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of Modena, receiving instead of these the, at present, isolated districts of Treschietto, Villafranca, Castevoli, and Mulazzo, as far as the frontier line more particularly designated hereafter in Article IX; thus forming of several detached parts one united body of dominion on the south water-shed of the Apennines, and in immediate contact with Parma, by the River Cisa.

2. His Royal Highness the Duke of Modena, wishing to retain in his dominions in Lunigiana that portion or district called Rochetta, being the most western part of his territory, now divided from the rest of the Modenese States, and bordering on those of Sardinia, as well as the districts, also his, of Podenzana and of Tresana, near those of Aulla on the River Magra, takes possession of the district of Calice, in order to approach them with more facility, and also unites to this slip of land, which, for the most part, already belongs to him, the neighbouring districts of Albiano, Rico, and Terrarossa, which, together with Calice, will replace those fiefs of Treschietto, Villafranca, Castevoli, and Mulazzo, which he renounces, and which the Congress of Vienna, giving its consent to an amicable exchange, considered as annexed to the States of Massa and Carrara, by the respective order of succession, and by the rights of reversion preserved for them by Article XCVIII.

VI. It has been mutually agreed that the exchanged territories shall not be burthened by any kind of debt, excepting that belonging to the commune, if ever such existed, and that if there happen to be any other description of impositions or debts (aggravy), the ceding party will be considered liable for them. Thus the ecclesiastical tax (canone) now owing by the State of Lucca to the community of Barga for Monte Gragno, will be transferred to Tuscany, the moment the reversion of territory is effected; which State obliges itself from that moment to consider all the clauses and conditions of the ancient copyhold (livello) as abrogated and extinguished in such a way that the Monte di Gragno, becoming part of Modena, shall be entirely free from any obligation thereunto belonging.

His Royal Highness the Duke of Modena making, notwithstanding, an especial exception as regards the debt of his future Duchy of Guastalla, inscribed in the registers of the former Monte Napoleone, consents to take upon himself, in lieu of the Duke of Parma, the liquidation of a part of the said debt not extinct at the time of reversion, according to what the Congress of Vienna (Article XCVII), and the successive commissions, have established as belonging to its legitimate possessors.

It has also been agreed upon, on both sides, that all buildings, and other property, whether funded or moveable, belonging to the State or to the Crown, must be subject to the royalty dues (papaggio della sovranità) existing in the different exchanged territories, without

being detrimental to the possessors of ecclesiastical property or of pious places; and it is also understood that allodial property, where it exists, should be reciprocally excluded from these cessions common to both parties.

VII. His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, in recognizing the eession of Guastalla and of the territory beyond the Enza, to His Royal Highness the Duke of Modena, by His Royal Highness the Duke of Lucca, prospective Duke of Parma, who spontaneously renounces the same, for motives explained in the present Treaty, guarantees to His Royal Highness the Duke of Modena, his heirs. and successors, that in no way whatsoever shall they be disturbed in the pacific possession of those territories by any one who may pretend to have a right or pretext to the same; declaring at the same time that he agrees to transfer to the district of Pontremoli and to the other portion of the Lunigiana, which is assigned to the present Duke of Lucca, prospective Duke of Parma, the right of reversion on Guastalla and the territory on the other bank of the Enza to which he is entitled.

VIII. It remains, however, agreed upon between His Majesty the Emperor of Austria and His Majesty the King of Sardinia, that all that portion of Lunigiana which has been assigned above to the prospective Duke of Parma, and which comprehends the greatest part of the territory, now Tuscan, of Pontremoli and Bagnone, besides the districts now Modenese, viz., Treschietto, Villafranca, Castevoli, and Mulazzo, shall be eeded in full possession and sovereignty to His Majesty the King of Sardinia, his heirs and successors, whenever the case of reversion contemplated by the Treaty of the 20th of May, 1815, shall come to pass, by which the Duchy of Parma would fall to Austria, and that of Piacenza to Sardinia. And this concession to Sardinia will form the basis of that compensation, which, in virtue of the Additional and Separate Article of the said Treaty of the 20th of May, 1815, is due to her from Austria for giving up the city and fortress of Piacenza, together with its portion of the surrounding district, as determined and agreed upon between them. Nevertheless, the value of the above-mentioned States to be exchanged between them, namely, Piacenza, with a circle (zona) or district that has been decided upon, and the Parmesan territory which borders on Sardinia, must be ascertained and agreed upon at the precise time of reversion, in an impartial and equitable manner by an Austro-Sardinian Commission, and, in the improbable case of dissension, it has been agreed between the 2 parties to refer the case at once to the decision of the Holy See.

