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Senator FULBRIGHT. For the purposes of the record, there is something else that might be important later on. You, yourself, are not in either secondary or elementary education?

Dr. GRAHAM. Mr. Chairman, the University of North Carolina will not get $1 from this bill.

Senator FULBRIGHT. But you do have a great interest in the students that come to your institution, that they be properly prepared ?

Dr. GRAHAM. I. have an interest in the equality of opportunity to those children, of the quality of the education they get, as to the extent of the salaries that teachers get, and as a simple American I have a great interest in more equal opportunity for all our children all over the United States.

Senator FULBRIGHT. As a university administrator you have in your experience come upon many people who have come from public schools who are very poorly equipped to take a college education; is that not true?

Dr. GRAHAM. Yes; you knew that in Arkansas and I know that in North Carolina.

Senator PEPPER. I want to comment on the word "simple." It should be stricken out before the word “American" and the word "great" inserted there. Senator FULBRIGHT. Thank you very much, Dr. Graham. Is Dr. Russell Smith present?



Mr. Ivy. May I ask the privilege of inserting in the record a statement from the Governor of Mississippi in favor of this legislation ?

Senator FULBRIGHT. You have such a statement ? It may be entered.

Mr. Ivy. I do not have it now, but it will arrive later.
Senator FULBRIGHT. When you get it you may enter it.
(The letter referred to is as follows:)

Jackson, February 6, 1945.
Chairman, Committee on Labor and Education,

Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR MURRAY: As Governor of Mississippi and as a citizen interested in public education, I commend the effort to secure legislation providing Federal aid to the States where needed for public schools. It is my understanding that the proposed legislation provides for Federal contribution to the cause of public education in States where needed without Federal control.

I unqualifiedly endorse legislation providing Federal aid through the regular educational channels already set up on a national, State, and local basis without having any additional bureaus or divisions for the disbursement of funds as such special bureaus tend to administrative control. Furthermore, you may give assurance to the Senate committee at the hearing that the funds allotted to Mississippi will be used on a fair basis and in such a way as to give better educational opportunity and privilege to all of Mississippi's educable children. With best wishes, I am, Very sincerely yours,

Thos. L. BAILEY, Governor. Senator FULBRIGHT. Is Maj. Gen. Amos A. Fries present! General FRIES. Yes, sir.

Senator FULBRIGHT. How long will your statement take?

General FRIES. It will take me 40 minutes to present my statement, as a minimum, and whatever time it takes for questions.

Senator FULBRIGHT. We had better let that go until this afternoon. Is Mrs. Johnson here?


Mrs. JOHNSON. Yes, I am here.
Senator FULBRIGHT. How long will your statement take?

Senator MORSE. I wonder if we may have it understood that General Fries will go on the first thing this afternoon because we have postponed his testimony now three times, to my knowledge, and I think in fairness to him he ought to have a definite time fixed.

Senator FULBRIGHT. Yes; at 2:30 he will be our first witness.

Mrs. JOHNSON. Mr. Chairman, my name is Mrs. Thomasina Walker Johnson, legislative representative of the National Non-Partisan Council on Public Affairs of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, with offices at 961 Florida Avenue NW., Washington, D. C.

This is an organization composed of 163 chapters in 46 States with a total membership of some 6,000. Our membership is significant because most of the women might well be considered leaders; they are all college, university, or above in training. Most of them are professional women, such as teachers, physicians, lawyers, social workers, musicians, nurses, and so forth.

Our organization maintains and supports the National NonPartisan Council on Public Affairs for the sole purpose of presenting our collective thinking and that of our communities on legislation, administration of public agencies, and public affairs of all kinds.

We should like to go on record in support of this bill, which is a bill to authorize the appropriation of funds to assist the States and Territories in more adequately financing their systems of public education during emergency, and in reducing the inequalities of educational opportunities through public elementary and secondary schools.

We believe that this bill is not in the interest of aid for schools or aid for teachers but of fundamental interest to America itself. The saving of American democracy today, only to lose it tomorrow through ignorance, is an American problem.

Senator Lee said before this committee in the Senate some years ago that, “It looks like the kids is where the money ain't.” Federal aid to education is absolutely essential if there is to be any degree of educational equality.

Testimony to this effect amounting to thousands of words has been presented to this committee in Congress after Congress. After spending two or three hundred thousand dollars on a study, the Advisory Committee on Education appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt reported there will be no semblance of educational opportunity without Federal aid, and that no system of State or local taxation can possibly be devised that will guarantee to all communities a

standard of educational opportunity for all children that ought to be considered their birthright.

No nation can go higher than the productivity of its citizens either in war or in peace. The productivity of citizens is governed to a very great degree by educational opportunity. It is indeed a sad commentary upon our country that we have lost the services of approximately a million men because of educational deficiencies or illiteracy.

If our armed forces require a certain number of men who have a stipulated amount of education, if they cannot be gotten in Mississippi, they must come from Maine; if they cannot be gotten from Louisiana, they must come from New York, and so the lack of educational opportunity immediately becomes a national problem instead of a local


I should like to introduce into the record a study called “The Black and White of Rejections for Military Service," written under the chairmanship of Dr. Martin D. Jenkins, for the American Teachers Association. He was assisted by Mr. Francis A. Gregory, principal, Armstrong High School, Washington, D. C.; Dr. Howard H. Long, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Washington, D. C.; Dr. Jane E. McAllister, professor of education, Miner Teachers College; and Dr. Charles H. Thompson, dean of the Graduate School, Howard University.

This is a study of rejections of selective service registrants, by race, on account of education and mental deficiencies. This is a comprehensive document. Even though this study is based on the rejection of selective service registrants, it does not take into consideration the rejections from gainful maximum employment throughout the country, nor does it take into consideration the number of persons who are underemployed because of lack of educational opportunities.

