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may be at war, be detained from its lawful owners after the exhibition of sufficient proofs of American citizenship and American property, by the Consul of the United States residing at Algiers.

Art. 7. Proper passports shall immediately be given to the vessels Passports to of both the contracting parties, on condition that the vessels of war belong- vessels of each, ing to the Regency of Algiers, on meeting with merchant vessels be party, and right longing to the citizens of the United States of America, shall not be stricted. permitted to visit them with more than two persons besides the rowers; these only shall be permitted to go on board without first obtaining leave from the commander of said vessel, who shall compare the passports, and immediately permit said vessel to proceed on her voyage; and should any of the subjects of Algiers insult or molest the commander, Offenders to be or any other person on board a vessel so visited, or plunder any of the punished for property contained in her, on complaint being made to the Consul of right of visit. the United States residing in Algiers, and on his producing sufficient proofs to substantiate the fact, the commander or rais of said Algerine ship or vessel of war, as well as the offenders, shall be punished in the most exemplary manner.

All vessels of war belonging to the United States of America, on meet- Vessels of war ing a cruiser belonging to the Regency of Algiers, on having seen her of U. S. to suf

fer Algerine passports and certificates from the Consul of the United States residing cruisers to pass, in Algiers, shall permit her to proceed on her cruise unmolested, and &c. without detention. No passport shall be granted by either party to any vessels, but such as are absolutely the property of citizens or subjects of the said contracting parties, on any pretence whatever.

Art. 8. A citizen or subject of either of the contracting parties What shall be having bought a prize vessel condemned by the other party, or by any sufficient passother nation, the certificates of condemnation and bill of sale shall be à port. sufficient passport for such vessel for six months; which, considering the distance between the two countries, is no more than a reasonable time for her to procure passports.

Art. 9. Vessels of either of the contracting parties putting into the Provisions to ports of the other, and having need of provisions or other supplies, shall be furnished to be furnished at the market price; and if any such vessel should so put in vessels at mar.

ket price. from a disaster at sea, and have occasion to repair, she shall be at liberty to land and re-embark her cargo, without paying any customs or duties whatever; but in no case shall be compelled to land her cargo.

Art. 10. Should a vessel of either of the contracting parties be cast Assistance to on shore within the territories of the other, all proper assistance shall be given to the be given to her and her crew; no pillage shall be allowed; the property crew, and pro

tection to the shall remain at the disposal of the owners; and, if reshipped on board of

property of veg. any vessel for exportation, no customs or duties whatever shall be required sels cast ashore. to be paid thereon, and the crew shall be protected and succored until they can be sent to their own country.

Art. 11. If a vessel of either of the contracting parties shall be at- How vessels tacked by an enemy within cannon-shot of the forts of the other, she may be protecte

ed. shall be protected as much as is possible. If she be in port, she shall not be seized or attacked, when it is in the power of the other party to protect her; and when she proceeds to sea, no enemy shall be permitted to pursue her from the same port within twenty-four hours after her departure.

Art. 12. The commerce between the United States of America and Commerce, the Regency of Algiers, the protections to be given to merchants, &c.on the foot. masters of vessels, and seamen, the reciprocal rights of establishing ingoofd hea ponse

favored nations Consuls in each country, the privileges, immunities, and jurisdictions,


to be enjoyed by such Consuls, are declared to be on the same footing,

in every respect, with the most favored nations, respectively. Consul of U.S. Art. 13. The Consul of the United States of America shall not be not responsible responsible for the debts contracted by the citizens of his own country, for debts of citizens, &c

unless he gives previously written obligations so to do. Salutes to ves. Art. 14. On a vessel or vessels of war belonging to the United States sels of war of anchoring before the city of Algiers, the Consul is to inform the Dey U.S.

of her arrival, when she shall receive the salutes which are, by treaty or custom, given to the ships of war of the most favored nations on similar occasions, and which shall be returned gun for gun; and if, after such arrival, so announced, any Christians whatever, captives in Algiers, make their escape and take refuge on board any of the said ships of war, they shall not be required back again, nor shall the Consul of the United States or commander of the said ship be required to pay any

thing for the said Christians. Pretexts aris- Art. 15. As the government of the United States has, in itself, no ing from reli. character of enmity against the laws, religion, or tranquillity, of any gious opinions, not to interrupt

nation, and as the said States have never entered into any voluntary harmony, &c. war, or act of hostility, except in defence of their just rights on the

high seas, it is declared, by the contracting parties, that no pretext arising from religious opinions shall ever produce an interruption of the harmony between the two nations; and the Consuls and Agents of both nations shall have liberty to celebrate the rites of their respective religions

in their own houses. Consuls may The Consuls, respectively, shall have liberty and personal security travel within

given them to travel within the territories of each other by land and the territories of each party,

sea, and shall not be prevented from going on board any vessel they &c.

may think proper to visit; they shall likewise have the liberty to ap

point their own drogoman and broker. How disputes

Art. 16. In case of any dispute arising from the violation of any of may be seitled, the articles of this treaty, no appeal shall be made to arms, nor shall &c.

