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Con esta mira, han nombrado, Su. M. Ca. al Exmo. Sor. Dn. LUIS DE ONIS, Gonzales, Lopez y Vara, Señor de la Villa de Rayaces, Regidor perpetuo del Ayuntamiento de la Ciudad de Salamanca, Caballero Gran Cruz de la real Orden Americana de Isabel la Católica, y de la Decoracion del Lis de la Vendea, Caballero Pensionista de la Real y distinguida Orden Española de Carlos III, Ministro Vocal de la Suprema Asamblea de dicha RI. Orden, de su Consejo, su Secretario con exercicio de Decretos, y su Enviado Extraordinario y Ministro Plenipotenciario cerca de los Estados Unidos de America: Y el Presidente de los Estados Unidos, á D. JUAN QUINCY ADAMS, Secretario de Estado de los mismos Estados Unidos.

Y ambos Plenipotenciarios, despues de haver cangeado sus Poderes, han ajustado y firmado los articulos siguientes:

ART. 1.

Habrá una paz solida e inviolable y una amistad sincera entre S. M. Ca sus sucesores y subditos, y los Estados Unidos y sus ciudadanos, sin excepcion de personas ni lugares.

ART. 2.

S. M. Ca cede á los Estados Unidos, en toda propiedad y soberania, todos los territorios que le pertenecen, situados al Este del Misisipi, conocidos bajo el nombre de Florida Occidental y Florida Oriental. Son comprehendidos en este articulo las yslas adyacentes dependientes de dichas dos provincias, los sitios, plazas publicas, terrenos valdios, edificios publicos, fortificaciones, casernas y otros edificios, que no sean propiedad de algun individuo particular, los archivos y documentos directamente relativos á la propiedad y soberania de las mismas dos provincias. Dichos archivos y documentos se entregarán á los comisarios ú oficiales de los Estados Unidos debidamente autorizados para recibirlos. ART. 3.

La linea divisoria entre los dos paises al occidente del Misisipi, arrancará del Seno Mexicano, en la embodacura del Rio Sabina, en el Mar,

property, remain undisturbed. Had Florida changed its sovereign by an act containing no stipulation respecting the property of individuals, the right of property in all those who became subjects or citizens of the new government, would have been unaffected by the change. It would have remained the same as under the ancient sovereign. United States v. Percheman, 7 Peters, 51.

The language of the second article of the treaty between the United States and Spain, of 22d February 1819, by which Florida was ceded to the United States, conforms to this general principle. Ibid.

The eighth article of the treaty must be intended to stipulate expressly for the security to private property, which the laws and usages of nations would, without express stipulation, have conferred. No construction which would impair that security, further than its positive words require, would seem to be admissible. Without it, the titles of individuals would remain as valid under the new government, as they were under the old. And those titles, so far at least as they were consummated, might be asserted in the courts of the United States, independently of this article. Ibid.

The treaty was drawn up in the Spanish as well as in the English languages. Both are original, and were unquestionably intended by the parties to be identical. The Spanish has been translated; and it is now understood that the article expressed in that language is, that "the grants shall remain ratified and confirmed to the persons in possession of them, to the same extent," &c., thus conforming exactly to the universally received law of nations. Ibid.

If the English and Spanish part can, without violence, be made to agree, that construction which establishes this conformity ought to prevail. Ibid.

No violence is done to the language of the treaty by a construction which conforms the English and Spanish to each other. Although the words "shall be ratified and confirmed," are properly words of contract, stipulating for some future legislation, they are not necessarily so. They may import that "they shall be ratified and confirmed" by force of the instrument itself. When it is observed that in the counterpart of the same treaty, executed at the same time, by the same parties, they are used in this sense, the construction is proper, if not unavoidable. Ibid.

In the case of Foster v. Neilson, 2 Peters, 253, the supreme court considered those words importing a contract. The Spanish part of the treaty was not then brought into view, and it was then supposed there was no variance between them. It was not supposed that there was even a formal difference of expression in the same instrument, drawn up in the language of each party. Had this circumstance been known, it is believed it would have produced the construction which is now given to the article. Ibid.

Boundary line west of the Mississippi.

According to Melish's Map, of 1st Jan. 1818.

The use of the waters of the Sabine, Red river, and Arkansas, com. mon to both nations.

Territorial renunciations, corresponding with the boun. dary line.

