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teachers are leaving the schools, are leaving the profession that we are concerned about what is going to be the future of our free public school system in the United States.

I will refer to conditions in my own State of Florida, because they are typical, and because I just happen to know first-hand what is going on there. The potential teachers are not going into the profession, they are not going into the educational department. We have scholarships in our State, county scholarships given to prospective teachers. Anyone who takes those county scholarships must promise to teach for 2 years. Those scholarships have gone begging for the last 2 or 3 years, because the young people feel there is no future for a teacher to go into the teaching profession when they can see people around them in other lines of work making the money they are making. In my own city of Jacksonville, Fla., beginning welders are paid as much weekly, and even more, to learn to weld in the shipyards, than some of the teachers receive weekly for teaching in the public schools of Florida. Of course, in some of the cities teachers make more money, but that is not the average condition in the schools. Where are we going to get the teachers to teach our children in the future if something is not done now to take care of them and to make them feel that teaching is an important profession? That, too, is a thing that concerns us.

We feel the people as a whole should honor the profession of teaching; they send their children to the public schools, unless they happen to be in the bracket who can send their children to private schools. We want the teaching profession to be a “profession" truly, a wellpaid profession. It should be. That is one of the things with which we, as an organization, are concerned.

It seems to me that oftentimes many people who would not for the world consider taking charity, are quite willing to send their children to the public schools and have them educated on what, it seems to me, has been at least half or one-third or more the charity of the teachers of the United States. The teachers are paid by taxation, and when people are not willing to pay taxation to take care of the education of their children, it seems to me that they are taking a whole lot in the way of services for their children on charity.

Then the turn-over of teachers is something that concerns us, too. It does not seem that there really is an equality of opportunity for children even in the same schools today. There are teachers who stay in the school system, fine teachers, because they like to teach, in spite of the fact that they could make more money elsewhere, but they stay in the school system because they like to teach, because it is their profession. Oftentimes that skilled teacher is teaching in a schoolroom right next to a teacher who is on an emergency certificate. The result is that some children get a better education in the same school building than other children get. So there is no equality of opportunity even there.

Of course, we do not think this bill or any other bill will bring about complete equality for the teachers, or complete equality of education for the children, but passage of S. 181 certainly will go a long way toward providing it.

I think I have brought out most of the points I wanted to bring to you. We do feel that out of fairness to our teachers and for the welfare of our children this bill ought to pass.

There is one thing, though, that I have not brought out, and that is the work teachers have contributed to the war effort. Teachers assisted with the registration necessary for sugar rationing and for gasoline rationing. They sell bonds. They sell stamps. They are called upon to give many, many hours to other war-related activities. They are making an important and essential contribution, as we see it, to the war effort. Others are highly paid because they are deemed necessary to the winning of the war, but nobody seems to take into. consideration what the teachers are doing for the war. So we feel that out of fairness to the teachers, and for the welfare of our children, and for the future of our country, because these teachers are teaching our greatest asset, our children, we do want Federal aid for schools.

Senator ELLENDER. Thank you, Mrs. McClellan.

Mrs. STERNE. The next witness will be Mrs. Gladys Wyckoff, of the American Home Economics Association.

Senator JOHNSTON. You may proceed.



Miss WYCKOFF. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, the American Home Economics Association has continuously and consistently supported the principles of Federal aid to education throughout the years. Moreover, it has always believed that only through Federal aid can all citizens be insured their right to a minimum education

The association believes that the fears of some groups that Federal aid would mean regimentation by a centralized Federal office are unfounded. The experience of home economists with aid from the Federal Government has shown this. Many of our members are engaged in vocational education under the George-Deen Act. Many others are carrying on research in State experiment stations financed by the Federal Government. Still others are working in land-grant colleges and in the United States Department of Agriculture Extension Service, which have received funds from the Federal Government since their founding. Their experience has been that the guidance and advice available from the Federal offices have been invaluable helps rather than a means of regimented controls. The wide variety in State programs in these activities indicates that individual initiative has had a chance to develop.

We earnestly hope that the Congress will provide for the Federal aid to education greatly needed by States.

Senator JOHNSTON. Are there any questions?
If not, we thank

you very much, Mrs. STERNE. We will next call on Mrs. Harvey W. Wiley, representing the General Federation of Women's Clubs.



Mrs. WILEY. Mr. Chairman, I represent the General Federation of Women's Clubs, composed of 2,500,000 women in 16,500 clubs, with a federation in each State of the Union, in the District of Columbia, and Alaska, and with 50 or more affiliated clubs in 28 foreign countries. Our organization, as our constitution states, is concerned withthe promotion of our common interest in education, philanthropy, public welfare, moral values, civics, and fine arts.

We have two active resolutions on this subject which I shall include in this statement [reading]:


Whereas in the United States today there exist wide differences in the extent and quality of the school programs offered by the various Ştates, particularly in the rural sections; and

Whereas the States are unequal in their ability to support adequately public education, thus resulting in wide differences of educational opportunity; and

Whereas existing educational inequalities cannot be removed even though the States adopt modern tax systems and allot a suitable proportion of resulting revenues to the financing of education: Therefore, be it

Resolved, That the General Federation of Women's Clubs in council assembled at San Francisco, May 1939, goes on record as favoring increased Federal participation in the support of public education without Federal control of educational policies and programs.

