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Opinion of the Court.

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ference of charge in the one case as compared with the other. A much broader view must be taken, and it would be hopeless to attempt to decide a case by any attempted calculation. I should say that the decision must be arrived at broadly and fairly, by looking at all the circumstances of the case, that is, looking at all the circumstances which are proper to be looked at; because, of course, the very question in this case is whether a particular circumstance ought or ought not to be considered; but keeping in view all the circumstances which may legitimately be taken into consideration, then it becomes a mere question of fact.

Now, there is no doubt that in coming to their determination the court below did have regard to competition between the Midland and the Northwestern, and the situation of these two furnaces which rendered such competition inevitable. If the appellants can make out that, in point of law, that is a consideration which cannot be permitted to have any influence at all, that those circumstances must be rigidly excluded from consideration, and that they are not circumstances legitimately to be considered, no doubt they establish that the court below has erred in point of law. But it is necessary for them to go as far as that in order to make any way with this appeal, because once admit that to any extent, for any purpose, the question of competition can be allowed to enter in, whether the court has given too much weight to it or too little, becomes a question of fact and not of law. The point is undoubtedly a very important

one.

“ As I have already observed, the second section of the act of 1854 does not afford to the tribunal any kind of guide as to what is undue or unreasonable. It is left entirely to the judgment of the court on a review of the circumstances. Can we say that the local situation of one trader, as compared with another, which enables him by having two competing routes to enforce upon the carrier by either of these routes a certain amount of compliance with his demands, which would be impossible if he did not enjoy that advantage, is not among the circumstances which may be taken into consideration? I am looking at the question now as between trader and trader.

Opinion of the Court.

It is said that it is unfair to the trader who is nearer the market that he should not enjoy the full benefit of the advantage to be derived from his geographical situation at a point on the railway nearer the market than his fellow-trader who trades at a point more distant; but I cannot see, looking at the matter as between the two traders, why the advantageous position of the one trader in having his works so placed that he has two competitive routes is not as much a circumstance to be taken into consideration as the geographical position of the other trader, who, though he has not the advantage of competition, is situated at a point on the line geographically nearer the market. Why the local situation in regard to its proximity to the market is to be the only consideration to be taken into account in dealing with the matter as a matter of what is reasonable and right as between the two traders, I cannot understand.

“Of course, if you are to exclude this from consideration altogether, the result must inevitably be to deprive the trader who has the two competing routes of a certain amount of the advantages which he derives from that favorable position of his works. All that I have to say is that I cannot find any. thing in the act which indicates that when you are left at large, for you are left at large, as to whether as between two traders the company is showing an undue and unreasonable preference to the one as compared with the other, you are to leave out that circumstance any more than any other circumstance which would affect men's minds.

One class of cases, unquestionably intended to be covered by the section, is that in which traffic from a distance, of a character that competes with the traffic nearer the market, is charged low rates, because unless such low rates were charged, it would not come into the market at all. It is certain, unless some such principle as that were adopted, a large town would necessarily have its food supply greatly raised in price. So that, although the object of the company is simply to get the traffic, the public have an interest in their getting the traffic and allowing the carriage at a rate which will render that traffic possible, and so bring the goods at a cheaper rate, and one which makes it

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Opinion of the Court.

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possible for those at a greater distance to compete with those situate nearer to it.

I cannot but think that a lower rate which is charged from a more distant point by reason of a competing route which exists thence is one of the cases which

may

be taken into account under those provisions, and which would fall within the terms of the enactment.

“Suppose that to insist on absolutely equal rates would practically exclude one of the two railways from the traffic, it is obvious that these members of the public who are in the neighborhood where they can have the benefit of this competition, would be prejudiced by any such proceedings. And further, inasmuch as competition undoubtedly tends to diminution of charges, and the charge of carriage is one which ultimately falls upon the consumer, it is obvious that the public have an interest in the proceedings under this act of Parliament not being so used as to destroy a traffic which can never be secured but by some such reduction of charge, and the destruction of which would be prejudicial to the public by tending to increase prices.”