A commission

er and surveyor to be appointed by each party, to run the boundary line.

Free exercise

of religion in the ceded territories, &c.

Inhabitants of

the ceded terri

in the sea, continuing north, along the western bank of that river, to the 32d degree of latitude; thence, by a line due north, to the degree of latitude where it strikes the Rio Roxo of Nachitoches, or Red River; then following the course of the Rio Roxo westward, to the degree of longitude 100 west from London and 23 from Washington; then, crossing the said Red River, and running thence, by a line due north, to the river Arkansas; thence, following the course of the southern bank of the Arkansas, to its source, in latitude 42 north; and thence, by that parallel of latitude, to the South Sea. The whole being as laid down in Melish's map of the United States, published at Philadelphia, improved to the first of January, 1818. But, if the source of the Arkansas river shall be found to fall north or south of latitude 42, then the line shall run from the said source due south or north, as the case may be, till it meets the said parallel of latitude 42, and thence, along the said parallel, to the South Sea: All the islands in the Sabine, and the said Red and Arkansas rivers, throughout the course thus described, to belong to the United States; but the use of the waters, and the navigation of the Sabine to the sea, and of the said rivers Roxo and Arkansas, throughout the extent of the said boundary, on their respective banks, shall be common to the respective inhabitants of both nations.

The two high contracting parties agree to cede and renounce all their rights, claims, and pretensions, to the territories described by the said line; that is to say: the United States hereby cede to his Catholic Majesty, and renounce forever, all their rights, claims, and pretensions, to the territories lying west and south of the above-described line; and, in like manner, his Catholic Majesty cedes to the said United States, all his rights, claims, and pretensions, to any territories east and north of the said line; and for himself, his heirs, and successors, renounces all claim to the said territories forever.


To fix this line with more precision, and to place the landmarks which shall designate exactly the limits of both nations, each of the contracting parties shall appoint a Commissioner and a Surveyor, who shall meet before the termination of one year, from the date of the ratification of this treaty, at Nachitoches, on the Red River, and proceed to run and mark the said line, from the mouth of the Sabine to the Red river, and from the Red river to the river Arkansas, and to ascertain the latitude of the source of the said river Arkansas, in conformity to what is above agreed upon and stipulated, and the line of latitude 42, to the South Sea: they shall make out plans, and keep journals of their proceedings, and the result agreed upon by them shall be considered as part of this treaty, and shall have the same force as if it were inserted therein. The two governments will amicably agree respecting the necessary articles to be furnished to those persons, and also as to their respective escorts, should such be deemed necessary.


The inhabitants of the ceded territories shall be secured in the free exercise of their religion, without any restriction; and all those who may desire to remove to the Spanish dominions, shall be permitted to sell or export their effects, at any time whatever, without being subject, in either case, to duties.


The inhabitants of the territories which his Catholic Majesty cedes to the United States, by this Treaty, shall be incorporated in the Union the Union, &c. of the United States, as soon as may be consistent with the principles

tories to be incorporated in

seguirá al Norte por la orilla occidental de este Rio, hasta el grado 32 de latitud; desde, alli por una linea recta al Norte, hasta el grado de latitud en que entra en el Rio Roxo de Natchitochez (Red River,) y continuará por el curso del Rio Roxo al oeste, hasta el grado 100 de longitud occidental de Londres y 23 de Washington; en que, cortará este Rio, y seguirá por una linea recta al Norte, por el mismo grado, hasta el Rio Arkansas, cuya orilla meridional, seguirá hasta su nacimiento en el grado 42 de latitud Septentrional; y desde, dicho punto, se tirará una linea recta por el mismo paralelo de latitud, hasta el Mar del Sur. Todo segun el Mapa de los Estados Unidos de Melish, publicado en Philadelphia, y perfecionado en 1818. Pero si el nacimiento del Rio Arkansas se hallase al Norte ó Sur de dicho grado 42 de latitud, seguirá la linea desde el origen de dicho Rio recta al Sur ó Norte, segun fuese necesario, hasta que encuentre el expresado grado 42 de latitud, y desde, alli por el mismo paralelo, hasta el Mar del Sur. Pertenecerán á los Estados Unidos todas las yslas de los Rios Sabina, Roxo de Natchitochez, y Arkansas, en la extension de todo el curso descrito; pero el uso de las aguas, y la navegacion del Sabina hasta el Mar, y de los expresados Rios Roxo y Arkansas, en toda la extension de sus mencionados limites, en sus respectivas orillas, sera comun á los habitantes de las dos naciones.

