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Champe John 423 Jasper William 442 Paine Thomas . 461

Chrystie James. 424 Jay John.

443 Parsons Samuel H. , 462

Clark George Rogers 424 Johnson Francis . 443 Paulding John 462

Clinton Charles 424 Johnson Samuel . 443 Peters Nathan 462

Clinton George

425 Johnson William 443 Peters Richard 463

Clinton James 425 Jones John Paul 444 Pettit Charles 463

Comstock Adam . 425 Kennard Nathaniel . 445 Pickering Timothy . 463

Coward Joseph. 426 King Rufus 445 Pickens Andrew . 464

Croghan William 426 Kirkwood Robert 445 Porter Andrew 464

Cropper John

426 Knowlton Thomas 446 Preble Edward 465

Cushing Thomas. 427 Knox Henry 446 Prescott William 466

Dale Richard. 427 Kosciuszco Thaddeus 446 Prioleau Samuel . . 466

Darke William 427 Lacy John

447 Pulaski Count

Davie Richardson W. 427 Laurens Henry 448 Putnam Israel . 466

Davidson William 428 Laurens John 449 Putnam Rufus 467

Dickinson Philemon. 428 Ledyard William 449 Ramsay David . 468

Drayton Wm. Henry 429 Lee Arthur 449 Randolph Edmund . 468

Dyer Eliphalet 429 Lee Charles . 450 Randolph Peyton 468

Elsworth Oliver. 430 Lee Henry

450 Reed Joseph

468

Forrest Uriah 430 Lee Ezra

451 Revere Paul . 469

Gadsden Christopher 430 Lee Thomas Sim. · 451 Sargent Winthrop . 469

Gansevoort Peter 431 Lincoln Benjamin 451 Scammel Alexander . 469

Gibson John. 432 Lippitt Christopher . 452 St. Clair Arthur. . 470

Gibson George. 432 Livingston Robert R. 452 Schaick Gosen Van . 470

Greene Christopher . 433 Livingston William 453 Schuyler Philip .

Graeff George 433 McClintock Nathaniel 453 Sedgewick Theodore 471

Griffin Cyrus : 433 McKinstry John. - 453 Sergeant Jonathan D. 471

Gurney Francis . 434 McPherson William. 454 Smallwood William 472

Gwinn William 434 Madison James 454 Steuben Francis Wm.

Halo Nathan . 434 Manly John 454) Augustus Baron de 472

Hamilton Alexander 435 Marshall John 455 Strong Caleb .

Hamilton Paul 436 Mathews Thomas 455 Sullivan John 472

Hathaway Benoni 436 Mercer Hugh. 455 Sullivan James 473

Hawkins Nathan 437 Meigs Return Jona'n 456 Stevens Edward 473

Hawley Joseph 437 Mifflin Thomas 457 Thomas John. 473

Hayne Isaac 437 Miller Henry 457 Thomas Thomas . 474

Heath William 437 Monroe James 457 Truxton Thomas. 474

Heston Edward 438 Montgomery Richard 458 Wadsworth Jeremiah 474

Holden Levi . 438 Morgan Daniel . 458 Ward Artemus 475

Houston John 438 Morgan John, . 459 Ward Henry . 475

Howard John Eager 439 Morris Governeur 459 Washington William 475

Humphrey David 439 Moultrie William 459 Wheelock John 476

Huntington Jedediah 439 Muhlenberg Peter 460 Williams Otho H. 476

Irvine Andrew 440 Nicholson James . 460 Winder Levin

Irwin Jared. 440 Ogden Matthias 461 Wolcott Erastus . 476

Jackson Andrew. 440 Olney Jeremiah 461 Wooster David . 476

Jackson James 441 Orr John.

461 Wyllis Samuel . 477

James John

441)

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THE

SAGES AND HEROES

OF THE

AMERICAN REVOLUTION.

PART I.

JOHN ADAMS.

The history of men should interest every reader. It is the mirror of mind-imparting lessons of thrilling interest, essential improvement, exquisite pleasure-substantial advantage. It is a matter of deep concern to the investigating student. Remoteness increases veneration. Human foibles are buried in the tomb. Faults are often eclipsed by towering virtues-find no place on the historic page and after generations gaze upon a picture of rare perfection, which, as time advances, assumes shades-richer and holier-until it commands the reverence of every beholder. The names of many of the ancients, whose crowning glory was virtue, over whose ashes centuries have rolled, are often referred to with as profound respect as if angel purity had given the impress of Divinity to their every action. A country-a nation may be lost in the whirlpool of revolution–the fame of good and great men is enduring as time. In the persons of the Sages and Heroes of the American Revolution, ancient and modern wisdom, patriotism and courage were combined. Let us join the admiring millions who are gazing on their bright picture and impartially trace the character of those who pledged their LIVES, FORTUNES AND SACRED HONORS in behalf of FREEDOM.

