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Senator DONNELL. Mr. Chairman, I would like for this record not to remain silent with respect to the comment from the distinguished Senator from Delaware in regard to what he terms the highly technical distinction between the States and the National Government. I, for one, do not share the feeling that there is a mere technical distinction. To my mind there is a very fundamental question as to whether the process of education, the things that are ancillary and subordinate to education, are primarily the functions of the State government or National Government. I, for oue, do not subscribe to the principle that there is a mere technical difference between the two departments of the Government.

Senator SMITH. I agree with the Senator from Missouri.

Senator TUNNELL. It is at least a controversial matter. I regard it as a highly controversial matter.

Senator Walsh. I would like to give an expression of my views on this question. In my own State, education is a matter of local taxation. Some communities tax their citizens very highly and have excellent schcols, while others do not make the same sacrifice, and therefore their schools are not as good. Now, if there were a uniform contribution of whatever wealth there was in any State and there was not enough money for education there, I think the Federal Government ought to assist. But unless there is a uniform contribution, I confess I do not know how far the Federal Government ought to go in insisting on education. In other words, the people might tax themselves $20 a thousand with whatever wealth they have, and another State might tax themselves $2 a thousand with whatever wealth they have. It seems to me there is an element of justice involved here, and perhaps we should ask those that tax themselves $20 a thousand to tax themselves $25 a thousand in order to help the communities where there has only been a sacrifice or a tax of $2 a thousand and where they could not afford' any more. That has been the thesis of the whole thing.

I want to help these poor backward States. There seems to be no way of compeiling them to do things for themselves. In my own State they have the very best schools and teachers of the highest grade where they have the highest tax, and the next community, if it made the same sacrifice, could have just as good schools. I do not know any way to correct these things except by having them sacrifice proportionately with whatever wealth they have and do whatever may be necessary for the schools.

Senator HOL. I know we want to hear the witnesses and not testify ourselves. I appreciate what the Senator has said, particularly as between school districts of cities and counties within a particular State, but the record very clearly shows that those States where the schools are poorest, where the more meagre opportunity for education is for the children, they are the States that are making the greatest effort in taxing themselves the heaviest for the education of their children.

Senator Walsu. Yes.
Senator Hill. The evidence shows that very conclusively.

Miss BORCHARDT. Mr. Chairman, in view of the fact that we are very eager to have our southern witnesses testify while the distinguished Senator from Alabama is with us, we would like at this time to present, first, the southern representative of the American Federation of Labor, Mr. George L. Googe.

Senator MORSE. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt for a moment for the purpose of clearing the record as to the qualifications of the witness?

Senator WALSI. Yes.

Senator MORSE. I am sure Miss Borchardt will not take offense at anything I am saying, because I ask only for information. I have noted her activity in regard to the presentation of these witnesses, and I am not clear in my own mind as to her qualification, as to whom she represents. I wonder whether she would favor me, at leastwhether other members of the committee are interested in it or notwith a statement as to her background and her qualifications?

Senator WALSH. Give your name and address and qualifications for the record, please.

Miss BORCHARDT. Well, as to background, I am a product of the public schools of Washington, D. C. I took my undergraduate degree at Syracuse University, and my graduate work has been done at Johns Hopkins, the University of Chicago, and Catholic University. My law degree was obtained here in the city at the Washington College of Law.

I have taught in the public schools of Washington, I was a rural supervisor of schools in Maryland, I have been instructor at the Washington College of Law. I am vice president and Washington representative of the American Federation of Teachers and have so served for a number of years.

Senator Morse. You are president of the Teachers Union ?

Miss BORCHARDT. Vice president of the American Federation of Teachers and a member of the Commission on Educational Reconstruction.

Senator MORSE. Just for the record, would you mind telling me whether or not your participation in support of this bill rests upon a paid job?

Miss BORCHARDT. Senator, in all the years that I have served in and for the American Federation of Teachers and the American Federation of Labor, I have not, directly or indirectly, received any compensation or honorarium for any service rendered the teachers or the labor movement. Senator MORSE. Thank you.

. Senator Walsh. Mr. Googe, you may proceed. STATEMENT OF GEORGE L. GOOGE, SOUTHERN REPRESENTATIVE

OF THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR Mr. Googe. My name is George L. Googe. I am southern representative of the American Federation of Labor, in charge of organization in the Southern States. I am a full-time salaried representative of the American Federation of Labor. My knowledge of education is limited to eighth-grade education.

