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Being the latter part of the 69th, and the beginning of the 70th,
year of the Independence of the United States of America; the 6558th year of the Julian Period; the latter part of the 5605th and the beginning of the
5606th, year since the creation of the world, according to
the Jews; the 2598th year (according to Varro) since the foundation
of Rome; the 2592d year since the era of Nabonassar, which has been
assigned to Wednesday, the 26th of February of the 3967th year of the Julian Period, which corresponds, according to the chronologists, to the 747th, and, according to the as
tronomers, to the 746th year, before the birth of Christ; the 2621st year of the Olympiads, or the first year of the
656th Olympiad, beginning in July, 1843, if we fix the era of the Olympiads at 7751 years before Christ, or at or about the beginning of July of the year 3938 of the Julian
Period; the latter part of the 1260th, and the beginning of the 1261st
year (of twelve lunations) since the Hegira, or flight of Mahomet, which, as is generally supposed, took place on the 16th of July, in the year 662 of the Christian era.
I. THE CALENDAR
SIGNS OF THE PLANETS, &c.
# Jupiter. DO ( The Moon. Juno.
h Saturn. 8 Mercury.
Hi Herschel or Uranus. Venus.
* A fixed star. o Conjunction, or having the same Longitude or Right Ascension. o Quadrature, or differing 90° in 8 Opposition, or 180° in * The ascending, U the descending node.
The sign + is prefixed to the latitude, or declination, of the Sun, or other heavenly body, when north, and the sign when south; but the former prefixed to the hourly motion of the Moon in latitude, indicates that she is approaching, and the latter that she is receding from, the north pole of the ecliptic.
The letters M. A., m. a., denote Morning and Afternoon.
h. m. s. Sun enters 18 (Winter begins) 1844, Dec. 21st, 11 22 56 M.
op (Spring 1845, March 20th, 0 35 32 A.
9 34 18 M.
Sept. 22d, 11 45 41 A.
5 18 54 A.
d. h. m. S. Sun in the Winter Signs
89 1 12 36 Spring
92 20 58 46 Summer
93 14 11 23 Autumn
89 17 33 13 “north of Equator, (Spring and Summer) 186 11 10 9 " south of Winter and Autumn) 178 18 45 49 Length of the tropical year, commencing
at the winter solstice, 1843, and termi- 365 555 58
nating at the winter solstice, 1844, Mean or average length of the tropical year, 365 5 48 48
MOVABLE FESTIVALS OF THE CHURCH, IN 1845. Septuagesima Sunday, Jan. 19th | Rogation Sunday, Quinq. or Shrove do. Feb. 2d Ascen. Day, or Holy Th. May 1st Ash Wed. Lent begins, 5th Whitsunday or Pentecost, 11th Mid Lent Sunday, Mar. 2d Trinity Sunday,
18th Palm do
22d Easter do
Fête Dieu, Low do
“ 30th | Advent Sunday, Nov. 30th
as a che farpusiechristi Day, }
(The anniversaries marked with an asterisk (*) are to be strictly observed.]
Year. Names of the Months. 5605 Sebat begins
Jan. 10, 1845.
28, 22d *End of the Passover
29, Ijar begins
May 8, 18th Lag Beomer
12, Thammus begins
July 6, 17th Fast for the taking of the Temple
22, Ab begins
Aug. 4, 9th *Fast for the burning of the Temple 12, Elul begins
Sept. 3, 5606 Tisri begins *Feast for the New Year
Oct. 2, 2d *Second Feast for the New Year
3, 4th Fast of Gedaljah,
Year. Names of the Months. 5606 Tisri 21st Feast of Palms or Branches Oct. 22, 1845,
22d *End of the Hut, or Congregation Feast" 23,
23d *Rejoicing for the discovery of the Law“ 24,
30, 10th Fast for the Siege of Jerusalem Jan. 8, 1846. The Jewish year generally contains 354 days, or 12 lunations of the Moon, but, in a cycle of 19 years, an intercalary month (Veadar) is 7 times introduced, for the purpose of rendering the average duration of the year quite or nearly correct.
The Mahometan Era dates from the filight of Mahomet to Medina, July 16th, A. D. 662.
The Mahometan year is purely luñar; it consists of 12 synodical periods of the Moon, or of 354 days, 19 times in a cycle of 30 years, and 11 times of 355 days. The average length of this year is therefore 35438 days, which differs only thirty-three seconils from the truth ; a degree of exactness that only could have been attained by a long series of observations. But as no allowance is made for the excess of 11 days in the length of a tropical year over the time of 12 revolutions of the Moon, it is obvious that in about 33 years, the above months will correspond to every season and every part of the Gregorian year.
HEIGHT OF THE GREATEST OR SPRING TIDES IN 1845.
Computed by the formula of Laplace (M'canique Chleste, Vol. II. pp. 289
Paris ed., and (2858] Bowd. ed.)
New or Full
Height of Moon. the tide. Moon
d. h. New Moon, Jan. 8, 2 M. 1.03 Full Moon, July 19, 1 M. 1.04 Full 23, 9 M. 0.84 New
Aug. 3, 2 M. 0.82 New Feb. 6, 1 A. 1.05 Full
17, 8 M. 1.08 Full 22, 2 M. 0.95 New
1, 4 A. 091 New March 8, 1 M. 1.02 Full
15, 5 A. 105 Full 23, 3 A. 1.01 New
1, 6 M. 0.97 New April 6, 3 A. 0.93 Full
15, 5 M. 0.96 Full 22, 2 M. 1.02 New
30, 7 A. 0.91 New May 6, 5 M. 0.82 Full Nov. 13, 8 A. 0.55 Full
21, 11 M. 1.00 New Dec. 29, 9 A. 0.99 New
13, 2 A. 0.78 Full 19, 6 M. 1.00 New
28, 6 A. 1.03 New July 4, 11 M. 0.75
The unit of tude at any place, is the height at that place of that tide which arrives about a day and a half after the time of New or Full Moon, when the Sun and Moon at the moment of conjunction or opposition are at their mean distance from the Earth, and in the plane of the celestial equator.
This unit of altitude, which must be derived from observation for each place, multiplied by the quantities in the above table, gives the height of the spring tides at that place during the present year.
By the above table it appears, that the highest tides of 1845 will be those of February S, August 19, and September 17.
The actual rise of the tide, however, depends so much upon the strength and direction of the wind, that it not unfrequently happens that a tide, which would, independently of these, have been small, is higher than another, otherwise much greater. But when a tide, which arrives when the Sun and Moon are in a favorable position for producing a great elevation, is still further increased by a very strong wind, the rise of the water will be uncommonly great, sufficient perhaps to cause damage.
The formula, from which these tides were computed, is, however, strictly true only for Brest and its vicinity, and must be regarded as a very uncertain approximation for the coast of the United States.
The following table contains the Unit of Altitude of several ports and places on the coast of America, according to the best authorities.
The unit of altitude of the several places in the Bay of Fundy was ascertained by recent observations. Feet.
Feet. Advocate Harbor, (Bay of Fundy) 50 Bay, Cignecto, (north part of Bay Andrews, Si.
60 Annapolis, (N. S.)
16 Apple River
7 Augustine, St.
7 Basin of Mines, (Bay of Fundy) 60 Bell Island Straits
30 Bay, Bristed S Block Island
6 Broad 9 BOSTON
111 Buzzard's Cape Ann
Blomidom, (Bay of Fundy) 60