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Opposition to the tax.Several witnesses object to the existing tax on oleomargarine on the ground that it increases the price of a product used by persons in moderate circumstances. The existing tax of $48 a year is complained of as being too high a tax to expect from retail dealers. On the other hand, the constitutional point is raised that nothing can be done by the National Government to control the manufacture and sale of such products except through an internal-revenue law.2

Benefit to the animal industry.-A Chicago commission merchant who has been closely identified with the oleomargarine business believes that while the production of imitation butter is only about 6 per cent as great as that of butter from cream and milk, the demand for the fats used has raised the price of ca tle and hogs throughout the country.3


Milk.—While milk is often adulterated by the addition of water and by the use of preservatives and sometimes coloring matter, the most common form of adulteration is probably the abstraction of the fat in the cream, as in skimmed milk. It is stated that a child fed upon skimmed milk may suffer as much as if a poison were administered, from not getting the proper food constituents.5

Condensed skimmed milk.-Several witnesses call special attention to the use of skimmed milk in the preparation of condensed milk, a practice which is said to endanger the lives of children fed with the product by slowly starving them.6

Two witnesses, one of whom represents a leading condensed milk company, consider a national law necessary to prevent the sale of condensed skimmed milk, because it is so commonly shipped from State to State and used on shipboard."

Cheese. - It apears to be a common practice to adulterate cheese by substituting for the butter fat other fats which are inferior to it, though not necessarily less nutritious or at all deleterious. Cheese filled in this manner is said to be undesirable in that it does not ripen normally and soon spoils, besides being less palatable.

Lard.It appears from the testimony of several witnesses that lard is quite generally adulterated with cotton-seed oil and beef stearin, neither of which is considered deleterious to health.: Cocoanut oil is also said to be used as a substitute for lard; but the only lard adulterant which is considered injurious to the health is paraffin wax, which is sometimes used instead of stearin to bring back the consistency of the lard after cotton-seed oil has been added.10

Canned beef.-Attention is called to the lack of nutritive quality in canned roast beef and in boiled beef, on account of the extraction of part of the valuable material.11

Horseflesh. It is thought probable that horseflesh has been sold in this country for food, as it is known that horses are slaughtered for food in this country, and it would be easy to make horseflesh pass for beef, especially for the coarser grades of beef. Its sale in many parts of Europe has become quite common.??

1 Pirrung, pp. 320-322; Jelke, pp. 33, 334; Wiley, p. 14. 2 Knight, p. 138. 3 Sterne, p. 341. 4 Wiley, p. 13. 6 Vaughan, p. 202. 6 Hallberg, p. 82; Monred, pp. 64, 65; Duff, p. 497; Rogers, pp. 440-443. 7 Rogers, p. 443; Monred, p. 65. 8 Wiley, p. 14; Mitchell, p. 110. "Wiley, pp. 15, 16; Mitchell, p. 125; Jenkins, p. 451; Eaton, pp. 234, 235. 10 Mitchell, pp. 125, 127. 11 Hallberg, p. 81. 12 Wiley, p. 40.

Fraudulent sales of game birds and fish.—The sale of English sparrows for reed birds, and of other birds for high-priced game birds which they resemble, is said to be a common commercial fraud. Restaurants and markets often sell one kind of duck for another, and other turtles for terrapin. The sale of one kind of fish for another, as in the case of spurious sardines, is a fraud of similar nature which is also objected to."


Sugar.-Representatives of the principal sugar-refining companies testify that sugar as now made is pure, though formerly it was commonly adulterated on account of the cheapness of glucose. Concerning the purity of powdered sugar there is a difference of opinion, two witnesses thinking it nearly always pure,3 while one intimates that it is generally adulterated with cornstarch, and another says it contains an insoluble substance, probably mineraline. Maple sugar is said to be adulterated very extensively with' yellow sugar from the refineries, though pure maple sugar can be obtained from Vermont and elsewhere.5

Sirup and molasses.-It appears that table sirup and molasses are adulterated with glucose to a considerable extent,ộ but this is especially true of maple sirup, on account of the expensiveness of the genuine article.? One manufacturer, however, states as a result of his experience that the greater part of the maple sugar sold is pure.