I have represented the American Federation of Labor, as its representative, on the President's Advisory Committee on Education, and Dr. Reeves was the chairman of the commission. I was the A. F. of L. representative on that Committee.

I speak for the southern workers as a southern worker. We are from a part of the country that stands for States' rights and asks for Federal aid. We want the State to run its own affairs. But we want the northern financiers who own the material wealth of our State to contribute to the maintenance and development of our cultural growth.

We are poor in money. We need money. But we are proud as well as we are poor. But no man's pride will stop him from asking for help for a child.

We come before you to ask for help to promote the physical, moral, and mental well-being of every child.

The citizens of the United States are proud to claim that every child has an equal opportunity in this country. But does he? That depends to a considerable extent on the kind of home and living standards his father is able to give him.

Turning to data of per capita income by States, we find an average of $1,026 for New England; $1,061 for the Middle Atlantic, East North Central, $928; West North Central, $778; South Atlantic, $657; East South Central, $168; West South Central, $613; Mountain, $803; and Pacific, $1,154.

The South Atlantic divisions, by States, had the following per capita income: Delaware $1, 186 | North Carolina.

$523 Maryland.

1, 057 South Carolina District of Columbia. 1, 164 Georgia

498 Virginia -

697 Florida West Virginia

The East South Central had the following income per capita : Arkansas. $514 Oklahoma

$.398 Louisiana

534 | Texas Per capita income determines how the individual lives and how the community progresses. It is obvious that the homes in these Southern States cannot be as comfortable as some others; that clothing cannot be very expensive or plentiful; that food will not include luxuries.

It is equally obvious that States with low average per capita incomes will not have high State revenues with which to provide services for its citizens. Among the most important of these services are public schools.

The following table shows school receipts as compared with teachers' salaries in the South Atlantic-East South Central-West South Central States:

459

655

598

677

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Alabama..
Arkansas.
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Mississippi.
North Carolina..

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$25, 851. 219
18,003, 472
32, 592, 318
28. 693, 345
28, 211, 877
31, 975, 737
17, 181, 059
46, 477, 621

$787

678 1, 130

806

South Carolina..
Tennessee
Texas.
Oklahoma..
Virginia
West Virginia
United States

$21, 178, 793

30, 164. 427 117, 295, 405 31, 527, 661 32, 55.5, 416 31, 906, 494

$820

880 1,091 1, 120 1, 047 1. 2015 1, 507

936 1,086

517 1,019

! Includes Federal, State, county and local contributionx, as well as endowments, etc. : Average for superintendents, principals and tenohers. Source: U.S. Office of Education,

Rejection rates by educational deficiency for rejection per 1,000 white regis.

trants examined at local boards and induction stationus, April 1942 to March 1943

State

Continental United States.

Alabama.
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut.
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia..
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa.
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana.
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts.
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi.
Missouri.
Montana
Nebraska

1 Includes all races other than Negro.
: States having less than 0.3 percent of total Negro registrants are omitted.

Average teachers' salaries, 1942–43

Educational
deficiency

Educational
deficiency

State

White 1 Negro :

White Negro ?

19.0 50. 5

99.8 186.6

5.9 19.7

8.4 34. 9

45. 3

101.9
17. 3

19.0
26,0
32. 3
110.1
157.5

25. 1

13.0 258. 7

35. 1
51.1

20.0
45. 5

Nevada
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.
New Mexico
New York (excluding New

York City)
New York City
North Carolina.
North Dakota.
Ohio
Oklahoma.
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island.
South Carolina.
South Dakota.
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont.
Virginia
Washington
West Vriginia.
Wisconsin.
Wyoming

63.8
17.8
8. 2
7.1
4.1
3. 7
29. 3
34. 5
7. 3
3. 2
13.5
8.8
6. 2
48. 6
43. 3
16.5
26. 3
8.4
6. 2
7. 1
38.8
13. 5
5.8
6.6

28.6

162. 2

12. 1 45. 3 106.0

4.4 3.3 36.0 18.0

6.6 27.2 2. 3 6.6 11.8 30.3

4.8 74.4 58. 7 4. 3 8.3 57.0

5.8 34.5 6.2 6.6

74.7
55. 5

135. 1
14.0
26.9

122. 1

36.7

154.8
25. 4

State

Salary

State

Salary

State

Salary

Alabama.
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado.
Connecticut
Delaware.
Florida.
Georgia
Idaho.
Illinois
Indiana.
Iowa..
Kansas
Kentucky.
Louisiana..
Maine..

