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(e) Each State receiving Federal aid should make a full report upon the expenditure of these sums.

In conclusion, the committee recommends that the Maryland State Teacher's Association support the principle of Federal aid and that it assist in securing for the schools of the Nation a program which will incorporate the safeguards enumerated in this report. It concurs with the statements given below, quoted from a recent article on the subject. (Exact source unknown. )

1. The Federal Government can never be expected in the future to ignore completely the educational needs of the ation or to refrain entirely from any effort to supply funds to meet those needs.

2. As long as funds for schools, or for any phase of the school program, are made available indirectly through noneducational agencies, we must continue to expect to face the problem of increasing Federal control of the school program.

3. Recent tendencies to try to meet educational needs indirectly through noneducational agencies, if continued, are certain to result in increasing confusion and further misunderstanding of the real issues involved.

4. The logical way to avoid further Federal control of schools, and to eliminate some of the present control by noneducational agencies, is to establish a definite plan of direct Federal aid.

EARE T. HAWKINS, Chairman.

MICHIGAN EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE REPRESENTATIVE ASSEMBLY, APRIL 15, 1944

Federal aid.-In order to provide more equal educational opportunities for all throughout the several States, we endorse in principle the assistance of Federal funds for education. We urge the appropriation of Federal aid for public education, with the provision that the expenditures of such funds and the planning of the educational program remain a function of the local school authorities.

MINNESOTA EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

The following statements are taken from the report of the resolutions committee of the Minnesota Education Association, January 1944 :

"We strongly support the stand of the National Education Association in behalf of the principle of Federal aid to education, under State control, to the end that educational opportunity throughout the Nation may be more nearly equalized."

"We believe in the principle of Federal aid for education distributed on the basis of need. We further believe that the administration of Federal aid should be by local authorities. We also believe there should be an emergency aid at this time to help distressed areas, both geographically and educationally, until a long-time educationally sound plan can be evolved. However, it is our opinion that Federal assistance should not be used as a means of replacing or reducing present State or local support of education."

NEBRASKA STATE EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

The position of the Nebraska State Education Association on the subject of Federal aid to public education is best represented, according to Archer L. Burnham, executive secretary, by the following statement reported in the Nebraska Educational Journal, January 1945, pages 21-22:

"The delegate assembly of the NSEA has accepted certain principles for the guidance of the association respecting 'Federal aid without Federal control.' A statement of these principles is made a part of this report for the further consideration and suitable action of the delegate assembly. The principles as adopted are as follows:

"(1) An effort should be made by the State and all local communities to support a sound educational program by State and local taxation.

“(2) Community-centered and locally administered and controlled schools are desirable: federally controlled and administered schools are not desirable.

"(3) Federal aid for the general support of education is favored, limited to the amount necessary to supplement the State and local support to secure a desirable educational program, preferably on an equalization basis, and distributed through the State department of public instruction. It is important not to confuse the organization and Federal control of education with the Federal aid and support of education.

“(4) Opposition is expressed to all forms of expansion in Federal aid to education that do not provide for such support through the regularly established administrative channels of education of the State and local community.

“(5) All forms of Federal support that lead to the establishing of dual or parallel systems of education which duplicate or are inconsistent with local autonomy and controlled are not approved.

"16) Support is given to all efforts to direct Federal aid and support of education through the State department of public instruction and the regularly established local educational agencies.

(7) Special emergency Federal aid to schools through regularly established educational channels and in accordance with the principles of justice is approved. This principle is illustrated by the removal on the part of the Federal Government of property from the normally assessable local tax rolls; when the Federal Government establishes an enterprise in a local community which creates a need for educational services of any kind normally provided by the local governmental unit; and in all cases where the local economy is materially disturbed by a necessary activity of the Federal Government.”

NEW YORK STATE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION

The following resolution, adopted by the house of delegates of the New York State Teachers Association in a meeting at Buffalo, November 20–21, 1944, states the viewpoint of the association on the subject of Federal aid to education. The resolution is reported in New York Education, the official publication of the New York State Teachers Association, January 1945, page 253.

“5. Federal aid:

"Resolved, That this association record its belief in the necessity for a program of Federal aid sufficient in amount to guarantee an adequate minimum program of education, and emphasizes its belief that it is imperative that control of education shall continue to be vested in the States and local school districts, and that the executive committee of the New York State Teachers Association should continue to support this policy."