Las dos altas partes contratantes convienen en ceder y renunciar todos sus derechos, reclamaciones, y pretensiones, sobre los territorios que se describen en esta linea; á saber, S. M. Ca. renuncia y cede, para siempre, por si, y á nombre de sus herederos y sucesores, todos los derechos que tiene sobre los territorios al Este y al Norte de dicha linea; y los Estados Unidos, en igual forma, ceden á S. M. Ca. y renuncian, parà a siempre, todos sus derechos, reclamaciones, y pretensiones, á qualesquiera territorios situados al Oeste y al Sur de la misma linea arriba descrita.

ART. 4.

Para fixar esta linea con mas precision y establecer los mojones que señalen con exactitud los limites de ambas naciones, nombrará cada una de ellas un comisario y un geómetra, que se juntarán antes del termino de un año, contado desde la fecha de la ratificacion de este Tratado, en Natchitochez, en las orillas del Rio Roxo, y procederán á señalar y demarcar dicha linea, desde la embocadura del Sabina, hasta el Rio Roxo, y de este hasta el Rio Arkansas, y á averiguar, con certidumbre, el origen del expresado Rio Arkansas, y fixar, segun queda estipulado y convenido en este Tratado, la linea que debe seguir, desde el grado 42 de latitud, hasta el Mar Pacifico. Llevaran diarios y levantarán planos de sus operaciones, y el resultado convenido por ellos se tendrá por parte de este Tratado, y tendrá la misma fuerza que si estuviese inserto in el; deviendo convenir amistosamente los dos gobiernos en el arreglo de quanto necesiten estos individuos, y en la escolta respectiva que deban llevar, siempre que se crea necesario.

ART. 5.

A los habitantes de todos los territorios cedidos se les conservará el exercicio libre de su religion, sin restriccion alguna; y á todos los que quisieren trasladarse à los dominios Españoles, se les permitirá la venta ó extraccion de sus efectos en qualquiera tiempo, sin que pueda exigirseles en unó ni otro caso derecho alguno.

ART. 6.

Los habitantes de los territorios que S. M. C cede por este Tratado á los Estados Unidos, seran incorporados en la Union de los mismos Estados, lo mas presto posible, segun los principios de la Constitucion



w 2

Spanish troops to be with

drawn, and possession given within 6 months after exchange

of ratifications.

Grants of land

1818, confirm

fil the condi

of the Federal Constitution, and admitted to the enjoyment of all the privileges, rights, and immunities, of the citizens of the United States. ARTICLE 7.

The officers and troops of his Catholic Majesty, in the territories hereby ceded by him to the United States, shall be withdrawn, and possession of the places occupied by them shall be given within six months after the exchange of the ratifications of this Treaty, or sooner, if possible, by the officers of his Catholic Majesty, to the commissioners or officers of the United States, duly appointed to receive them; and the United States shall furnish the transports and escort necessary to convey the Spanish officers and troops, and their baggage, to the Havana.


All the grants of land made before the 24th of January, 1818, by his before 24th Jan. Catholic Majesty, or by his lawful authorities, in the said territories ceded by his Majesty to the United States, shall be ratified and confirmed ed, &c. to the persons in possession of the lands, to the same extent that the same grants would be valid if the territories had remained under the Owners to ful- dominion of his Catholic Majesty. But the owners in possession of such lands, who, by reason of the recent circumstances of the Spanish nation, and the revolutions in Europe, have been prevented from fulfilling all the conditions of their grants, shall complete them within the terms limited in the same, respectively, from the date of this treaty; in default of which, the said grants shall be null and void. All grants made since the said 24th of January, 1818, when the first proposal, on 24th Jan. 1818, the part of his Catholic Majesty, for the cession of the Floridas, was made, are hereby declared, and agreed to be, null and void.


Grants since

null and void.

Reciprocal renunciation of claims.

Claims renounced by the United States.

Claims renounced by



The two high contracting parties, animated with the most earnest desire of conciliation, and with the object of putting an end to all the differences which have existed between them, and of confirming the good understanding which they wish to be forever maintained betwee them, reciprocally renounce all claims for damages or injuries which they, themselves, as well as their respective citizens and subjects, may have suffered until the time of signing this Treaty.