Among them, John Adams was conspicuous. He was a native of Quincy, Mass. born on the 19th of Oct. (O.S.) 1735. He was the

fourth in descent from Henry Adams, who removed from Devonshire Eng. with eight sons and located near Mount Wollaston.

During his childhood he was under the instruction of Mr. Marsh of Braintree and made rapid progress in his education. At the age of sixteen he entered Harvard college at Cambridge and graduated at the age of twenty-one with high honors.

At Worcester he commenced the study of law under Mr. Putnam, finished with Mr. Gridley, supporting himself by teaching a grammar class. Wisdom to discern the path of rigid virtue and uncompromising justice, with moral courage to act, marked his career from the dawn of manhood. He boldly grasped the past-present and future and made deductions truly prophetic. On the 12th of Oct. 1755, he wrote the following paragraph in a letter.

“ Soon after the reformation, a few people came over into this new world for conscience sake. Perhaps this apparently trivial incident may transfer the great seat of empire into America. It looks likely to me, if we can remove the turbulent Gallics, our people, according to the exactest computation, will, in another century, become more numerous than England herself. Should this be the case, since we have, I may say, all the naval stores of the nation in our hands, it will be easy to obtain the mastery of the seas and then the united force of all Europe will not be able to subdue us. The only way to keep us from setting up for ourselves, is-to disunite us. Keep us in distinct colonies and then some men in each colony, desiring the monarchy of the whole, will destroy each other's influence and keep the country in equilibrio."

Mark two things referred to in this letter. He plainly saw that the navy is our right arm of defence and yet treated, by our government, with a parsimony that has long astonished the old world. “TO DISUNITE Us”-the only thing that can ruin us now that we have set up for ourselves. Lay this to heart ye demagogues who are sowing broadcast the seeds of disunion and no longer court a monarchy.

At the end of three years study Mr. Adams was admitted to the practice of law and commenced a successful professional career at Braintree. Constitutional law had become a subject of investigation. Disputes had commenced between the people and the officers of the crown who were employed in the custom-house and claimed the right to search private dwellings for the pretended purpose of discovering dutiable goods. This preliminary act of usurpation was frequently prompted by personal animosity without a shadow of evidence to raise even suspicion. The right of search was vigorously resisted. Writs

of assistance were issued-the seeds of the revolution were sown. Mr. Gridley, the friend and admirer of Mr. Adams, defended the officersnot on constitutional ground but from the necessity of the case to protect the revenue, from which Mr. Adams strongly dissented. The question was argued before the Superior Court at Boston-Mr. Gridley for and Mr. Otis against the crown. Mr. Adams listened to both gentlemen with intense interest and has often been heard to say-“ The oration of Mr. Otis against writs of assistance breathed into this nation the breath of life. American independence was then and there born.”

The court publicly decided against the writs but secretly issued them. No richer fuel could have been used to increase the volume and force of the revolutionary fires already kindled. Mr. Adams was roused by the hypocrisy of the court and the audacity of the crown officers and at once took a bold stand in favor of justice. The Assembly interfered in behalf of the people and in 1762, prepared a bill to prevent the issue of these volcanic writs only upon specific information on oath-which was vetoed by the governor. The Assembly retaliated by reducing the salary of the judges.

In 1761 Mr. Adams rose to the rank of Barrister-in 1764 married the accomplished Abigail Smith, daughter of Rev. William Smith, who nobly participated with her husband in the thrilling scenes of their lives for fifty-four years. Judge of her patriotism from the following extract from one of her numerous and able letters.

“ Heaven is our witness that we do not rejoice in the effusion of blood or the carnage of the human species-but, having been forced to draw the sword, we are determined never to sheathe it-slaves to Britain. Our cause, Sir, I trust, is the cause of truth and justice and will finally prevail, though the combined force of earth and hell should rise against it.”

The Stamp Act kindled an enduring flame of indignation in the patriotic bosom of Mr. Adams. He at once became a champion for chartered rights and rational freedom. He published an essay on Canon and Feudal Law which proved him a fearless, able and vigorous writer. It penetrated the joints and marrow of royal power as practised and parliamentary legislation as assumed. He traced the Canon law to the Roman clergy-shrewdly planned, acutely managed and rigorously enforced to advance their own aggrandizement. He delineated the servile dogmas of the Feudal code, each manor being the miniature kingdom of a petty tyrant. He exposed the unholy and powerful confederacy of the two, aiming to spread the mantle of ignorance over mankind, drive virtue from the earth, producing the memo

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