war be declared on any pretext whatever; but if the Consul residing at the place where the dispute shall happen, shall not be able to settle the same, the government of that country shall state their grievance in writing, and transmit the same to the government of the other, and the period of three months shall be allowed for answers to be returned, during which time no act of hostility shall be permitted by either party; and in case the grievances are not redressed, and a war should be the event, the Consuls, and citizens, and subjects, of both parties, respectively, shall be permitted to embark with their effects unmolested, on board of what vessel or vessels they shall think proper, reasonable time being

allowed for that purpose. Prisoners of Art. 17. If, in the course of events, a war should break out between war not to be

the two nations, the prisoners captured by either party shall not be made slaves; but to be ex.

made slaves; they shall not be forced to hard labor, or other confinechanged, &c. ment than such as may be necessary to secure their safe keeping, and within 12

shall be exchanged rank for rank; and it is agreed that prisoners shall months.

be exchanged in twelve months after their capture; and the exchange may be effected by any private individual legally authorized by either

of the parties. Powers at war Art. 18. If any of the Barbary Powers, or other States at war with with U. S. not the United States, shall capture any American vessel and send her into to be suffered to sell American

any port of the Regency of Algiers, they shall not be permitted to sell captured ves.

her, but shall be forced to depart the port on procuring the requisite bels at Algiers. supplies of provisions; but the vessels of war of the United States, with

any prizes they may capture froin their enemies, shall have liberty to frequent the ports of Algiers for refreshinent of any kind, and to sell

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such prizes in the said ports, without paying any other customs or duties than such as are customary on ordinary commercial importations.

Art. 19. If any of the citizens of the United States, or any persons Consul of U.S. under their protection, shall have any disputes with each other, the to decide disConsul shall decide between the parties; and whenever the Consul'shall putes between

American citi. require any aid or assistance from the government of Algiers to enforce zens, &c. his decision, it shall be immediately granted to him; and if any disputes shall arise between any citizens of the United States and the citizens or subjects of any other nations having a Consul or Agent in Algiers, such disputes shall be settled by the Consuls or Agents of the respective nations; and any disputes or suits of law that may take place between any citizens of the United States and the subjects of the Regency of Algiers, shall be decided by the Dey in person, and no other.

Art. 20. If a citizen of the United States should kill, wound, or In case of kill. strike, a subject of Algiers, or, on the contrary, a subject of Algiers ing, wounding,

or striking, the should kill, wound, or strike, a citizen of the United States, the law law of the of the country shall take place, and equal justice shall be rendered, the country to preConsul assisting at the trial; but the sentence of punishment against an vail, &c. American citizen shall not be greater or more severe than it would be against a Turk in the same predicament; and if any delinquent should make his escape, the Consul shall not be responsible for him in any manner whatever.

Consul of U.S. Art. 21. The Consul of the United States of America shall not be ties on what he

not to pay du: required to pay any customs or duties whatever on any thing he imports imports for his from a foreign country for the use of his house and family.

house and

family. Art. 22. Should any of the citizens of the United States of America Citizens of die, within the Regency of Algiers, the Dey and his subjects shall not U. S. dying interfere with the property of the deceased, but it shall be under the im within the Remediate direction of the Consul, unless otherwise disposed of by will. giers, their pro. Should there be no Consul, the effects shall be deposited in the hands perty to be un.

der the direc. of some person worthy of trust, until the party shall appear who has tion of the con. a right to demand them, when they shall render an account of the pro- sul, unless, &c. perty; neither shall the Dey or his subjects give hindrance in the execution of any will that may appear.

gency of Al.

ARTICLE ADDITIONAL AND EXPLANATORY. The United States of America, in order to give to the Dey of Algiers Part of the a proof of their desire to maintain the relations of peace and amity 13th Article of

the foregoing between the two powers upon a footing the most liberal, and in order

Treaty anto withdraw any obstacle which might embarrass him in his relations nulled. with other states, agree to annul so much of the eighteenth Article of the foregoing Treaty, as gives to the United States any advantage in the ports of Algiers over the most favored nations having Treaties with the Regency. Donc at the Palace of the Government, in Algiers, on the 22d day

of December, 1816, which corresponds to the third of the Moon

Safar, year of the Hegira 1232. Whereas the undersigned William Shaler, a citizen of the State of New-York, and Isaac Chauncey, Commander in Chief of the Naval Forces of the United States, stationed in the Mediterranean, being duly appointed Commissioners, by Letters Patent under the signature of the President and Seal of the United States of America, bearing date at the City of Washington, the twenty-fourth day of August, A. D. 1816, for negociating and concluding the renewal of a Treaty of Peace between the United States of America and the Dey and Subjects of the Regency

Full powers exchanged.

of Algiers, we, therefore, William Shaler and Isaac Chauncey, Commissioners as aforesaid, do conclude the foregoing Treaty, and every Article and Clause therein contained, reserving the same, nevertheless, for the final ratification of the President of the United States of America, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate of the United States.

Definition of the extent of the common

right of fishing, &c. on the coast

of the British dominions in America.

