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median. This amount is represented by the little part down here [indicating]

CHART 62 -- DISTRIBUTION OF CLASSROOM ONITS ACCORDING TO LEVELS OF EXPENDITURE

NEW YORK

CURRENT EXPENDITURE PER CLASSROOM UNIT $500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4.000 4,500 5,000 5,500 6,000

[graphic]

100

PERCENTAGE OF CLASSROOM UNITS

$500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 6,000

In order to lift all New York districts clear up to the $4,100 median of New York City it would only cost $52,000,000, as compared with the $290,000,000 total bill.

New York State is making just about average effort to support schools. By "effort" I mean tax rate for education, or more exactly, the ratio between income received by all the people and expenditures for education.

If you give that ratio for the United States as a whole the value of 100, then New York's effort is 102, or 2 percent above average effort.

But the ability to do that same thing in Mississippi, to lift all districts up to the $1,600 median, is quite a different fiscal problem. It is an insuperable fiscal problem for Mississippi. Mississippi at the present time is spending a little over $11,000,000 for its public elemen

a tary and secondary schools, which is represented by the heavy outline of the profile [indicating) chart 63. It would cost all of this crossed and lined area in here [indicating] to lift all classroom units in Mississippi up to the $1,600 level; $23,000,000 as compared with the present cost of $11,000,000, or a trebling, or 200-percent increase over the present amount. When we have in mind, however, that Mississippi, in terms of effort is already making 33 percent more effort than the country as a whole, you see how impossible it would be. It would mean that the effort that Mississippi would have to make would be astronomical compared with the effort that any State has made. The highest effort now being made by any State to support education is 166, or 66 percent above average. Mississippi is well up, being 133, or 33 percent above average. In order to fill out this part of the chart

CHART 63 -- DISTRIBUTION OF CLASSROOM UNITS ACCORDING TO LEVELS OF EXPENDITURE

MISSISSIPPI

CURRENT EXPENDITURE PER CLASSROOM UNIT 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4.000 4,500 5,000 5,500 6,000

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AMOUNT OF PROPOSED ALLOTMENTS
UN DER NATIONAL EDUCATION
FINANCE ACT OF 1943

$8,020,942

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0

$500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 6,000

for Mississippi, merely to bring the classrooms up to the national median of $1,600, would require such a large sum that there is no expectation, under the present economic and fiscal situation, that Mississippi will be able to do it.

I think Dr. Ivy has said Mississippi has a surplus now of $15,000,000; $15,000,000 would be less than enough to do it for 1 year, because it would cost $23,000,000 to do it for 1 year. If Mississippi took all of that surplus, if it let the roads, debt, and everything else go, and applied it all to education, the State could not do it for 1 year, and next year it would be back with no surplus at all; back to this present [indicating] level of support.

Compare the situation in California; chart 64. All California would need to do would be to vote an additional $84,000, or $85,000 in rounds numbers, to fill out this little bit that is below $1,600. CHART 64 -- DISTRIBUTION OF CLASSROOM UNITS ACCORDING TO LEVELS OF EXPENDITURE

CALIFORNIA

CURRENT EXPENDITURE PER CLASSROOM UNIT $500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 6,000 100%

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$500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 6,000 73384-45-pt. 1-6

The CHAIRMAN. Doctor, could you give me the same comparison for the State of Montana ?

Dr. NORTON. We can look it up and give it to you. I do not happen to have the chart with me.

Alabama, making 7 percent above average effort for the country as a whole, would have to have $23,000,000 more, as compared with the $18,000,000 it is already spending, or would have to double its expenditure and make a far greater effort than any State is now making.

Senator ELLENDER. I wonder if it would be possible to get the same information for each State!

(The information requested by Senator Ellender follows :)

a

Additional amount necessary, on the basis of 1939–40 current expenditures, to

raise all classroom units below any $100 level of support up to that level (transportation and tuition costs not included)

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Alabama..
Arkansas.
Colorado.
Florida.
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Iowa.
Kansas
Kentucky.
Louisiana
Maine
Michigan.
Minnesota.
Mississippi.
Missouri.
Montana.
Nebraska
Nevada.
New York
North Carolina.
North Dakota.
Oklahoma.
Oregon
Pennsylvania.
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee.
Texas.
Virginia.
Washington
Wyoming
Puerto Rico.

