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absolutely the importation of the American leaf. One firm-Johannes Wimmerdeals with the American dealers for the Companhia Real. At present they have arranged with Nashville exporters for their leaf. Companhia Real buys through Johannes Wimmer.

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3. ITALY. Tobacco is a government monopoly in Italy, and is controlled directly by the government, not let to a company.

For a full account of the system prevailing in this country, see Consular Report for March, 1881, No. 5, entitled Tobacco Industries of Italy.

The system of laws relating to this monopoly is very elaborate and complete, and under its operation there is no more opportunity for free individual action or competition than in France or Turkey.

Tobacco imported from the United States.

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This, too, is one of the continental countries in which tobacco is a government monopoly. Detailed information relating to its system is difficult to obtain, but in substance the same system prevails as in Italy, so that practically Spain is a closed market to dealers in tobacco who do not derive their powers directly from the government monopoly. Spain imports a great deal of tobacco from this country, but under her system of buying, which will be given in detail later on, she practically fixes the price she pays for the leaf.

Tobacco imported from the United States.

Quantity.

Value.

Cigars. Cigarettes Plug.

Unmanufactured.
Manufactured

Pounds.
6,897, 083 218,997

5. AUSTRIA. A complete government monopoly exists here. It regulates the raising, sale, manufacture, and importation of tobacco. It exercises a supervision over growing tobacco, and establishes the depots and shops for the sale of tobacco. This government monopoly is administered through the Austrian tobacco régie.

6. TURKEY Under contract of 1884 with the régie company, Interessee des Tabacs de l'Empire Ottoman, the régie has the exclusive right to purchase, manufacture, and sell the tobacco grown in the empire. The chief office of this company is at Constantinople. Its capital is £4,000,000. Net profits are divided into three parts-one goes to the public debt, one goes to the government, and one to the régie.

The régie is empowered to collect all duties on imported cigars, chewing tobacco, and snuff; to grant licenses for the sale of tobacco and collect the dues upon them; and to collect the duties upon exports of tobacco. All smoking tobacco destined for consumption must come from the factories of the régie. The contract is for thirty years, with a provision for renewal, upon terms to be mutually agreed upon. From the date of issue of the firman establishing the régie, the Government refrains from issuing permits for mannfacturing to private persons. The sale at retail of every form tobacco is to be made exclusively in shops licensed ad hoc by the régie.

The importation of cigarettes, leaf, and cut tobacco is prohibited. Cigars, snuff, and chewing tobacco may be imported under existing regulations, upon the payment of the customs dues. Cigars and chewing tobacco pay 75 per cent duty, and snuff 100 per cent.

Turkey imports no tobacco in any form from the United States.

7. ROUMANIA.

A state monopoly of the sale of tobacco exists in this country. It prohibits the entry of all tobaccos except when purchased by the régie. Parties wishing to bring small quantities of special brands of tobacco into the kingdom must get permission of the general direction of the state monopolies. Use of tobacco is universal in form of cigarettes. The amount of tobacco imported for cigars is very small.

In 1898 12,500 kilograms of American tobacco was imported. The American tobaccos are bought by the régie in Hamburg and Bremen. No tobacco is imported directly from the United States. The bulk of the tobacco manufactured here is raised in Roumania, but a good deal is brought from Turkey and Greece.

The net revenue to the State from the monopoly is $3,400,000.

THE ASIATIC COUNTRIES.

1. CHINA. This country places no restrictions upon American tobacco, under what are known as régie contracts or otherwise. "Under the general tariff for the trade of China, foreign tobacco, excluding Japanese prepared tobacco, is imported free of duty. Japanese tobacco imported by Japanese officials or merchants for private use, up to forty catties, is admitted free.

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This country places no restrictions upon American tobacco that do not apply to the tobacco of other countries. America enjoys the most-favored-nation treatment in respect to her goods. Imported merchandise pays a duty of five per cent ad valorem. In the form of cigars, cigarettes, and pipe tobacco the American product reaches Persia through England in increasing quantities. No tobacco is inported directly from the United States.

3. KOREA.

No restrictions are placed upon the sale of foreign tobacco in Korea, but tobacco pays a higher import duty than other articles. No tobacco is imported directly from the United States.

4. JAPAN This country has recently made tobacco a monopoly, but the details of its system have not been available. At the instance of the United States some modifications of the original plau and extent of the monopoly have been agreed upon.