NORTH DAKOTA EDUCATION ASSOCIATION,

Bismarck, N. Dak., February 6, 1945. Hon. JAMES E. MURRAY, Chairman, Senate Education and Labor Committee,

Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR MURRAY: The North Dakota State department of public instruction made a survey including every school district in the State of North Dakota, which showed that the current expenditures for the year 1944–45 will exceed the maximum possible current revenue by more than $3,000,000. Last year the current expenditures exceeded the current revenue by about $1,500,000. This deficit of current expenditures over current revenue has been paid out of the reserve built up from the payment of back taxes. From 1932 to 1938, because of the depression and the drought, taxes were levied, but a large percentage of them were not paid. From 1940 on, these back taxes have been paid, and that is the reserve that the schools in North Dakota have used for the last 3 or 4 years to keep their schools open.

This reserve is now depleted with the result that from now on we will have to operate on current revenue. The North Dakota Legislature recognizes this problem, and they are doing everything they can to meet the situation. The figures will show that North Dakota has always exerted more than average effort to keep its schools open. The legislature is now taking the necessary steps so that North Dakota will exert even more effort. However, the North Dakota Education Association, the North Dakota Congress of Parents and Teachers and the school officers' association, together with thousands of other interested laymen, believe that the Congress of United States should pass Senate bill 181 to equalize educational opportunities in the United States. Sincerely yours,

A. C. VAN WYK, President.

JANUARY 20, 1945. RESOLUTION FROM OKLAHOMA EDUCATION ASSOCIATION ENDORSING SENATE BILL

181 AND HOUSE RESOLUTION 1296

Data from A. L. Crable, State superintendent of public instruction, showing distribution of teachers in Oklahoma public schools by salary intervals, school year 1943–44, with number of pupils in every type of school, and average salaries of each group.

Submitted by O. W. Davison, superintendent of schools, Chandler, Okla., chairman, Oklahoma National Educational Association, legislative committee.

RESOLUTION FROM OKLAHOMA EDUCATION ASSOCIATION COMPOSED OF 17,236 PUBLIC

SCHOOL TEACHERS AND APPROXIMATELY 300 COLLEGE INSTRUCTORS

Because of the alarming conditions now prevailing in the Oklahoma schools, with thousands of pupils denied even a minimum educational opportunity, and with many schools closing due to lack of teachers who are resigning in constantly increasing numbers due to inadequate salaries, we endorse and urge the passage of Senate bill 181 and House Resolution 1296.

First adopted in a State meeting of the Oklahoma Education Association, March 13, 1943.

Readopted and revised by the executive committee of the Oklahoma Education Association, January 22, 1945.

G. T. STUBBS,
President Oklahoma Education Association.

CLYDE HOWELL,
Secretary, Oklahoma Education Association.

0. W. DAVISON,
State Chairman Natioal Education Association,

Legislative Committee.

Distribution of teachers in Oklahoma public schools, by salary intervals, school

year 1943-44

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STATEMENT OF THE SOUTH CAROLINA EDUCATION ASSOCIATION ON SOUTH CAROLINA'S

NEED FOR FEDERAL AID AS PROVIDED IN S. 181

(Submitted by J. P. Coates, secretary, February 4, 1945)

The following facts are based on statistics for the year 1942–43, the latest available:

(1) Of the Selective Service registrants of the Nation, between May 15 and September 15, 1941, 2 percent signed their registration cards with a mark; in South Carolina 13.8 percent signed with a mark. (Only one other State had as high percentage.) This large percentage is due largely to our high ratio of Negroes to white people.

(2) According to the 1940 census, 24.19 percent of South Carolina's children between the ages of five and 17 years were not even enrolled in school ; 7.9 percent of the adults over 25 years of age had never attended school, and 34.7 percent had completed less than five grades.

(3) The total school enrollment in South Carolina is 465,452. Our school session is 163.4 days (the average for the Nation is 175.5 days). Only four other States have a shorter term. We spend annually $19.37 per pupil on his education (the national average is $104.85 per pupil). Only three States spend less per pupil than we do. Our average annual salary is $902 per instructional person including superintendents, principals, supervisors and teachers (the national average is $1,599). In only three States is the salary lower.

If all the schools of the Nation were rated on what is known as "equal classroom units," it would be found that the national average median expenditure per classroom unit would be between $1,600 and $1,699; the average for South Caro. lina would be $1,000.

(4) The above figures would indicate that South Carolina is doing very little to educate its people, but let's look at the other side. According to the 1940 census, also, there are more children of school age per adult in South Carolina than in any other State in the Nation--589 per 1,000 adults between the ages of 20 and 64 years. California has only 277 children of school age per 1,000 adults. Thus, South Carolina's educational burden is twice that of California. The average for the Nation is approximately 365 children of school age per 1,000 adults. The national average income per person aged 20 to 64 was $976—the average for South Carolina was approximately $560. In California it was approximately $1,300.