The learned judge then proceeded to discuss the authorities, and pointed out that the case of Budd v. London & Northwestern Railway Co., and Evershed's case, are no longer law, so far as the second section of the act of 1854 is concerned.

Lindley and Kay, Lord Justices, gave concurring opinions, and the conclusion of the court was that the Commissioners did not err in taking into consideration the fact that there was a competing line together with all the other facts of the case, and in holding that a preference or advantage thence arising was not undue or unreasonable.

The precise question now before us has never been decided in the American cases, but there are several in which somewhat analogous questions have been considered.

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Railroad v. Denver & New Orleans Railroad, 110 U. S. 667, was a case arising under a provision of the constitution of the State of Colorado which declares that all individuals, associations and corporations shall have equal rights to have persons and property transported over any railroad in this State, and no undue or unrea

Opinion of the Court.

sonable discrimination shall be made in charges or facilities for transportation of freight or passengers within the State, and no railroad company shall give any preference to individuals, associations or corporations in furnishing cars or motive power.” This court held that under this constitutional provision a railroad company which had made provisions with a connecting road for the transaction of joint business at an established union junction was not required to make similar provisions with a rival connecting line at another near point on its line, and that the constitutional provision is not violated by refusing to give to a connecting road the same arrangement as to through rates which are given to another connecting line, unless the conditions as to the service are substantially alike in both cases.

The sixth section of the act of Congress of July 1, 1862, relative to the Union Pacific Railroad Company provided that the government shall at all times have the preference in the use of the railroad "at fair and reasonable rates of compensation, not to exceed the amount paid by private parties for the same kind of service.” In the case of Union Pacific Railway v. United States, 117 U. S. 355, it was, in effect, held that the service rendered by a railway company in transporting local passengers from one point on its line to another is not identical with the service rendered in transporting through passengers over the same rails.

A petition was filed before the Interstate Commerce Commission by the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railway Company against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, seeking to compel the latter company to withdraw from its lines of road, upon which business competition with that of the petitioner was transacted, the so called “party rates," and to decline to give such rates in the future — also for an order requiring said company to discontinue the practice of selling excursion tickets at less than the regular rate. The cause was heard before the Commission, which held the so called party rate tickets, in so far as they were sold for lower rates for each member of a party of ten or more than rates contemporaneously charged for the transportation of single

Opinion of the Court.

passengers between the same points, constituted unjust discrimination and were therefore illegal. The defendant company refusing to obey the mandate of the Commission, the latter filed a bill in the Circuit Court of the United States for the Southern District of Ohio, asking that the defendant be enjoined from continuing in its violation of the order of the Commission. The Circuit Court dismissed the bill. Some of the observations made by Jackson, Circuit Judge, may well be cited. 43 Fed. Rep. 37: “Subject to the two leading prohibitions that their charges shall not be unjust or unreasonable, and that they shall not unjustly discriminate, so as to give undue preference or advantage, or subject to undue prejudice or disadvantage persons or traffic similarly circumstanced, the act to regulate commerce leaves common carriers as they were at the common law, free to make special contracts looking to the increase of their business, to classify their traffic, to adjust and apportion their rates so as to meet the necessities of commerce, and generally to manage their important interests upon the same principles which are regarded as sound, and adopted in other trades and pursuits. Conceding the same terms of contract to all persons equally, may not the carrier adopt both wholesale and retail rates for its transportation service?” Again: “The English cases establish the rule that, in passing upon the question of undue or unreasonable preference or disadvantage, it is not only legitimate, but proper, to take into consideration, besides the mere differences in charges, various elements, such as the convenience of the public, the fair interests of the carrier, the relative quantities or volume of the traffic involved, the relative cost of the services and profit to the company, and the situation and circumstances of the respective customers with reference to each other as competitive or otherwise."

The case was brought to this court and the judgment of the Circuit Court dismissing the bill was affirmed. Interstate Commerce Commission v. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 145 U. S. 263. The court, through Mr. Justice Brown, cited with approval passages from the opinion of Judge Jackson in the court below, and among other things said: “It is not all dis

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