It seems that extracts of hickory bark have been used to give the maple flavor to sirup, but it is stated that neither this nor any artificial maple flavor has ever been used successfully.'

Nutritive value of glucose.—The preponderance of testimony is to the effect that glucose is a nutritive and wholesome food; 10 but one witness believes it to be harmful," and another considers its wholesomeness so doubtful that he prefers to avoid it.1

Proposed labeling law.-All the witnesses who discuss the question are in favor of requiring sirup adulterated with glucose to be labeled as to its composition.13


The main constituents of confectionery are sugar, glucose, and flour, all of which are nutritious and appeal to the natural taste of the child for sweets. Sweet materials of vegetable origin are considered beneficial, furnishing heat and adipose tissue. In the higher grades of candy pulps of fruits and nuts are used, adding much to the expense. In acidulated goods, such as lemon drops, citric or tartaric acid is generally used. For flavoring, both vegetable and chemical flavors are used. 14

Injurious materials. It appears that terra alba has been largely used in confectionery, but its use is said by the confectioners themselves to have been discontinued. While it is not poisonous, its use in confectionery or other food is severely condemned by scientists. The use of alcoholic materials in gum drops and other candy is also considereå extremely reprehensible, and its prohibition is recommended. Poisonous coloring matters have also been found, such as aniline dyes contaminated with arsenic. But the Confectioners' Association of the United States, which is said to include almost every reputable confectioner in the country, was organized with the purpose of preventing the use of deleterious substances, and it is believed to have succeeded. It maintains a fund for the prosecution of manufacturers who use terra alba. It investigates cases in which sickness is said to have been caused by eating candy, and usually finds that that was not the true cause.?

1 Wiley, p. 40. 2 Schiller, pp. 430, 431; Havemeyer, pp. 466, 467. 3 Schiller, p. 431; Tucker, p. 436. + Smith, p. 134; Gallagher, p. 4. 5 Wiley, pp. 29, 30; Scully, p. 95. 6 Wiley, pp. 28-30; Jenkins, p. 451; Scully, p. 90. 7 Wiley, p. 29; Berry, pp. 96, 97; Scully, pp. 90-93. 8 Berry, p. 97. 'Wiley, p. 29; Scully, p. 93. 10 Wiley, p. 21; Prescott, p. 197; Mallet, p. 556; Scully, p. 94. 11 Piffard, p. 192. 12 Hallberg, pp. 82, 83. 13 Berry, pp. 98, 101; Wiley, p. 30; Mitchell, p. 119; Chittenden, p. 423. 14 Wiley, pp. 30, 31; Gunther, pp. 305, 307; Berry, p. 308.

National regulation proposed.—The confectioners themselves are foremost among those who desire national legislation to regulate the manufacture of candy, and to suppress the numerous small and ill-conducted concerns, such as those operated in basements and cellars by ignorant persons.3


Adulteration of extracted honey.—There is considerable testimony tending to show that honey is adulterated very extensively. Dr. Wiley thinks it a safe estimate to say that half the strained honey on the market in the United States is adulterated. The principal adulterant used is glucose, though it is said that cane sugar is also used, both by direct addition to the extracted honey and by feeding it to the bees. Attempts have been made to feed glucose to the bees in a similar manner, but they have not been successful. It is remarked by two witnesses that a piece of comb in strained honey is a badge of fraud, genuine honey not being sold in that way. The adulteration of honey is said to be carried on by the wholesale dealers, not by the bee keepers themselves.

Proposed legislation.-The only legislation asked for in the case of honey is for the purpose of preventing fraud, for the benefit of the bee keepers as well as of the public; and the measure proposed is the requirement of an honest label."