1,876, 200

8, 700

500 1,000

2,874, 700

25, 600
1,700
4,000

1, 954, 500 1, 756, 900

3,000

72,000 1,889, 900

2, 900 9, 300 6, 600 38, 200

53, 900 1, 128, 700

2, 800 13, 600

1, 500 3,973, 900

74, 000

6, 200 48, 100

200

100

100

700 84, 300 40, 200 4, 900

200 4,000 831, 200

4, 200 161, 700 254, 400 425, 600

100 3,800 362, 200

400
100

600
6, 800

900
100

6,300

89, 900

18,500

28, 700
14, 100

370, 900

200 71, 300 83, 600 104, 100

1,600 162, 600

$600 to $699

$700 to $799

$800 to $899

$900 to $999

United States.

$20, 916, 100

$32, 200, 800

$47, 739, 000

$67, 461, 200

2, 826, 400
2, 809, 800

8, 500

3, 769, 900
4,012, 400

25, 200

5, 307, 500
5, 344, 600

74, 200

Alabama
Arkansas
Colorado
Delaware
Florida.
Georgia.
Idaho
. Illinois.
Indiana.
Iowa.
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota.

262, 200
2, 704, 700

5, 200 46, 500

1, 200 85, 100 222, 900

603, 700 1,652, 500

15, 500

537, 200 3, 596, 500

10,000 126, 800

7,000 320, 900

568, 300 1, 604, 400 2, 186, 300

50, 500

877, 800 4, 776, 700

18, 800 396, 900

23, 300 835, 500 1,040, 200 2, 876, 600 2, 720, 100 117, 200

32, 400 196, 700 326, 800

7, 156, 200 6,762, 700 170,000

400 1, 252, 900 6,385, 200

34, 400 887, 300

66, 200 1,558, 500 1,587, 200 4, 263, 400 3, 253, 900 237, 200

85, 100 431, 400 709, 500

31, 200
12,600

81, 900
97, 500

LEVEL OF CURRENT EXPENDITURE PER CLASSROOM UNIT-Continued

$600 to $699

$700 to $799

$800 to $899

5, 270, 200 155, 100

16, 600 199, 600

300

6, 701, 000 311, 500

33, 200 502, 700

500

1,600 540, 700 140,000

Mississippi. Missouri. Montana.. Nebraska. Nevada. New Hampshire. New Mexico.. New York North Carolina. North Dakota Obio Oklahoma. Oregon Pennsylvania. Rhode Island. South Carolina. South Dakota. Tennessee Texas.. Vermont. Virginia. Washington West Virginia. Wisconsin. WyomingPuerto Rico

8, 277, 600

765, 800

75, 600 923, 300

900

16, 900

900 14, 100

1, 386, 700

36, 700 322, 400 544, 700

964, 200

200

$1,000 to $1,099 $1,100 to $1,199 $1,200 to $1,299 $1,300 to $1,399 $1,400 to $1,499

United States...

Alabama. Arizons. Arkansas.. California Colorado. Connecticut. Delaware. Florida. Georgia. Idaho. Mlinois. Indiana. lows Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine. Maryland. Massachusetts. Michigan. Minnesota. Mississippi. Missouri. Montans. Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire. New Jersey. New Mexico. New York North Carolins. North Dakota. Ohio. Oklahoma. Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota. Tennessee. Texas. Utab. Vermont. Virginia. Washington. West Virginia. Wisconsin Wyoming Puerto Rico