IX. And this Treaty of exchanges of territories, new frontier line, and right of reversibility, which is to be kept secret until the case foreseen by Article XCIX of the Congress of Vienna, and by Article III [1844-45.]

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of the Treaty of Paris of 10th of June, 1817, shall be verified, must be immediately carried into effect at that epoch by the Courts of Modena, Parma, and Tuscany, without any exception either of act or right, and with the solicited and benevolent assistance of the other 2 Powers, in the following manner:

1. His Imperial and Royal Highness the Archduke Grand Duke of Tuscany, on assuming the possession of the Duchy of Lucca, assigned to him by Article CII of the Congress of Vienna, confirms as his the 2 townships of Barga and Pietrasanta, which are contiguous to that duchy, with the exception only of that portion of the Apennines, which is situated among the lofty mountains of Piastrajo and Porticciola, and which runs down into the opposite territory of Modena, to which it is to belong, establishing a frontier line, which is to be determined by Tuscan and Modenese Commissioners; which line, winding directly over the summit and between the 2 declivities, shall begin and finish where the 2 lines descending to the water-shed on the Modenese side have their origin; so that these lines being abandoned, a perfectly new one, of at least 2,200 Viennese toises shall be formed, which will unite the present confine in Porticciola with that which, descending from Monte Piastrajo, forms the limit to the territory of Barga, towards the Garfagnana, belonging to Modena. This limit which rejoins the River Cerchio, between Castel Vecchio and Fiattone, follows that river as far as Torrite Cava, which torrent shall in future separate the Tuscan territory, now the Duchy of Lucca, from the Lucchese district of Gallicano, which is to fall to His Royal Highness the Duke of Modena.

From thence following up the ancient and irregular boundary, it will extend a little above Campolensi, as far as the township of Pietrasanta, the frontier of which remains in its present state as regards the Duchy of Modena, until at Monte Carchio it touches the present Lucchese confine of Montignoso, whence following the eastern line, which divides it from the township of Pietrasanta, it will continue till near the Lake of Porta. And as it is mentioned in Article II, paragraph 3, that around this lake, which becomes Modenese, a precise margin is made out, here also the frontier line will be traced out by Tuscan and Modenese Commissioners, and in the manner now fixed upon as follows:-At the distance of 400 Tuscan braccia, measured on the shore from the mouth of the outlet of the Lake of Porta, a line shall be extended of 1,530 braccia, following the direction of the footpath now existing, and which leads to a house, No. 16, so marked in the Tuscan Revenue Maps. From the extreme point of this line, and inclining to the footpath on the right, another line of 265 braccia is to be traced; then another third line, of 1,360 braccia, till it arrives at the canal of Seravezza, at 100 braccia from the mouth of the lake into which it runs ; from thence, following up the east side

of the road, denominated della Casetta, for the distance of 1,400 braccia, the whole configuration will be completed by a last line of 1,700 braccia, as far as the present boundary of Montignoso, at the distance of 400 braccia from the post-road; in which perimeter are to be considered as included, besides the maritime fort of Cinquale, together with the guard-house belonging to it, the sluices and the above-mentioned house with the road leading to it, all of which are afterwards to be given up to His Royal Highness the Duke of Modena.

