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of Marlborough,* but the precise time of this is not known. The Rev. Dr. McVickar in his Life of Dr. Samuel Bard (one of Fauconnier's descendants), in speaking of Fauconnier's employment in the Commissariat, says that "fragments of his army accounts still remain in possession of the family." Holding these relations to the authorities he became, to a certain extent, prominent, and as England during his sojourn there was engaged in civil and foreign wars, in which the religious element was largely mingled, it seems possible, that being a Huguenot like the Prince of Orange,f he might have held an appointment in the English Army as a commissioned officer, for it has been stated that "he was transferred to a regiment of foot as an Ensign," which has, however, not been satisfactorily settled. A suggested explanation of this statement is, "that he may have held this rank as a Regimental Commissary Officer," which seems indicated by his connection with the Commissariat, in 1701, when he was at the head of a Commission % in England to send over clothing to the soldiers in the Province of New York.

From the time of the first English occupation of New York, in 1664, there was much trouble in the management of its affairs, which culminated in the time of William and Mary. First, it was a conflict with the Dutch, whom England had supplanted in the Colony, and then, between its official representatives, so that the Province became rent and torn by warring factions and parties. The incompetency, and sometimes criminality of officials, had made the place a hot-bed of intrigue and corruption, full accounts of which may be had by the perusal of the history § of the Colony of New York during these times. The better classes, realizing the injury done not only to themselves, but to trade and the government, by this condition, appealed to the Lords of Trade and the Throne, for the reform of existing abuses.

At the period now under consideration, the beginning of the eighteenth century, and whilst this strife was still progressing, the Earl of Bellomont, then Governor of New York, died, this occurring just as he was becoming acquainted with the Colony. His death, on March 5, 1701, during the absence of the Lieutenant-Governor in the Barbadoes, was the source of new troubles; high disputes arising among the Councillors as to the powers of government. These differences were settled by the arrival, on May 19th, of John Nanfan, the Lieutenant-Governor, who took upon himself the supreme command, until Lord Bellomont's successor could reach the Province. Lord Cornbury,|| the successor of Bellomont, was commissioned by King William on July 9, 1701, but for various reasons did not leave England till the following spring. This post was conferred upon him, in view of the fact that King William had contemplated giving him a reward for his desertion^! of King James II; it being the first vacancy of commensurate character that offered itself. A few days after the new Governor departed for New York, King William died (March 19, 1702), and was succeeded by Queen Anne who renewed and confirmed Cornbury's commission, and also made him Governor of New Jersey, the Proprietors of which Province, in April, 1702, surrendered to her

* Created Earl, April 9, 1689; Duke, December 14, 1702.

t A descendant of Louise, daughter of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, the famous Huguenot leader.
t "Col. Hist. N. Y.," Vol. IV, pp. 925-926 and 1033-34.
§ See "Memorial Hist. N. Y.," by James Grant Wilson.

II Edward Hyde, Viscount Cornbury, was the grandson of the first Earl of Clarendon, Prime Minister and Lord Chancellor of Charles II, and a son of the Earl of Clarendon, the brother-in-law of King James II. He was, therefore, first cousin to Queen Anne, whose mother was Ann Hyde, and father, James II.

1 He was the first officer to desert James II on the field at Salisbury, and with three cavalry regiments (one his own) and their officers going over to the Prince of Orange, as the latter was approaching with his army. Lord Cornbury was made Colonel of the Royal Dragoons, August 1, 1685, and December 31, 1688.

their right of government. Lord Cornbury made Peter Fauconnier his Private Secretary, being influenced, no doubt, in this choice by the candidate's especial fitness for the position, due to his abilities and intimate acquaintance with men and conditions in the mother country, and in her colony of New York.

Lord Cornbury and his suite sailed March 15, 1702, in the ship Jersey from Spithead, England, and after a voyage of seven weeks anchored in the Bay of New York, off Fort William Henry,* on the morning of May 3, 1702.f

In June, 1702, Lord Cornbury was ordered to proclaim the Queen within his Jurisdiction. This he did on the 18th of the month at New York, and on the 22nd at Burlington, West Jersey, but was prevented from going to Perth Amboy, East Jersey, for the same function, by reason of the floods. From Burlington he went to Philadelphia, to which place he had been invited, and where entertainments were to be given in his honor. These events in Philadelphia took place at the "Old Slate Roof House " J and at Edward Shippen's, on the 23rd day of June, 1702, when Lord Cornbury brought with him his official family, of which Peter Fauconnier was a member. They were also dined at Pennsbury Manor, Bucks County, Pa., on the 24th of June. Lord Cornbury visited Chester, Pa., in the fall of 1702.§

On June 30, 1702, by a resolution || of the Common Council of New York City, passed the 27th inst., the gentlemen and servants of Cornbury's suite were made freemen, gratis,^ of the city, and among the names of these freemen occurs that of Peter Fauconnier, who is entered as "Gentleman."

