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fixed sum for animals of a stated kind. In some cases it is provided that no compensation shall be paid for an animal which was diseased when brought into the State, or which was brought into the State without the certificate of health required by law.
In several cases special provisions are made to prevent the spread of foul brood among bees.
Commercial fertilizers.—A majority of the States, including nearly all of those east of the Mississippi, have statutes governing the sale of commercial fertilizers. The administration of the law is commonly intrusted to the director of the experiment station or to the Commissioner of Agriculture or corresponding official. The actual analysis of samples by means of which the statements of manufacturers are verified is conducted by a chemist, who is usually connected with the experiment station or with the State Department of Agriculture.
Commercial feeding stuffs, etc. --Several States have statute provisions intended to prevent the adulteration of commercial feeding stuffs, and in a few cases there is also a provision prescribing a required strength for paris green, and sometimes of other insecticides.
Beet sugar bounties, etc.-Several States, including Kansas, Montana, New York, and Washington, offer bounties on sugar manufactured from beets grown within the State under certain conditions. In some other States where sugar bounties have been offered for limited periods the bounty is no longer in force. În Michigan the sugarbounty law was declared unconstitutional by the State Supreme Court in 1900 on · the ground that it authorized taxation for a private purpose. The usual amount of the bounty is 1 cent a pound, but in Kansas it is three-fourths of a cent a pound. Minnesota and Wisconsin encourage the sugar-beet industry by providing for the importation and distribution of sugar-beet seed. In some commonwealths-e. g. Arizona, Wisconsin, and Wyoming—the industry is encouraged by exempting beetsugar factories from taxation.
DIGEST OF LAWS BY STATES.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
A Department of Agriculture is established under the management of a Commissioner of Agriculture, who must be a practical and experienced agriculturist. (Civil Code, sec. 368.) The commissioner holds office for two years and receives an annual salary of $2,100; he must give bond in the sum of $5,000. He is required to appoint a chief clerk and an assistant clerk. The chief clerk's duties are prescribed.
Powers and duties.—The law prescribes the duties of the Commissioner of Agriculture under twenty sections, covering the encouragement of profitable development of agriculture, horticulture, and kindred industries, the organization of agricultural associations, etc., reports, investigation of means of eradication of diseases of animals, fruit pests, etc., the subjects of grasses, dairying industry, stock, poultry, and fish, fencing, sub-soil drainage and irrigation, culture of wool and silk, to aid immigration, to make rules and regulations with reference to the sale of fertilizers, etc. (Civil Code 1896, secs. 368–376.)
The commissioner is required to conduct farmers' institutes in different sections of the State and to report upon the same. (Civil Code, 1896, sec. 416.)
DISEASES OF ANIMALS.
The law provides for the destruction of any animal found to be abandoned, and in the judgment of two reputable citizens, found to be infirm, glandered, injured, or diseased past recovery. *(Civil Code, sec. 422.)
The law provides that it is the duty of any person owning a horse, mule, or other animal having glanders or other fatal contagious or infectious disease to keep such animal removed from the public, and isolated from other animals, and further provides a penalty for violation. (Act approved Feb. 28, 1887.)
It is unlawful for any person to allow a dog belonging to him, which has become rabid, to run at large. (Laws of 1895, No. 373.)
The law provides that it is the duty of the Commissioner of Agriculture, when informed of the existence of disease among fruit trees, etc., to cause a sample of such diseased tree to be sent to him or to some of the agricultural experiment stations in the State for examination, and a written report must be furnished to him regarding the same.
The owner of diseased trees is required to destroy them. (Laws of 1897, No. 502.)
The law provides that commercial fertilizers can not be sold without license from the Commissioner of Agriculture. The commissioner is required to issue a license to sell fertilizers on payment of a fee of $1, which license is good during the season.
The law provides that dealers must attach tags procured from the Commissioner of Agriculture to all packages of fertilizers. It is unlawful to include the tag tax in the price of fertilizer sold.
The law provides that a person offering fertilizer for sale must submit to the commissioner a statement showing the brand, number of pounds in each package, name of manufacturer and place of manufacture, and the ingredients he is willing to guarantee.
Each package of fertilizer must have attached a true analysis and its commercial value.
The professor of chemistry of the Agricultural and Mechanical College is made chemist of the Department of Agriculture for the purpose of analyzing fertilizers. (Civil Code, 1896, secs. 378, 379, 386, 387, 390, 391, 392, 393.)
DISEASES OF ANIMALS.
The law provides that a Live Stock Sanitary Board consisting of three members shall be appointed by the Governor, with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council, and requires that each member must give a bond. The term of office is 3 years. The salary of the members is $5 a day for the time employed. The Governor is authorized to appoint a Territorial Veterinary Surgeon, whose term of office shall be 2 years. His salary is fixed at $1,200 per annum and 10 cento a mile for traveling expenses. He is required to give bond.