Old-fashioned pure fruit jelly seems to have gone out of fashion, as far as the commercial product is concerned, except in the case of some of the high-priced goods. Commercial jelly is made sometimes of gelatin, and sometimes the foundation is glucose, to which is added a certain amount of apple juice from skins and cores obtained from dried-apple factories. In either case the so-called jelly is artificially flavored and colored. An acid preparation is also used in the glucose jelly to make it “jell.” It seems probable that hydrochloric acid in very small proportions is generally used for this purpose, and this is not considered injurious in the quantities in which it is used; but it is charged that sulphuric acid is also used in some cases.' Acetic acid is thought to be used for flavoring in such small quantities as to be uninjurious.10

1 Wiley, pp. 31, 32; Vaughan, p. 203; Billings, p. 249; Gunther, p. 307; Faulkner, 303.
2 Gunther, pp. 304, 305; Berry, p. 309; Shields, p. 309. See also Coloring materials, p. 15.
3 Gunther, p. 306; Shields, pp. 309-311,
4 Wiley, pp. 14, 15, 213, 214, 586; York, pp. 209, 210, 213-215; Eaton, pp. 235, 236.

Wiley, pp. 213, 214; Moore, p. 217. See also York, pp. 213, 214.
6 York, pp. 209, 210, 215, 216; Stowe, pp. 216, 217:
7 Moore, p. 220; York, pp. 210, 215; Eaton, p. 23..

8 Wiley, pp. 22, 23, 584; Jenkins, p. 451; Prescott, p. 198; Stewart, p. 79; Vaughan, p. 204; Berry, pp. 98, 99, 101.

9 Berry, pp. 93, 100; Vaughan, p. 204; Mitchell, pp. 132, 133, 10 Chittenden, pp. 424, 425.


Spices.-It appears from the testimony that nearly all spices are adulterated by being mixed with some inert and harmless substance called a filler, consisting sometimes of ground peanut and cocoanut shells, sometimes of colored flour, and sometimes of middlings or bran. One manufacturer, however, claims to make nothing but strietly pure spices, and another says only the goods he makes to order for dealers wanting goods at a low price are adulterated. One case is mentioned in which ginger was adulterated with old tarred rope to give it a stringiness similar to that of real ginger.? In cloves, clove stems are used. These stems are said to have a slight flavor of cloves.3

Horse-radish is adulterated to a considerable extent with Indian turnips, which would be very unhealthful in large quantities.*

Mustard.—The principal adulterant for mustard is flour colored with turmeric; but plaster of paris has also been used.5

Pepper.-It is stated that ground pepper can seldom be obtained in a pure state. Among the adulterants used in it are mentioned cracker meal, ground corn and other refuse, a preparation of acids and charcoal, and for cayenne pepper, an acid preparation colored with an aniline dye. The adulterants are mixed in with the real pepper in the process of grinding.

Salt.-Salt is sometimes mixed with a small amount of cornstarch to act as a lubricant and to make the salt run more freely from the cruet. This addition is sometimes stated on the label, but not always.?

Vinegar.-It seems that most of the vinegar sold in this country is what is known as low-wine vinegar, made by oxidizing the low wines of the distillery by allowing them to trickle over beech shavings and thus converting them into acetic acid, which is then artificially colored and perhaps a little of some solid substance added. This product is cheaper than either cider vinegar or malt vinegar. It is not claimed that any of these vinegars are injuriously adulterated, but only that they should be sold under their proper names. 8

Alum in pickles.-Alum is used as a mordant in fixing the color of pickles, at least for the export trade.'

Tomato ketchup is said to be made from the cores and skins of tomatoes, dyed with a coal-tar dye, and preserved with salicylic or benzoic acid. The great majority of tomato ketchups contain some antiseptic, usually salicylic acid.10

Table oil.--About half the brands of olive oil examined by the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station were found to contain mixtures of cotton-seed oil and oil of sesame. It is said that practically all of the 6,000,000 gallons of cotton-seed oil produced in this country is sold either as “table oil,” “ salad oil,” or "olive oil.” Hundreds of barrels of cotton-seed oil sent to France and Italy are said to return to this country as olive oil, or mixed with olive oil. On the other hand, Italian witnesses testify that the adulteration of olive oil in Italy has been rendered difficult by a high duty on the cotton-seed oil, and that most of the adulteration takes place in the United States. Peanut oil is also said to be mixed with most of the olive oil exported from France. These practices are not criticised on the ground of healthfulness, but only on the ground of fraud."

