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Lucca, prospective Duke of Parma, in assuming, according to the terms of the Articles XCIX and CII of the Treaty of Vienna, the Sovereign dominion of his new State, and in directly making over those grants that have been decided upon, taking the most prompt measures, in concert with the Sovereigns of Modena and Tuscany, for the due accomplishment of the new line of boundary according to the directions here laid down, and with the lines that have been already indicated in the plan, in order to avoid any sort of doubt or discussion at the important moment of the transfer of these several territories to new Sovereigns, and of the changes of intricate and ancient frontier-lines for new ones, that have been established as suiting better the nature of the ground, and as presenting many territorial and commercial advantages, will extend his immediate dominion, in concert with the Modenese Commissioners who have been appointed for that purpose, on Bazzano and Scurano on the left bank of the Enza, and on Treschietto, Villafranca, Castevoli, and Mulazzo, belonging to Modena, as well as Pontremoli, Bagnone, Merizzo, Fornoli, Groppoli, and Lusuolo, which belong to Tuscany, which latter will directly make over, in the name of His Royal Highness the Duke of Parma, to His Royal Highness the Duke of Modena, the territories already ceded of Albiano, Calice, Rico, and Terrarossa; it being understood, that from the day of reversion the taxes are all to be in favour of the Sovereign who enters into possession of the territory assigned to him by the present Treaty, excepting the arrears which remain in favour of the ceding party.

X. The present Treaty, of which 5 copies have been made, together with the map concerning it, also signed as the Treaty is, by the different Plenipotentiaries, who also have placed on it the seals of their arms, shall be ratified, and the Ratifications shall be exchanged, at Florence in the space of 2 months, or sooner, if it be possible. Done in Florence this 28th of November, in the year of Grace, 1844.

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THE Contracting Sovereigns agree that in case of any opposition not to be expected) on the part of any Power, and that they or their successors should not be able to enter upon the possession of the

territories exchanged, or should be disturbed in the peaceful possession of the same, from causes inherent in the territories themselves, or existing previously to the present Treaty, then all the stipulations this day concluded in virtue of their sovereign rights in the sense and in completion of the solemn Act of the Congress of Vienna, shall be regarded as non-existing, and that then all the provisions of the said Act of Congress shall either remain unchanged, or be revived in each respective case. So that the Duchy of Guastalla and the other Parmesan territories contemplated in this Treaty would remain to the Sovereign of Parma, His Royal Highness the Duke of Modena would come into possession of Pietrasanta and Barga, and his Imperial and Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Tuscany would retain the Vicariats of Pontremoli and Bagnone.

The present Separate and Secret Article shall have the same force and value as if it were written word for word in the Treaty of this day; it shall be ratified, and the Ratifications shall be exchanged at the same time with those of the above Treaty.

In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed it, and have affixed to it the seals of their arms.

Done in Florence, the 28th of November, in the year of Grace, 1844.

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MESSAGE from the President of The United States, on the Opening of the Session.-Washington, December 2, 1845.



It is to me a source of unaffected satisfaction to meet the Representatives of the States and the people in Congress assembled, as it will be to receive the aid of their combined wisdom in the administration of public affairs. In performing, for the first time, the duty imposed on me by the Constitution, of giving to you information of the state of the Union, and recommending to your consideration such

measures as in my judgment are necessary and expedient, I am happy that I can congratulate you on the continued prosperity of our country. Under the blessings of Divine Providence and the benign influence of our free institutions, it stands before the world a spectacle of national happiness.

With our unexampled advancement in all the elements of national greatness, the affection of the people is confirmed for the union of the States, and for the doctrines of popular liberty, which lie at the foundation of our Government.

It becomes us, in humility, to make our devout acknowledgments to the Supreme Ruler of the universe for the inestimable civil and religious blessings with which we are favoured.

In calling the attention of Congress to our relations with foreign Powers, I am gratified to be able to state, that though with some of them there have existed since your last session serious causes of irritation and misunderstanding, yet no actual hostilities have taken place. Adopting the maxim in the conduct of our foreign affairs, to "ask nothing that is not right, and submit to nothing that is wrong," it has been my anxious desire to preserve peace with all nations; but, at the same time, to be prepared to resist aggression and maintain all our just rights.

In pursuance of the joint resolution of Congress, "for annexing Texas to The United States," my predecessor, on the 3rd day of March, 1845, elected to submit the 1st and 2nd sections of that resolution to the Republic of Texas as an overture on the part of The United States, for her admission as a State into our Union. This election I approved, and accordingly the Chargé d'Affaires of The United States in Texas, under instructions of the 10th of March, 1845, presented these sections of the resolution for the acceptance of that Republic. The Executive Government, the Congress, and the people of Texas in convention have successively complied with all the terms and conditions of the joint resolution. A Constitution for the government of the State of Texas, formed by a convention of deputies, is berewith laid before Congress. It is well known also, that the people of Texas at the polls have accepted the terms of annexation, and ratified the Constitution.