Persons owning or in charge of domestic animals who have reason to believe such animals are affected with contagious diseases must notify the board or the veterinarian. The duties of the board are to protect the health of domestic animals, and it is authorized to establish and maintain quarantines, etc. The board may require the slaughtering of diseased animals. The slaughtering and disposition of the remains of diseased animals are under the regulations of the Territorial Veterinarian. It is a misdemeanor violate quarantine laws, and it is unlawful to sell or ship diseased animals, or the meat, milk, or hides of such diseased animals.
The law provides that the Governor shall issue a proclamation prohibiting the importation of live stock into the Territory, if disease exists outside of the Territory, unless accompanied by a bill of health.
The law provides that it is the duty of the board to appoint inspectors to protect live stock from theft, and it is required to devise a system of inspection for health, marks, and brands of all stock exported from and all stock slaughtered in the Territory.
It is unlawful to convey cattle within the Territory between the 1st day of February and December which are capable of communicating Texas, splenetic, or Spanish fever. Transportation companies are prohibited from transporting any such cattle into the Territory. Provision is made for the quarantine of cattle having Texas fever, and they can not be received until so ordered by the board.
The law provides for a proper supervision of slaughtering places, covers the sanitary condition of such places, keeping of records, etc. It is unlawful to transport untagged hides.
The law provides for the proper branding of animals. (Laws of 1897, No. 6, consolidating the live-stock laws.)
The law provides that upon petition to the board of supervisors of any county, by 10 or more residents, that the supervisors shall appoint a commission, whose duty it shall be to supervise the destruction of insects injurious to fruits and vines, such as scale insects, codling moth, and other pests, and they shall be known as the board of horticultural commissioners. The powers of said commission are given. If persons own infected orchards, etc., and do not destroy or take means to eradicate the pests, such properties may be deemed a public nuisance and may be proceeded against as such, and if found guilty the court may direct the aforesaid commission to abate the nuisance. The expense thus incurred may be a lien upon the real property of the defendant. The commission has power to quarantine trees or fruits thatare infested, etc.
The commissioners must keep a record of their official doings, and are required to report to the county board of supervisors on or before the 1st of January of each year on the condition of the fruit interests of their several districts. (Laws of 1891, No. 26.)
'The law provides that a foul-brood inspector may be appointed in any county by the board of supervisors, upon a petition signed by not less than 10 persons, residents of said county; the persons so appointed shall serve for a term of 2 years, unless removed by the board of supervisors.
It is the duty of the inspector to examine any apiary suspected of having foul brood, and if the disease is found to exist, he shåll also inspect all other apiaries within 2 miles.
Provision is made for the destruction of colonies of bees so diseased. The owner is allowed to ask for a committee of inspection, composed of honey producers, one to be chosen by the owner, one by the inspector, and the third by these two. They shall examine the disputed cases, and shall then decide whether the said colony or colonies are diseased or not, and their decision shall be final.
The inspector shall make an annual report to the board of supervisors on the 1st day of January of each year, giving in detail the number and location of apiaries inspected and the number of diseased colonies found and destroyed. (Laws of 1899, No. 26.)
The law provides that any association or corporation organized under the laws of the Territory of Arizona which shall build a productive plant for the manufacture of sugar from beets, etc., shall be exempt from taxation of every kind for a period of 10 years after the completion of said plant, subject to certain conditions and restrictions. Any association to avail itself of the provisions of this act must, within 1 year after the passage of the same, file with the chairman of the board of supervisors of each county in which said plant is located a notice in writing that it accepts the conditions of the act, etc.; provided, such association or corporation shall not be allowed more than 10 acres of land to be exempt from taxation.
All plants built under the provision of this act and claiming exemptions herein provided for shall be completed and in operation at the point as located within 5 years from the date of filing the notice provided for in this act. (Laws of 1891, no 73.)
BUREAU OF MINES, MANUFACTURES, AND AGRICULTURE.
The law provides for the establishment of a department to be known as the "Arkansas Bureau of Mines, Manufactures, and Agriculture,'' under the direction of a commissioner. The commissioner is elected by the people, holds office for 2 years, and receives an annual salary of $1,800. He is required to give bond in the sum of $10,000. The duties of the commissioner are very fully given. (Sandels & Hill's Digest, secs. 5063–5072, chap. 109.)
LOCAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES.
Agricultural fair associations are authorized to be incorporated and the shares of stock may be of the par value of $2 each. (Sandels & Hill's Digest, sec. 1422.)
DISEASES OF ANIMALS.
Cattle must not be driven across quarantine lines established by the United States authorities. (Laws of Apr. 19, 1895.)