IC-VOL XI-45

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In addition to the foregoing exportations the United States makes the following shipments to the colonies of Great Britain, all of which are open markets, to wit:

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Following will be found the tariff rates of the countries heretofore referred to, so far as the same relate to tobacco, whether manufactured or unmanufactured.

AMERICAN COUNTRIES.

1. MEXICO.

Unit.

Dollars.a

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Tobacco not manufactured, with the exception of Virginian to

bacco. Virginian tobacco, not manufactured..

The following duties are in addition to the stamp duties,

which are 7 per cent: Tobacco in cakes for chewing, sifted tobacco, and cut tobacco for

cigarettes, cut tobacco for smoking in pipes, in packets. Tobacco in powder, or snuff, in packets. Nasks, or bottles.. Cigarettes in packets closed at both ends:

For the first 25 grams legal weight.
For every 25 grams, or fraction thereof in excess in each

packet.

Cigarettes of tobacco....
Cigars, per 25 cigars coutained in a box..

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a The Mexican dollar was worth, January 1, 1899, 17,7 cents.

2. COSTA RICA.

This country having made tobacco a government monopoly, there are no import auties upon the same.

3. SALVADOR.

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4. COLOMBIA.

Pesos. Cigars.

kilogram.- 4.00 Cigarettes

do.... 3.00 Tobacco, cut, and other tobacco of all kinds..

...do... 2.00 In addition to the duties proper, there is levied on imported merchandise an additional charge, which amounted, at the time of the last available report, May 4, 1899, to 50 per cent of the regular duties. The peso was worth 43.9 cents January 1, 1899.

5. ECUADOR. Tobacco:

Sucres. Leaf

kilogram.. 1 Manufactured

do.... 2 In addition to the foregoing the customs authorities shall, on the import duties leviable, collect surtaxes to the amount of 66 per cent. The sucre was worth 43.9 cents January 1, 1899.

6. PERU.

(Law of January 19, 1899. ]

The import duties applicable to tobacco of all kinds, cigars, and cigarettes imported from abroad into the territory of the republic, shall be specific. They shall be collected in all custom-houses conformably to the following tariff (the sol being worth 43.9 cents January 1, 1899): Tobacco of

Sols. Contiguous regions, in the leaf, raw, in packets, and carrots, kilogram, net...

0.25 Any other origin, in the leaf, raw, in packets, and carrots, kilo, net. 0.50 Whatever origin, including contiguous regions, tobacco manufactured in any other way than cigars or cigarettes

_kilo, net.. 1.00 CigarsItalian

..do

4.00 Any other origin.

do

7.00 Cigarettes of whatever origin, in boxes or packets, not containing more than 24 cigarettes

- per thousand packets.- 75 00 Art. 2. In future a duty shall be collected throughout the republic and in every place of consumption on all kinds of tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes, according to the following table: 1. Tobacco of national production, in the leaf, raw, in packets, and in carrots, or in any other form..

kilo, net. 2.00 2. Tobacco of Mexico and Central America

do.. 2.20 3. Tobacco of contiguous regions, in packets, carrots, in the leaf, or raw, kilo, net

2.10 4. Tobacco, foreign, of any other origin, in the leaf, raw, in packets, or carrots

kilo, net. 3. 20 5. Tobacco, foreign, chewing or snuff

do. 2.00 6. Tobacco, foreign, cut or chopped, in packets, cigarettes, etc. do. 3.00 7. Cigars of whatever foreign origin, in boxes or bulk .

.do.. 2.50

Sols. 7. BRAZIL

Tobacco is not mentioned by name in the Brazilian import tariff and there is no head to which it can be referred, unless it can be considered as coming under the head of food products. There is a general provision under that head that all food products not enumerated shall pay an import tax of 1,200 reis per kilogram. The reis equals 0.546 mill, a milreis (1,000 reis) being 54.6 cents. The consumption duties are as follows:

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Cigars of Havana tobacco:

In wooden boxes..

Loose in packets or cardboard boxes
Cigars of ordinary tobacco, other than Havana:

In wooden boxes.

In packets or cardboard boxes.
Cigarettes of all kinds.
Tobacco stems
Snuff
Tobacco in the leaf or cut:

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70

Havana.
Other origin, not Paraguayan.
Paraguayan tobacco.

do
do
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22 . 12

a The value of the Argentine peso (gold) is 96.5 cents.

10. HAITI.

Article.

Unit.

Rate of duty.

Cigars.

100.. Cigarettes

Ad valorem Tobacco, all kinds in leaf, powder, chopped, twist, and chewing. Pound

1.25 gourde. 50 per cent. 0.10 gourde.

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