And the second resolution passed at St. Louis, Mo., in 1944, reads:


Whereas the teachers in many public schools are leaving the school system to join the armed services, the Federal Government and private industry: and

Whereas curtailment of the teaching staff is causing overcrowding of classrooms, elimination of subjects from the curriculum, and the employment of teachers without adequate professional training; and

Whereas the education of future teachers is being disrupted by the discontinuance of many liberal arts colleges : Therefore, be it

Resolved, That the General Federation of Women's Clubs in convention assembled, April 1944, reaffirms its stand relative to the maintenance of public education as an essential function of democratic government; and that the educational authorities throughout the country be urged to maintain salaries sufficient to obtain and retain competent teachers, uphold high professional and personal standards for teachers, recognize the teaching profession as essential to the winning of the war and the liberal arts colleges as essential to the winning of the peace as well as the war; and be it further

Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be sent to the President of the United States to the Commissioner of the United States Office of Education, and to all Members of the Senate and House of Representatives.

The general federation has been on record for some form of Federal aid to education for 20 years. I have testimony in my possession, presented before congressional hearings dating back to 1919, in which representatives of the General Federation of Women's Clubs pleaded for some form of Federal aid for education.

The General Federation of Women's Clubs endorsed the old SmithBankhead, the Smith-Towner, the Towner-Sterling, and the Sterling


Reed bills. These bills were to fight illiteracy by means of setting up a Federal Department of Education. I notice in the testimony that Miss Mary Wood, chairman of our legislative committee back in 1919, referred to the days when the proposition to tax the individual for education was objected to because it was said it would encourage shiftlessness if one man were taxed to pay for the education of other men's children. “Thank God," said Miss Wood, “those days have gone." In the resolution presented at that time was the phrase:

Whereas a bill has been introduced in the Sixty-eighth Congress to establish a Department of Education, authorizing the appropriation of $100,000,000 to encourage the States in the promotion and support of education by the removal of illiteracy, the Americanization of foreigners, the equalization of educational opportunities * * and the preparation of better-trained and better-paid teachers, therefore * the General Federation of Women's Clubs endorses the revised Smith-Towner education bill and pledges its support of the said measure.

I note in 1924 the speaker for the General Federation of Women's Clubs, Mrs. Frederick P. Bagley, representing the chairman of applied education, said:

The General Federation of Women's Clubs believes that education is fundamental, and we believe it should be encouraged by having a secretary in the President's Cabinet.

She spoke of an illiteracy conference sponsored by the General Federation of Women's Clubs in Washington in January 1924, and ofAmericanization as being inherently a national question, which must have Federal leadership.

Further down in her testimony she referred to the fact that one-half of the industrial accidents in this country were due to the inability to read and understand danger warnings.

At this same hearing in January 1921, Mrs. Thomas G. Winter, the General Federation of Women's Clubs president, a woman widely known over the country, said:

Since the very existence of our democratic form of government depends upon the intelligence of our citizens it would seem self-evident that education is a major consideration of the entire Nation.

And again at that hearing Mrs. Winters stated :

Education is the only means by which we hope to lighten the world. The greatest resources of any Nation is knowledge disseminated among the masses of the people.

The bill referred to of course was to establish a Federal Department of Education, but the arguments for that measure and for this bill, S. 181, are similar, in that they provide for Federal funds to assist the States in promoting better educational facilities.

In April 1928 our national president, Mrs. John D. Sherman, in her testimony before the House Committee on Education, stated:

Our organization has stood squarely behind every educational movement that we have believed would improve the status of the oncoming generations. In line with this policy the General Federation of Women's Clubs has for 10 years given its active support to the movement for the establishment of a Department of Education with a Secretary in the President's Cabinet.



At that same hearing in 1928, our representative, Mrs. Frederick P. Bagley, acting chairman, filed a statement from Mrs. Edward Franklin White, of Indianapolis, Ind., to the effect:

I do not see how there can be any valid financial objection to the adoption of this program. We are appropriating by States, or Nation, a sum which is clearly inadequate, for it leaves us with a percent of illiteracy greater than France, England, Scotland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Switzerland, or Germany. Objection to an increased appropriation means that we are satisfied with our present high rate of illiteracy. To be thorough and efficient always costs more.

I think the quotation from Mrs. White, just read, holds good today. According to the Times-Herald of May 29, 1944, 240,000 illiterates were rejected from the armed forces for educational deficiency as quoted from the May 1944 edition of the Selective Service Bulletin. This is a higher number than the battle casualties which at that date were 201,454. Pointing out that this number of rejections for educational deficiency would have provided the equivalent of 15 divisions, the Selective Service Bulletin pointed out also:

The data emphasize the importance to the Nation, as a whole, of ensuring that every American citizen has the opportunity for a reasonable minimum of education.

We believe it to be a matter of national importance that every child whether he comes from a wealthy State or a poor State should have the same educational opportunity to serve his Nation. Moreover, an inadequate education, in a poor State, may well bring crime and distress to the residents of a wealthy State, since criminals are permitted to cross State borders, and a child deprived of an education and a means of earning an honest living in a poor locality, when grown, can commit an unsocial act in another and wealthy community which will be more expensive to that community than if it had contributed to the educational facilities of its poorer neighbor in the first place.

In conclusion, considering the menace to the Nation of ignorance, as great a menace as disease, Dr. John K. Norton told us on Monday that the 1940 census classified 10,000,000 adults as virtually illiterates. Considering that living expenses have increased 8 percent in this war period and that well over 100,000 teachers have left the schools for better-paying jobs in industry; considering that many of the States are so lacking in tax resources that even in nonwartimes they are unable to maintain good schools for all their children; what is the answer? It seems that this bill, S. 181, answers the question by providing Federal aid for the schools of needy States for the war emergency and for1 year after the President shall have declared the emergency due to the war to have ceased, or 1 year after the Congress by concurrent resolution shall have so declared.

I am glad to leave with you the endorsement of the General Federation of Women's Clubs of the principle of S. 181.

I thank you.
Senator JOHNSTON. We are certainly glad to have had you here.

Mrs. STERNE. Next will be Miss Mary E. Leeper, representing the
Association for Childhood Education.



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