The renunciation of the United States will extend to all the injuries mentioned in the Convention of the 11th of August, 1802.

2. To all claims on account of prizes made by French privateers, and condemned by French consuls, within the territory and jurisdiction of Spain.

3. To all claims of indemnities on account of the suspension of the right of deposit at New-Orleans, in 1802.

4. To all claims of citizens of the United States upon the government of Spain, arising from the unlawful seizures at sea, and in the ports and territories of Spain, or the Spanish colonies.

5. To all claims of citizens of the United States upon the Spanish government, statements of which, soliciting the interposition of the government of the United States, have been presented to the Department of State, or to the Minister of the United States in Spain, since the date of the Convention of 1802, and until the signature of this Treaty.

The renunciation of his Catholic Majesty extends:

1. To all the injuries mentioned in the Convention of the 11th of August, 1802.

2. To the sums which his Catholic Majesty advanced for the return of Captain Pike from the Provincias Internas.

Federal, y admitidos al goce de todos los privilegios, derechos, é inmunidades, de que disfrutan los ciudadanos de los demas Estados.

ART. 7.

Los oficiales y tropas de S. M. Ca evacuarán los territorios cedidos á los Estados Unidos seis meses despues del cange de la ratificacion de este Tratado, ó antes si fuese posible, y darán posesion de ellos à los oficiales ó comisarios de los Estados Unidos debidamente autorizados para recibirlos: Y los Estados Unidos proveerán los transportes y escolta necesarios para llevar á la Habana los oficiales y tropas Españoles, y sus equipages.

ART. 8.

Todas las concesiones de terrenos hechas por S. M. Ca. ó por sus legitimas autoridades antes del 24 de Enero, de 1818, en los expresados territorios que S. M. cede á los Estados Unidos, quedarán ratificadas y reconocidas á las personas que esten en posesion de ellas, del mismo modo que lo serian si S. M. hubiese continuado en el dominio de estos territorios; pero los proprietarios que por un efecto de las circumstancias en que se ha hallado la Nacion Española y por las revoluciones de Europa, no hubiesen podido llenar todas las obligaciones de las concesiones, seran obligados á cumplirlas segun las condiciones de sus respectivas concesiones, desde la fecha de este Tratado, en defecto de lo qual seran nulas y de ningun valor. Todas las concesiones posteriores al 24 de Enero de 1818, en que fueron hechas las primeras proposiciones de parte de S. M. Ca para la cesion de las dos Floridas, convienen y declaran las dos altas partes contratantes que quedan anuladas y de ningun valor.

ART. 9.

Las dos altas partes contratantes, animadas de los mas vivos deseos de conciliacion, y con el objeto de cortar de raiz todas las discusiones que han existido entre ellas y afianzar la buena armonia que desean mantener perpetuamente, renuncian, una y otra, reciprocamente, á todas las reclamaciones de daños y perjuicios que asi ellas como sus respectivos subditos y ciudadanos hayan experimentado hasta el dia en que se firme este Tratado.

La renuncia de los Estados Unidos se extiende á todos los perjuicios mencionados en el Convenio de 11 de Agosto, de 1802.

2. A todas las reclamaciones de presas hechas por los Corsarios Franceses, y condenadas por los Consules Franceses dentro del territorio y jurisdiccion de España.

3. A todas las reclamaciones de indemnizaciones por la suspension del derecho de deposito en Nueva Orleans en 1802.

4. A todas las reclamaciones de los ciudadanos de los Estados Unidos contra el gobierno Español, procedentes de presas y confiscaciones injustas asi en la mar como en los puertos y territorios de S. M. en España y sus colonias.

5. A todas las reclamaciones de los ciudadanos de los Estados Unidos contra el gobierno de España, en que se haya reclamado la interposicion del gobierno de los Estados Unidos antes de la fecha de este Tratado, y desde la fecha del Convenio de 1802, ó presentadas al Departamento de Estado de esta Republica, ó Ministro de los Estados Unidos en España.

La renuncia de S. M. Ca. se extiende:

1. A todos los perjuicios mencionados en el Convenio de 11 de Agosto, de 1802.

2. A las cantidades que suplió, para la vuelta del Capitan Pike, de as Provincias Internas.

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