Done in the Chancery of the Consulate General of the United States, in the City of Algiers, on the 23d day of December, in the year 1816, and of the Independence of the United States the forty-first.

Exception as to the Hudson Bay Company.

The signature of the Dey is stamped at
the beginning and end of the Treaty.


Oct. 20, 1818. The United States of America, and his Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, desirous to cement the good understanding which happily subsists between them, have, for that purpose, named their respective Plenipotentiaries, that is to say: The President of the United States, on his part, has appointed Albert Gallatin, their Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the court of France; and Richard Rush, their Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the court of his Britannic Majesty: And his Majesty has appointed the right honourable Frederick John Robinson, Treasurer of his Majesty's Navy, and President of the Committee of Privy Council for Trade and Plantations; and Henry Goulburn, Esq., one of his Majesty's Under Secretaries of State: Who, after having exchanged their respective full powers, found to be in due and proper form, have agreed to and concluded the following articles :

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WHEREAS differences have arisen respecting the liberty claimed by the United States, for the inhabitants thereof, to take, dry, and cure, fish, on certain coasts, bays, harbours, and creeks, of his Britannic Majesty's dominions in America, it is agreed between the high contracting parties, that the inhabitants of the said United States shall have, forever, in common with the subjects of his Britannic Majesty, the liberty to take fish of every kind on that part of the southern coast of Newfoundland, which extends from Cape Ray to the Rameau Islands, on the western and northern coast of Newfoundland, from the said Cape Ray to the Quirpon Islands, on the shores of the Magdalen Islands, and also on the coasts, bays, harbours, and creeks, from Mount Joly, on the southern coast of Labrador, to and through the Streights of Belleisle, and thence northwardly indefinitely along the coast, without prejudice, however, to any of the exclusive rights of the Hudson Bay Company: And that the American fishermen shall also have liberty, forever, to dry and cure fish in any of the unsettled bays, harbours, and creeks, of the southern part of the coast of Newfoundland, hereabove described, and

(a) See notes of the treaties and conventions between the United States and Great Britain, ante, page 54.

States as to


of the coast of Labrador; but so soon as the same, or any portion thereof, shall be settled, it shall not be lawful for the said fishermen to dry or cure fish at such portion so settled, without previous agreement for such purpose, with the inhabitants, proprietors, or possessors, of the ground. And the United States hereby renounce, forever, any liberty Renunciation heretofore enjoyed or claimed by the inhabitants thereof, to take, dry, by the United or cure fish, on or within three marine miles of any of the coasts, bays, other fisheries, creeks, or harbours, of his Britannic Majesty's dominions in America, except, &c. not included within the abovementioned limits : Provided, however, that the American fishermen shall be admitted to enter such bays or harbours, for the purpose of shelter and of repairing damages therein, of purchasing wood, and of obtaining water, and for no other purpose whatever. But they shall be under such restrictions as may be necessary to prevent their taking, drying, or curing, fish therein, or in any other manner whatever abusing the privileges hereby reserved to them.

ARTICLE 2. It is agreed, that a line drawn from the most northwestern point of Definition of the Lake of the Woods, along the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, the northern, or if the said point shall not be in the forty-ninth parallel of north lati- U. S. from the

boundary of the tude, then that a line drawn from the said point due north or south, as Lake of the the case may be, until the said line shall intersect the said parallel of Woods to the north latitude, and from the point of such intersection due west along tains. and with the said parallel, shall be the line of demarkation between the territories of the United States and those of his Britannic Majesty, and that the said line shall form the northern boundary of the said territories of the United States, and the southern boundary of the territories of his Britannic Majesty, from the Lake of the Woods to the Stony Moun. tains.

ARTICLE 3. It is agreed, that any country that may be claimed by either party on Country claim. the northwest coast of America, westward of the Stony Mountains, ed by either shall, together with its harbours, bays, and creeks, and the navigation of the Stony

party westward of all rivers within the same, be free and open, for the term of ten

years Mountains, to from the date of the signature of the present convention, to the vessels, be free to both

, citizens, and subjects, of the two powers: it being well understood, Oct. 20, 1828. that this agreement is not to be construed to the prejudice of any claim which either of the two high contracting parties may have to any part of the said country, nor shall it be taken to affect the claims of any other power or state to any part of the said country; the only object of the high contracting parties, in that respect, being to prevent disputes and differences amongst themselves.

ARTICLE 4. All the provisions of the convention “to regulate the commerce Convention of between the territories of the United States and of his Britannic London, of 3d

July 1815, con. Majesty," concluded at London, on the third day of July, in the year inued for ten of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifteen, with the exception ycars. of the clause which limited its duration to four years, and excepting, Ante, p. 228. also, so far as the same was affected by the declaration of his Majesty respecting the Island of St. Helena, are hereby extended and continued in force for the term of ten years from the date of the signature of the present convention, in the same manner as if all the provisions of the said convention were herein specially recited.

ARTICLE 5. Whereas it was agreed by the first article of the treaty of Ghent, Reference to that “ All territory, places, and possessions, whatsoever, taken hy either Ist article


treaty of Ghent party from the other, during the war, or which may be taken after the


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