I communicate to Congress the correspondence between the Secretary of State and our Chargé d'Affaires in Texas; and also the correspondence of the latter with the authorities of Texas; together with the official documents transmitted by him to his own Govern


The terms of annexation which were offered by The United States having been accepted by Texas, the public faith of both parties is solemnly pledged to the compact of their union. Nothing remains


to consummate the event, but the passage of an Act by Congress to admit the State of Texas into the Union upon an equal footing with the original States. Strong reasons exist why this should be done at an early period of the session. It will be observed that, by the constitution of Texas, the existing Government is only continued temporarily till Congress can act; and that the 3rd Monday of the present month is the day appointed for holding the first general election. On that day a governor, a lieutenant-governor, and both branches of the legislature, will be chosen by the people. The President of Texas is required, immediately after the receipt of official information that the new State has been admitted into our Union by Congress, to convene the legislature; and upon its meeting, the existing Government will be superseded, and the State Government organized. Questions deeply interesting to Texas, in common with the other States; the extension of our revenue laws and judicial system over her people and territory, as well as measures of a local character, will claim the early attention of Congress; and, therefore, upon every principle of Republican Government, she ought to be represented in that body without unnecessary delay. I cannot too earnestly recommend prompt action on this important subject.

As soon as the Act to admit Texas as a State shall be passed, the union of the 2 Republics will be consummated by their own voluntary


This accession to our territory has been a bloodless achievement. No arm of force has been raised to produce the result.

The sword has had no part in the victory. We have not sought to extend our territorial possessions by conquest, or our republican institutions over a reluctant people. It was the deliberate homage of each people to the great principle of our federative union.

If we consider the extent of territory involved in the annexation, its prospective influence on America, the means by which it has been accomplished, springing purely from the choice of the people themselves to share the blessings of our union, the history of the world may be challenged to furnish a parallel.

The jurisdiction of The United States, which at the formation of the Federal Constitution was bounded by the St. Mary's on the Atlantic, has passed the Capes of Florida, and been peacefully extended to the Del Norte. In contemplating the grandeur of this event, it is not to be forgotten that the result was achieved in despite of the diplomatic interference of European Monarchies. Even France, the country which had been our ancient ally, the country which has a common interest with us in maintaining the freedom of the seas, the country which, by the cession of Louisiana, first opened to us access to the Gulf of Mexico, the country with which we have

been every year drawing more and more closely the bonds of successful commerce, most unexpectedly, and to our unfeigned regret, took part in an effort to prevent annexation, and to impose on Texas, as a condition of the recognition of her independence by Mexico, that she would never join herself to The United States. We may rejoice that the tranquil and pervading influence of the American principle of self-government was sufficient to defeat the purposes of British and French interference, and that the almost unanimous voice of the people of Texas has given to that interference a peaceful and effective rebuke. From this example, European Governments may learn how vain diplomatic arts and intrigues must ever prove upon this continent, against that system of self-government which seems natural to our soil, and which will ever resist foreign interference.

Towards Texas, I do not doubt that a liberal and generous spirit will actuate Congress in all that concerns her interest and prosperity, and that she will never have cause to regret that she has united her "lone star" to our glorious constellation.

I regret to inform you that our relations with Mexico since your last session have not been of the amicable character which it is our desire to cultivate with all foreign nations. On the 6th day of March last, the Mexican Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to The United States made a formal protest, in the name of his Government, against the joint resolution passed by Congress, for the annexation of Texas to The United States," which he chose to regard as a violation of the rights of Mexico, and, in consequence of it, he demanded his passports. He was informed that the Government of The United States did not consider this joint resolution as a violation of any of the rights of Mexico, or that it afforded any just cause of offence to his Government; that the Republic of Texas was an independent Power, owing no allegiance to Mexico, and constituting no part of her territory or rightful sovereignty and jurisdiction. He was also assured that it was the sincere desire of this Government to maintain with that of Mexico relations of peace and good understanding. That functionary, however, notwithstanding these representations and assurances, abruptly terminated his mission, and shortly afterwards left the country. Our Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Mexico was refused all official intercourse with that Government, and after remaining several months, by the permission of his own Government, he returned to The United States. Thus, by the acts of Mexico, all diplomatic intercourse between the 2 countries was suspended.

Since that time Mexico has, until recently, occupied an attitude of hostility towards The United States, has been marshalling and

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