1 Wiley, pp. 17–19; Delafontaine, p. 229; Stewart, p. 78; Murray, pp. 66, 272. 2 Mitchell, p. 119. 3 Murray, p. 69; Hallberg, p. 80. 4 Cliff, 156, 157. 6 Wiley, p. 17; Murray, p. 69; Duff, p. 497; Jenkins, p. 452. 6 Duff, p. 497; Jenkins, p. 452; Hallberg, p. 84; Wiley, p. 18. 7 Piffard, pp. 188, 190. 8 Wiley, pp. 24, 25, 234; Frear, pp. 528, 529; Enton, 233, 234. 9 Prescott, p. 199; Cliff, pp. 155, 156. 10 Jenkins, pp. 452, 453; Wiley, p. 44. 11 Wiley, p. 16; Rossati, pp. 446,447; Zucca, pp. 485, 486; Furbay, p. 61.


Tea not commonly adulterated.-It is refreshing and rather surprising to read that tea is not commonly adulterated. The duty of 10 cents a pound on tea is said to have had the effect of shutting out the lowest grades.? The chemist of the New York Produce Exchange, however, speaks of finding one very poor sample of tea, almost entirely lacking in theine and largely composed of stems; it had the appearance of having been once used and then dried. It also contained pods of seeds and some hair, which may have been accidental impurities.3

Facing and coloring of tea.—Tea is said to be increased in weight by the use of mineral substances, which also improve its appearance, and it is said that the green color is often secured artificially; even the finest teas seem often to be adulterated and colored in this way, and perhaps with injurious effects.

Legal standard proposed. It is recommended that a chemical standard be established for tea, and that it be required to come up to that standard.5

Coffee adulterations.-Several witnesses testify that the adulteration of coffee is very extensively carried on, especially in the case of ground coffee. Even unground coffees have been imitated by the manufacture of artificial berries, but these, it seems, are no longer found in the market. Chicory and crushed peas are the principal adulterants mentioned. The use of chicory is not objected to except on the ground of cheapness and fraud, and is even said to improve the flavor of the coffee. Coffee adulterated with chicory is therefore considered a permissible compound if properly labeled. The use of chicory and other adulterants in coffee is denied by two witnesses, their disuse being explained by the cheapness of real coffee in recent years."

Black-jack.”—One of the principal forms of adulteration of coffee is said to be the inclusion of "black-jack,” that being the trade name for overripe or dead beans which have become sour. These black beans are considered deleterious to health, their use being said to create in the consumer a perverted taste. Various other impurities are also said to be included in the poorer grades. 8

Glazing and coloring of coffee.—The imperfections of coffee are covered up by the use of glazing and a mineral color to produce a shiny appearance and uniform coffee brown. The use of glazing is defended by one witness on the ground that it diminishes evaporation during roasting. 10

Proposed legislation.—The establishment of coffee standards which should limit the proportion of damaged berries and other imperfections, or specify the minimum percentage of caffetannic acid, is strongly recommended by two gentlemen." Others propose to prohibit entirely the importation of coffee containing black beans, and to prohibit the use of glazing. 19

One witness believes that a duty on coffee would operate to exclude black-jack and other inferior grades;? but, on the other hand, it is argued that a 5-cent duty did not have this effect when it was in force, and that the proposed 3-cent duty would not be any more effectual.13

1 Jenkins, p 452; Wiley, p. 18.

Stewart, p. 77. 3 Duff, p. 498. *Wiley, p. 43; Duff, p. 499. 5 Hallberg, p. 84. 6 Wiley, pp. 17, 18; Mitchell, pp. 119, 120; Jenkins, pp. 451, 452; Vaughan, p. 205. ? Stewart, p. 75; Jarvie, p. 429. 8 Stewart, pp. 73, 74, 76, 77; Jarvie, pp. 428, 429. Mitchell, p. 121; Stewart, p. 75. 10 Duff, p. 499. 11 Thompson, pp. 48, 49, Hallberg, p. 83. 19 Stewart, pp. 74, 75; Mitchell, p. 121. 13 Thompson, p. 49.

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