2. His Royal Highness the Archduke of Modena, on assuming the possession assigned to him by the Congress of Vienna, but not ceded by the present Treaty, of the Lucchese territories of Montignoso, Minucciano, Castiglione, and Gallicano, as well as of Fivizzano, which is now Tuscan, while on the one hand, he is relieved from all the obligations imposed upon him by the Court of Lucca for Castiglione, as settled by the Convention of the 4th of March, 1819, on the other hand, obliges himself to indemnify Tuscany for the capital laid out by her in constructing a military road from Fivizzano, according to the Act of the 5th of October, 1829, will, without waiting for anything save the immediate arrival of the Tuscan Commissioners, proceed to incorporate the district of Barga, which is specified above as being placed on the Modenese water-shed of the Apennines, as also that surrounding the Lake of Porta, likewise described, and taken from the western extremity of the Tuscan territory of Pietrasanta, as well as in Lunigiana, the Tuscan districts of Albiano, Calice, Rico, and Terrarossa, preserving exactly the actual frontier towards Piedmont, and following in the direction of the new State of Parma, in Lunigiana, the ancient boundary line described and drawn out in a coloured map annexed to this Treaty, namely, the present boundary which separates the Modenese district of Rochetta from that which is now Tuscan, of Pontremoli, for the distance of 1,300 Viennese toises, and that sinuous boundary which separates from the Modenese district of Mulazzo, the Tuscan one of Calice, between Casoni and Parana, for other 3,070 toises, simply united near Casoni by a short tract of new boundary in a straight line of 200 toises, after which a new branch of 2,540 toises between Parana and the nearest point of the frontier of Lusuolo rear Castevoli; following at first the footpath of Tresana on Mount Coletta, and then descending to the left in the torrent called Canosilla. From this point the said frontier of Lusuolo will continue as far as the Magra Contana, distant 2,080 toises; from thence between Fornoli and Terrarossa, from the Magra to the torrent of Civiglia, the last new direct branch of 700 toises will be traced, passing over the road to Pontremoli, 300 toises below Piastra, and then following the old frontier line which ascends to the Apennines to the distance of 8,770 toises, separating from the district

of Bagnone, now belonging to Tuscany, and which becomes a part of Parma, the Modenese districts of Licciana and Varano on the Taverone, which remain Modenese as well as Fivizzano. In this way the curved frontier line in Lunigiana, between Modena and Parma, and which for the length of 19,360 toises will run from the various summits of the mountains which shut in the Magra, will consist of 15,920 toises of the old frontier and only 3,440 toises of entirely new, divided into 3 branches, easily traceable, the first of 200 toises, the second of 2,540, the third of 700, in the precise direction from west to east.

3. His Royal Highness the present Duke of Lucca, prospective Duke of Parma, without in the least assuming the government or title to the Duchy of Guastalla, which he renounces, and the right bank of the Enza, which he also renounces, in favour of His Royal Highness the Duke of Modena, will make an immediate cession to the same Sovereign of one and the other territories by means of Parmesan Commissioners, who shall be elected for that purpose; as well as of the territories in Lunigiana in the manner hereunder defined at § 4; and at the same time His Royal Highness the Duke of Modena, by means of Modenese Commissioners, will directly give up to him the territories of Treschietto, Villafranca, Castevoli, and Mulazzo in Lunigiana, according to the above specified frontier line, as well as the districts on the left bank of the Enza, by which means this river, which descends from Monte Giogo near Fivizzano, cutting at Lake Squincio the frontier on the Apennines preserved for the distance of 3 Italian miles between the Duchies of Modena and Parma, upon the mountains of Tendola and Malpasso, will, in future, serve as a limit between the 2 States, beginning at that lake and ending with the River Po. And whilst Modena acquires thereby on the heights the territory of Succiso placed between the Enza and the actual confine, it renounces that of Scurano, which is on its left; and in the same way it adds (to its territory) a little lower down, Vedriano and Gombio on the right, and loses Bazzano on the left; finally acquiring on the right the district of Ciano and those in the plain of Gattatico, Poviglio, and St. Giorgio, as far as where the valley runs down to the River Po above Brescello; so that by this means there will be only one line of territory united with Guastalla between the Po and the Mediterranean. And this Duchy of Guastalla, of which His Royal Highness the Duke of Modena, by the cessions which have been made to him, assumes the sovereignty and title, preserves in the direction of the LombardoVenetian Kingdom, the same boundaries as at present divide it therefrom.

4. In the same way His Royal Highness the present Duke of

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