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and accompanied him to Ptolemaïs. The king made him many presents, and permitted him to return to Jerusalem.

Ptolemy, upon his arrival at Ptolemaïs, discovered a conspiracy that was formed by Ammonius against his life, and demanded Alexander to give up the traitor; which he refusing to do, Ptolemy concluded that he was accessary to it, and accordingly took his daughter from him, and gave her to Demetrius, with an engagement to assist him to reascend the throne of his father.

The people of Antioch, who hated Ammonius, having found him in the disguise of a woman, vented their rage upon him, and quickly dispatched him. They then declared against Alexander himself, and opened their gates to Ptolemy, offering him the kingdom, which he declined accepting, assuring them that he was content with his own dominions; but recommended to them Demetrius, the lawful heir, who was accordingly placed on the throne of his ancestors.

Alexander, during this time, was in Cilicia; but receiving intelligence of these transactions, he marched with the utmost speed, and put all to fire and sword around Antioch. The two armies came to battle. Alexander was defeated, and fled, with five hundred horse, to Zabdiel, an Arabian prince, with whom he had intrusted his children. This person, instead of protecting, betrayed him, caused his head to be cut off, and sent it to Ptolemy, who expressed great joy at the sight. But his joy was of short duration, for he expired, not long after, of

Year of

3859.

a wound which he had received in the battle. Thus these two kings died within a the World few days of each other; the first having reigned five years, and the latter thirty-five.

Jonathan, finding every thing quiet in Judea, formed a design of ridding the nation of the Grecian idolators, who were still in possession of the citadel in Jerusalem: he accordingly invested it, with the intention of attacking it in form. Demetrius, hearing of this, ordered Jonathan's attendance at court. He accordingly went, with some of the priests and principal persons, carrying with him a great number of magnificent presents, by which he not only pacified the king, but even obtained new marks of favour; the whole government under his jurisdiction being exempted from all duties and tributes, for the sum of three hundred talents, which he agreed to pay the king, as an equivalent. Demetrius, by his excesses and cruelties at length rendered himself odious to his people, who became disposed for a general revolt. Diodotus, afterwards surnamed Tryphon, who formerly governed Antioch in conjunction with Hierax, under Alexander Bala, conceived a design to get the crown for himself; but, to cover his views, he pretended to be in the interest of Antiochus, the son of Alexander.

During this time, Jonathan was carrying on the siege; but seeing he made no progress, he sent to Demetrius, desiring him to withdraw the garrison from the citadel, which he could not expel by force. The king, finding himself involved in difficulties, acceded to Jonathan's request, upon condition that he would send him some troops to chastise the mutineers at Antioch, which was at this time in a state of revolt. Jonathan immediately sent him three thousand men : but the people rose to the number of one hundred and twenty thousand, and invested the palace with design to kill the king. The Jews flew to his assistance, and dispersed the multitude, burnt a great part of the city, and killed or destroyed near one hundred thousand of the inhabitants. The Jews then returned to their own country, laden with honour and booty. Notwithstanding all this, Demetrius did not alter his conduct, but continued his cruelties and oppressions. He even broke his engagements to Jonathan, his deliverer and preserver: and though the three hundred talents had been paid, for the purpose already mentioned, yet he again demanded the impost, customs, and tribute, threatening Jonathan with war in case of refusal. In the mean time, Tryphon carried Antiochus into Syria, and caused his pretensions to the crown to be made known. . All the discontented joined him' in crowds, and proclaimed him king. They then' marched against Demetrius, whom they defeated, and obliged to retire to Seleucia; placing Antiochus on the throne of Syria in his stead.

Jonathan, resenting the ingratitude of Demetrius, accepted the invitation made him by the new king, and came over to his party : upon which, great favours were conferred upon him and his brother Simon. A commission was granted them to raise troops for Antiochus, of which they formed two bodies ; each acted separately, and obtained several victories over the enemy.

Tryphon now sought for an opportunity of putting in execution the project he had long formed of destroying Antiochus, and possessing the crown of Syria. But Jonathan was an obstacle in his way. Knowing him to be a man of honour and integrity, he durst not even give him a hint of his views; but came to this diabolical determination, at all events to get rid of him ; entering Judea with an army, in order to take him and put him to death. Jonathan met him at the head of forty thousand men. Tryphon, perceiving he could do nothing against so powerful an army, endeavoured to amuse Jonathan with fine words, pretending he only came out of friendship, to consult him upon their common interests, and to make him a present of the town of Ptolemaïs' as a free gift.

Jonathan being deceived by these fair speeches, dismissed his troops, except three thousand, of which he only kept one thousand about his person, and followed the traitor to Ptolemaïs, where he was no sooner entered, than the gates where shut upon

him. Jonathan was immediately seized, the World and conducted to prison, and all bis fol

lowers were put to death. Not content with this bloody deed, Tryphon sent troops after the two thousand, who were upon their march to Galilee. But they had heard of the dismal fate of their coinpanions, and agreed to sell their lives as dear as possible. Their enemies, coming to the knowledge of their determination, were afraid to attack them; and they all arrived safe at Jerusalem. They found

Year of

3861.

their brethren there in very great affliction for what had befallen Jonathan: notwithstanding which, they did not lose their courage, but immediately chose Simon for their general, and went on with the fortifications which Jonathan had begun at Jerusalem. When advice came that Tryphon was approaching, Simon marched against him with a large army.

Tryphon, not daring to come to an engagement, again had recourse to artifice. He sent to tell Simon, that he had only laid Jonathan under an arrest, because he owed the king a hundred talents; and if he would send him that sum, and Jonathan's two sons, as hostages for their father's fidelity, he should be set at liberty. Simon, though he suspected the fraud, complied with the requisition, that he might not be the occasion of his brother's death. The traitor, however, instead of releasing his prisoner, returned into Judea at the head of a greater army than before, intending to put all to fire and sword. But he was disappointed by the vigilance of Simon, who kept so close to him in all his marches and counter-marches, that at last he was obliged to retire.

On his return to winter-quarters, Tryphon caused Jonathan to be put to death; and then, believing he had nobody to fear, gave orders to dispatch Antiochus secretly, giving out that he had died of the stone; at the same time declaring himself king of Syria. When Simon was informed of the death of his brother, he sent to fetch his bones, and interred them in the sepulchre of his forefathers, at Modin, paying all possible respect to his memory.

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