$925
1,760

756
(1)
1, 462
2, 271
1.796
1, 219

901
1, 115
1, 817
1, 606
1,061
1, 258
1,014
1, 149
1,031

Maryland.
Massachusetts.
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi.
Missouri.
Montana.
Nebraska.
Nevada..
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico.
New York
North Carolina.
North Dakota.
Ohio
Oklahoma.

1, 786
2, 225
1, 843
1, 457

654 1, 253 1, 326

933 1, 644 1. 394 2, 269 1, 296 2. 697 1, 121

929
1,881
1, 270

Oregon
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island.
South Carolina.
South Dakota.
Tennessee
Texas.
Utah.
Vermont
Virginia
Washington.
West Virginia..
Wisconsin.
Wyoming.
District of Columbia...
United States average..

1, 532 1, 745 1,944

902 1,047

963 1, 224 1, 680 1, 045 1, 151 1, 989 1, 279 1, 581 1, 137 2. 558 1, 599

i California not calculated because salaries and number of personnel are for different years.

Total school

receipts 1

Average teachers' salaries 2

Total school

receipts 1

Average teachers' salaries 2

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Alabama.
Arizona..
Arkansas.
California.
Colorado.
Connecticut.
Delaware.
Florida
Georgia
Idaho.
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa.
Kansas.
Kentucky
Louisiana.
Maine.
Maryland.
Massachusetts.
Michigan.
Minnesota
Mississippi.
Missouri.
Montana
Nebraska..

$25, 851, 219
12, 194, 986
18, 003, 472
189, 832, 315
25, 051, 137
36, 876, 182

5. 840, 700
32, 592, 318
28, 693, 345

10, 975, 209 222, 721, 330 67,097, 167 47, 187, 953 30, 969, 544 28, 241, 877 31, 975, 736 11,952, 814 29,085, 796 28, 971, 755 109, 345, 904 54, 322, 184 17, 181, 059 60, 291, 456 16, 727, 105 19, 427, 969

Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Verinont
Virginia
Washington
West Virgiuia.
Wisconsin
Wyoming
District of Columbia.

(3)

1, 417 1, 932 1, 741 1, 130

806
1,115
1, 807
1, 505
1,061
1,021

936
1,086
1,000
1, 713
2, 040
1, 671
1, 288

517
1, 223
$1, 224

851

3, 461,970

7. 735, 16.9 112, 165, 631

8,016, 885 365, 935, ang 46, 477, 621 16, 435, 565 152,010, 533 31, 527, 661 22, 160, 855 219. 826. 678

12, 576, 233 21, 178, 793 15, 162, 168 30, 164, 427 117, 295, 405 12, 139, 214

5, 188, 032 32, 535, 416 42, 679, 775 31,006, 194 52, 839, 513

5, 860, 263 13,89%, 553

1, 641 1, 293 2, 157 1, 190 2,618 1,019

750 1, 747 1, 120 1, 130 1, 724 1,830

820

80 1,091 1, 454 1,001 1,047 1, 920 1, 265 1,422 1.145 1, 507

1 Includes revenue receipts from Federal sources and subsidies from educational foundations,
2 Average for superintendents. principals and teachers.
* Average not given for 1911-42. Figure for 1939-40 was $2,351.
Source: U.S, Office of Education figures as of 1941-42.

Mr. GOOGE. I do want to call attention to the number of selectiveservice inductees who were rejected because of educational deficiencies. For instance, in Alabama there were 50.5 persons per 1,000, that is, white persons, and there were 186.6 Negroes, draftees, refused because of educational deficiency.

Another illustration is North Carolina. There were 36 rejections for educational deficiency among the whites from North Carolina, and 258.7 rejections per 1,000 among Negroes in North Carolina.

In other words, over 25 percent were rejected.

I do want to say that I think those two illustrations illustrate the crying need for educational assistance in those States, and I want to say this quite frankly, there will be no solution to the racial problems, particularly in the South, until we can equalize educational opportunities for all citizens in this country regardless of race.

Senator CHAVEZ. What about economic opportunities?

Mr. GOOGE. I was just going to say that, Senator. Also you have get to equalize the economic opportunities.

It might be of interest to this committee for me to mention this fact, that about 15 months ago, in a conference in Atlanta, Ga., with over 4,800 representatives of AFL unions that were called into a 3-day conference in the City of Atlanta, there were out of that number approximately 600 Negro delegates from our local unions in the South, and that conference unanimously—and I think it was an historic step of enlightenment and lack of intolerance-that conference voted unanimously to fight for not only economic equality on the job, but to fight for equality of opportunity for the Negro worker the same as the white worker in the South.

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