners. At this city springs were dug out and walled up. Flat stones used in grinding grain for food are lying about. The careful observer here can have no doubts regarding these statements. The Apache Indians killed and drove men from highly cultivated farms in many sections of this country-why not from mines?
Large teams can easily reach the majority of claims, and with very little labor roads can be made so as to admit of heavily laden wagons passing to and from any of them with ease. The hills rise gently and are covered with a heavy growth of nutritions grass and scattering cedar timber of the scrub variety; are not rocky except near the veins, and there the boulders are quartz croppings. In most all quartz districts the item of roads is a big one in the expense account; here it will amount to nearly nothing, In the gulch passing up through Ralston water is abundant in the rainy season, and for some time thereafter on the surface; new wells have been dug from 5 to 25 feet