The law prohibits the importation of any diseased horse, mule, jack, or jennet affected by any contagious or infectious disease, and also the driving on a highway or selling of any such animals.
The law prohibits any person bringing into the State Western horses, mules, or jacks that have not been kept at least twelve months north of the north boundary of Missouri, or twelve months east of the west boundary line of Iowa; provided nothing shall prevent transportation through the State, or driving across the State, between April 1 and July 10; but this does not apply to settlers bringing their horses with them.
The Commissioner of Mines, Manufactures, and Agriculture is authorized to extend or limit the operation of this act under certain conditions. (Laws of Feb. 5, 1897.)
The law provides for the establishment of a district cattle quarantine line and defines the boundaries.
It is unlawful to transport cattle across the boundary line except from December 15 to March 1. Cattle in cars are exempted. Penalties are prescribed for violation. (Laws of 1899, No. 45.)
The law provides that before any fertilizer shall be offered for sale, having a value of $10 per ton, samples shall be submitted to the State chemist, giving the name of brand and place and name of manufacture, and State chemist shall grant a certificate setting forth the analysis. Every package shall have attached to it a guaranteed analysis, which must substantially correspond to the certificate. The chemist shall charge $15 for analyzing each brand, but any purchaser may have samples analyzed free of charge.
It is unlawful for a manufacturer to misrepresent the constituents of fertilizers, and he shall be liable to indictment for misrepresentation. (Laws of 1895, No. 82.)
STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE.
By an act approved April 15, 1880, the State Agricultural Society is declared a State institution, its affairs as such being placed under the exclusive control and management of a body of 12 men, to be appointed by the Governor, and known as the State Board of Agriculture. The term of office for inembers of this board is 4
years, 3 members retiring at the end of each fiscal year (February 1) unless reappointed. Any vacancy occurring before the expiration of a term is filled by the Governor, the appointment being made for the remainde: of such term.
Once a year the members of the board elect one of their own number to serve as their president and as president of the State Agricultural Society. They also select a secretary and treasurer, not of their number, who serve at the discretion of the board, which body defines their duties and fixes their compensation, and the bonds to be required of them. The secretary is required to report to the Governor any vacancy occurring in the membership of the board.
The board was empowered to make such changes in the constitution and rules of the State Agricultural Society as were necessary to bring them into conformity with the provisions of the act, and adapt them to the requirement that the affairs of the said society, including its meetings and exhibitions, be managed by the said board. The board provides for an annual fair or exhibition by the society of the industries and industrial products of the State, but the State assumes no liability for any premium awarded or debt created by said board in connection with such exhibition.
The marshals and police necessary to the preservation of peace and order at the annual fairs of the society are appointed by the board and are invested with the legal authority of executive officers of the peace.
The board is required to use all available means to collect and disseminate all kinds of useful information calculated to educate and benefit the industrial classes, develop the resources, and advance the material interests of the State. It must report annually to the Governor, giving a full and detailed account of its transactions, with the statistics and information gained, and a full statement of all funds received and disbursed. (Codes and Statutes, 1885, vol. 4, p. 416.)
Appropriations have been made for the State Agricultural Society and the district societies under certain conditions. (Acts of Apr. 1. 1897; Mar. 17, 1899; Mar. 21, 1901.)
LOCAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES.
The law provides that the State shall be divided into 45 agricultural districts. Fifty or more persons representing the majority of the counties in a district may form ain agricultural association and become incorporated, with power to acquire real estate by purchase or lease for the purpose of agricultural exhibitions and fairs, and to convey any real estate which may not be necessary for their purposes. The officers of the association shall consist of eight directors. The secretary and treasurer shall not be members of the board. The Governor shall appoint eight resident citizens as the district board, if notice of the formation of such society is given, and they shall hold office so that two shall retire at the end of each two years. Each association thus tormed is declared a State institution, and their powers are prescribed. The duties of the secretary are given. They are authorized to accept State appropriations in aid of fairs. (Act of Mar. 31, 1897. as amended by act of Mar. 15, 1901.)
DISEASES OF ANIMALS.
It is unlawful for any person to sell or offer for sale, or bring within the State, any domestic animals knowing the same to be affected with any contagious or infectious disease, and every animal having glanders or farcy shall at once be killed by the owner or person having charge thereof. (Laws of 1891, chap. 402.)
An animal affected with contagious or infectious disease must not be driven on the highway or permitted to run with healthy animals. (Laws of 1893, chap. 219.)
It is the duty of the State Veterinarian to protect the health of all domestic animals from all contagious and infectious diseases, and he may make quarantine and sanitary regulations and issue certificates of inspection. Contagious and infectious diseases shall be reported to the State Dairy Bureau and the board of supervisors, who shall prevent the spread of discases. Disinfection shall be done in accordance with the rules of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry. (Laws of 1899, chap. 96.)