It is our opinion that there is a very close analogy between the rejections of selective-service registrants because of educational and mental deficiencies and the production quotient of these same persons in peacetime production as well as the productivity of countless thousands of others who were not examined by selective service. If these persons are unfit for military service, they are also unfit for many other types of services.

There is a very close analogy, as this study will show, between the rejection rates and the per capita expenditure per child, and the average daily attendance.

We believe that the controls in this bill, which are aimed to achieve equality of treatment, especially so far as the public elementary and secondary schools are concerned, do not amount to control of education. It is simply a matter of seeing that the sources of education are open to all citizens of the States.

We also believe that it is well that this bill be limited in substance to the levels of elementary and secondary education.

We believe that the fundamental obligation of the Government is to give its children a chance and that the State should provide its own education in higher levels.

We are faced at the present time with a condition and not a theory. That condition, I think is a matter of national survival, in this time of war. It has been demonstrated that strength without skill is insufficient.

Emphasis on education, we believe, cannot be too great. That applies not only to the matter of furnishing skills for immediate use; it applies to furnishing skills for reconstruction of the peace. It also is a guarantee of a Nation sufficiently strong in the future to have no fear of aggression on the part of any other nation. And to do that, we must have a citizenry which both understands the ends for which it would be called on to fight, as well as to be equipped with skills with which to fight.

We would also like to point out in passing that the Negro school teacher has problems also that many white teachers do not have. In most instances she is unable to get graduate courses in her community in night or extension courses during the year while she works as other teachers do, but must go long distances to get advanced professional training. This adds railroad fare, higher living expenses often duplicate living arrangements, because she must maintain her family at home while she also maintains herself in some other community-in addition to the regular tuition and school expenses.

There is a veritable Niagara of latent human ability and talent in America that educational opportunities would make available to America. Our vocational history proves that some of our most outstanding inventions have come from very poor persons whose talents would have been lost to America if they had not had the educational opportunities.

We believe that the human resources of America are our most valuable resources and deserve the best training that America can give them. This cannot be done on a $600 and less salary per year. If the States do not provide this, the Federal Government must:

We are fundamentally interested in raising the level of education. And we regard this matter of increasing the teachers' salaries for all teachers as in substance like a floor under the public educational system, because with the competition between the State educational system, paying low salaries, and the war industry, paying larger wages, the teachers, especially in the rural areas, where the children need educational opportunities most, will be drained off from the schools, and, therefore, we feel that raising teachers' salaries places a floor under education.

Education is perhaps the only insurance that a democracy can take out to safeguard its future in war or in peace. There is nothing new or revolutionary about Federal aid to education as has been pointed out to this committee and to the Congress before.

The reason for opposition proposed by the opponents of this bill that Federal control will follow Federal aid is in our opinion an excuse rather than a reason. Land-grant colleges are not Federally controlled, nor are any of the other Federally aided educational institutions Federally controlled.

Further, it has always been a source of amazement to me to find all the alleged fear of “Federal control.” The Federal government is run by people like you and me and the same kind of good old American people who run the State-no better, no worse. They are public servants, yes, and all public servants, either local, State, or Federal, are as good as we people make them.

We have been deeply concerned about our rural education and educational facilities not only for Negroes but for white people as well, and we are certainly concerned that Federal aid be apportioned fairly and equitably to our rural school teachers, both black and white.

Therefore, gentlemen, because of the total need of America itself both present and future; because of the mobility of our people; because of the urgency of the need; because Federal aid is not new; because the relinquishing of State control is not an issue; because the majority of the people of America who have requested this legislation year after year; because our national human resources deserve the preservation, conservation, and insurance of education; because we believe the Federal Government should place a floor on all the fundamental necessities of good citizenship; because we believe the latent and potential contribution of our human resources have not been tapped because of lack of educational opportunity either in war or in peace, we urge the passage of this legislation in its present form.

Senator ELLENDER. Can you tell us anything about the association to which you have referred and how it is maintained?

Mrs. JOHNSON. The American Teachers Association is an association composed of all of the teachers throughout the United States, that is, the colored teachers. The National Education Association has Negro members also, but the American Teachers Association is the Negro teachers association. It is national in scope and has a majority of the colored teachers of America in its membership.

Senator ELLENDER. I suppose it has membership in all the States. Mrs. JOHNSON. That is right, Senator Ellender.

(The document referred to by Mrs. Johnson in her statement is as follows:)

Thank you.





(Conducted by Martin D. Jenkins, associate professor of education, Howard

University (chemistry); Francis A. Gregory, principal, Armstrong High School, Washington, D. C.; Howard H. Long, assistant superintendent of schools, Washington, D. C. ; Jane E. McAllister, professor of education, Miner Teachers College; Charles H. Thompson, dean of the Graduate School, Howard University)


President: Miss Mary L. Williams, Charles Executive Secretary: H. Councill Trenbolm, ton, W. Va.

Montgomery, Ala. Vice-President:0. J. Thomas, Prairie View, Treasurer: Howard H. Long, Washington, Tex.

D. C.



1. Arkansas-Louisiana-Mississippi IV. Indiana-Kentucky, Ohio-Tennessee-West

Mrs. Lillian Rogers Johnson, Clarksdale,

Marcas M. Rambo, Cincinnati, Ohio.
II. Alabama-Florida-Georgia

V. Delaware-D. C.-Maryland-New York-New

Jersey-Pennsylvania C. L. Harper, Atlanta, Ga.

W. McKinley Menchan, Cheyney Training III. North Carolina-South Carolina-Virginia School, Cheyney, Pa. Walter N. Ridley, Ettricks, Va.

VI. California-Illinois-Kansas-Missouri

G. L. Harrison, Langston, Okla.

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