It is apparent that California, with two and one-half times the per capita income and only half the educational burden of South Carolina, can give her children five times the educational offerings that South Carolina can give with the same amount of educational effort.

If every State in the Nation made the same average effort to support its public schools, South Carolina would be spending approximately $12 per child while Delaware would spend $158 per child. As a matter of fact, there are only four States which spend a larger percent of their relative taxpaying ability for public schools than does South Carolina.

Thus it is seen, from a look at both sides of the picture that while South Carolina is very low in its educational status, it is very high in its efforts to support education.

The Federal Government is the only agency that can tax wealth where it is, and can spend it where the needs are greatest. Only a sound "Federal Aid to Education" program, administered by the States through their regular constituted school agencies will at all equalize educational opportunities of the children of the Nation.

WYOMING EDUCATION ASSOCIATION,

Newcastle, Wyo., February 10, 1945. Hon. JAMES E. MURRAY, Chairman, Senate Education and Labor Committee,

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR MURRAY: At the annual business meeting of our Wyoming Education Association at Casper, November 2-4, 1944, the following paragraph was included in our resolutions:

"We ask all Wyoming educators and all friends of education vigorously to favor legislation for Federal aid without Federal control so that greater equalization opportunity throughout the Nation will result.”

The previous year, on November 6, our resolutions included the statement: "We believe that equalization of educational opportunity on a national basis is a vital step in the promotion of democracy."

Similar action was taken at our annual meetings in 1942, 1941, 1940, 1939, and 1938.

For quite some years we have had Federal aid for high-school teaching of some such special subjects as agriculture, home economics, mechanics. There has, likewise, been considerable amount of Federal aid to certain colleges for training teachers of special subjects, but there has not been direct Federal aid for elementary schools nor for high schools except for the special subjects wentioned.

For many years educators have felt that special aid to colleges and high schools was, to a considerable extent, failing to accomplish its objective since so many children were not offered adequate training in the elementary schools. Within the past generation the amount of taxable wealth in proportion to the number of children to be educated has tended to become more and more unequal among our 48 States. At the same time we have become a Nation of travelers and now think little more of changing our residence across a State line than our grandparents would have thought of moving across a county line. It is evident to the educators of America that we must offer adequate elementary and high-school training to all children in each of the 48 States, and it is equally evident to educational leaders that in consideration of the unequal financial ability of the States this result will never be accomplished in even a reasonably efficient manner until tax moneys are collected at the national level and distributed where the children reside.

We wish to state that we believe the Senate bill 181 would accomplish a great deal of good throughout the Nation. Very truly yours,

0. C. KERNEY, Secretary.

SANTA BARBARA CITY SCHOOLS,

January 26, 1945. Hon. JAMES E. MURRAY, Chairman, Senate Education Committee,

Washington, D. C. DEAR SENATOR MURRAY: After deliberate consideration of S. 181, the Santa Barbara Chapter of Phi Delta Kappa Fraternity, in special session at the Uni. versity Club, last night voted unanimously in favor of the passage of this bill.

As you know, California has had a tremendous increase in population during the last year. The school population has increased by thousands. The increased costs of education can be met in only one of two ways—by making the children of California pay the bill through reduced educational opportunities or by placing a tremendous burden on the taxpayers.

In view of the seriousness of the situation in regard to public education in
California, as well as throughout the Nation, we urge the passage of S. 181.
Very truly yours,

Roy L. SOULES, Chairman,
Past President, California Industrial Education Association.

Dr. RUDOLPH D. LINDQUIST,
Superintendent, Santa Barbara City Schools.

Dr. CHARLES A. JUDD, Consultant on Social Studies, Santa Barbara City Schools.

Dr. LEONARD L. BOWMAN, Member, Executive Committee, National Education Association.

CENTRAL UTAH MEN'S EDUCATION CLUB,

PHI DELTA KAPPA,

January 18, 1945.

RESOLUTION
Because the wealth of the Nation tends to center in certain areas; and

Because some States, according to studies made, cannot finance without undue hardships an adequate educational program, and thus the children are not given an equal educational opportunity; and

Because the schools of the Nation must serve as the basis of a sound national security program: Therefore be it

Resolved, That we, as the Central Utah Men's Education Club and the Tau Field Chapter of Phi Delta Kappa, recommend the passage of Federal legislation providing Federal financial help with the minimum Federal interference as expressed in S. 181 and H. R. 1296.

G. L. WOOLF, President.

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