$900 to $999

2, 800 1, 296, 500 339, 500

2, 100 46, 300

3,000 59, 600

800 16, 300

6, 200 2, 240, 600 631, 200

7, 900 119,600

11, 700 218, 200

9, 988, 700 1, 502, 000

153, 800 1, 412, 100

2, 100 2, 500 67, 700

23, 400 3, 653, 300 1,013, 400

25, 200 285, 700

44, 200 579, 800

500 3, 322, 300

706, 700 3, 557, 000 2, 160, 200

26, 800 3, 840, 900

1, 600

4, 800 206, 800

38, 200 3,023, 100

2, 013, 200

155, 400 991, 900 962, 100

2,655, 100

384, 500 2, 113, 700 1, 493, 300

4, 500 2, 711, 500

400 3, 200 89,000

22, 800 2,008, 300

1, 738, 600

300 1, 600 31, 300

12, 900 1, 182, 200

10, 500

6, 700 579, 800

$91, 592, 700

$119, 145, 900

$150, 685, 900

$186, 353, 300

$225, 625, 300

9, 122, 100

11, 150, 900

13, 291, 200

15, 610, 900

9, 827, 700

8, 273, 100

305, 400

464, 800

1,000 1, 708, 900 8, 167, 500

67, 600 1,580, 800

154, 700 2, 379, 800 2, 201, 100 5, 754, 400 3,787, 700

415, 200 155, 000

815, 700 1, 215, 000 11, 750, 600 2, 429,800

253, 700 1,946, 100

4, 400
4, 200

2, 100
2, 177, 100
10, 046, 600

132, 200 2, 502, 400

318,000
3, 243, 400
2, 852, 800
7, 344, 400
4, 353, 000

650, 400
246, 800

400
1, 360, 800
1,815, 000
13, 576, 500
3,552, 500

369,000
2, 514, 500

8, 100
8, 400

1,700
220, 500

175, 900 8, 989, 500 2, 006, 400

135, 600 1,322, 900

190, 900 1,952, 800

1,500 4, 966, 300 1, 457, 000 6, 903, 100 4, 301, 900

11, 395, 500

1,600 659, 200

2, 900

4, 800 2,729, 000 12, 069, 800

227, 200 3, 562, 800

590, 200
4, 145, 600
3, 541, 200
9, 002, 400
5, 104, 600

949, 600
338, 600

3, 300
2,043, 200
2, 468, 500
15, 449, 100
4,881,000

497, 400
3, 115, 900

14, 200
17, 300

6,500
?

340, 800

362, 100 11, 982, 600 2, 594, 000

302, 300 2, 342, 200

306, 400 2, 936, 900

2, 700 5,972, 900 1,871, 900 8, 761,300 5, 951, 200

800 233, 700 8, 459, 300

31, 800 472, 400 1, 469, 500

178, 500 6, 135, 800

12,985, 000

4,900 886, 000 11, 200

9, 700 3, 435, 300 14, 186, 200

378, 200 4, 746, 700 1, 020, 800 5, 105, 100 4, 274, 600 10, 740, 600 6,038, 800 1,328, 100 440, 200

10, 600 2, 837, 900 3, 156, 700 17, 347, 700 6, 465, 500

642, 800 3, 758, 200

22, 600 40, 300 16, 600 515, 100

641, 200 15, 072, 600 3, 229, 700

600, 500 3, 710, 200

445, 100 4, 158, 500

4, 600 7, 137. 400 2, 322, 800 10, 707, 400 8,038, 100

20, 900

346, 100 10, 207, 000

51, 500 1, 308, 900 2,085, 100

249, 400 7, 181, 900

17,951, 200

8, 500 14, 603, 800

13,600 1, 152, 600

23, 000

18, 800 4, 202, 700 16, 367, 700

575, 500 6,092, 900 1, 580, 100 6, 153, 200 5, 066, 600 12, 522, 300 7, 267, 200 1, 738, 200 549, 100

22, 200 3, 757, 900 3, 900, 300 19, 298, 200 8, 211, 400

801, 400 4, 452, 200

32, 400 80, 800 36,500 708, 800

987, 800 18, 226, 200 3,910, 100 1,088,500 5, 306, 000

634, 100 5, 556, 000

6,500 8, 437, 700

2, 811, 100 12, 660, 300 10, 538, 100

65, 800

485, 500 11, 960, 200

85. 200 2, 573, 200 2, 772, 700

331, 200 8, 229, 500

130, 800

72,000 6, 136, 500 1, 474, 700

61, 700 648,000

103, 900 1, 164, 200

1,000 4,094, 600 1,064, 700 5, 194, 300 3,078, 800

75, 800 5, 241, 700

7, 200

7, 700 473, 900

67. 400 4,052, 700

144, 500 6, 785, 200

16, 700 27, 600 914, 900

113, 200 5, 089, 700

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