The preceding statement of Peter Fauconnier's arrival at New York, and the events immediately following it, contain only the mere mention of official acts in which he had a part. Something more than this is desirable, and it is a matter of regret that these pages contain so little regarding his social and domestic life** with his wife and children in the new world. His immigration to America was a step of much significance and importance in his life; he came, like many others at that time, attracted by a new country and the openings it presented for business and personal advancement, ft In New York City he established himself as a Merchant, but was more concerned in public commissions than in private trade, having contracts with the Provincial Government, to furnish it with necessary provisions, among such supplies being candles for the fort, and stores for the King's ships in port. Payment for these was often delayed, hence his frequent petitions to the Governor, in later years, for the same.

* A short time afterwards this name was changed to "Fort Anne."

t The "Col. Hist. N. Y.," Vol. IV, p. 955, has a letter from Lord Cornbury to the Lords of Trade, dated Fort William Henry, May 3, 1702, in which he says, "I arrived here this day at eleven o'clock in the forenoon."

t This house built in 1687 was torn down in 1867. It stood on the site of what was formerly the Chamber of Commerce, Second Street above Walnut. "At this house Lord Cornbury, then Governor of New York and, New Jersey [son of Lord Clarendon, cousin of Queen Anne, Ac.,] was banquetted in great style in 1702, on the occasion of his being invited by James Logan, from Burlington, where he had gone to proclaim the Queen. Logan's letter speaking of the event, says he was dined 'equal, as he said, to anything he had seen in America' At nifrht he was invited to Edward Shippen's, [great house in South Second St.] where he was lodged and dined with all his company, making a retinue of nearly thirty persons. He went back well pleased with his reception, via Burlington, in the Governor's barge, and was again banquetted at Pcnnsbury by James Logan, who had preceded him for that purpose. Lord Cornbury had a retinue of about fifty persons, which accompanied him thither in four boats. His wife was once with him in Philadelphia, in 1703."—From account of the Slate Roof House in Watson's "Annals of Philadelphia," Vol. I, p. 164.

f "Sketches of Chester County," by Hon. Joseph J. Lewis.

II "N. Y. Hist. So. Coll.," 1885, p. 454.

1 "N. Y. Hist. So. Coll.." 1885, p. 454.

** On the Register of the French Church Du St. Esprit, New York City, there are entered two baptisms at both of which, Madeleine, the wife of Pierre Fauconnier, was Godmother, viz.: Anne, a daughter of Henry De Money and Marianne Grasset, November 21, 1703; and Madeleine, a daughter of Jacques Des Brosses and Helene Gaudineau, April 23, 1708.

tt December 10,1702, Peter and Madeleine Fauconnier, petitioned, with others, for certain lands on Staten Island.

In the pursuit and extension of his business, Peter Fauconnier made mercantile ventures to other lands. One of the places with which he traded was Martinique, his mother's home, engaging in a carrying-traffic with his relatives there, and thus becoming well informed upon the commercial possibilities and social conditions of the island.

Peter Fauconnier, prior to his official entry into America, and before 1700, may have had many such connections with the West Indies, and perhaps, in the furtherance of his interests, visited them as well as New York. This conjecture is strengthened by the following: "Early in Cornbury's time M. Long Pre de la Touche, a cousin of Peter Fauconnier, came from Martinique, and was a guest of the Captain-General, at the fort on the Battery. Probably this cousin was a partner with Peter Fauconnier, in the claims made for the produce before 1697, and having a near relative attached to the person and official life of Cornbury, came over in that interest." * When nearly seventy years of age, Peter Fauconnier still kept up this foreign trade, as shown by two letters, in French, on record at Albany, N. Y.; one, from Henry Allaire of Martinique, dated August 19, 1726, to Messrs. Fauconnier and Clarke, on money matters; the other, their reply, of date October 15, 1726.

Peter Fauconnier's business relations in America, and the supposition of his presence here before Cornbury's time, suggest that he brought his family with him on one of his possible visits, and indeed the statement has been made that they were here by, or before, 1697, but nothing has been learned that will positively confirm this.

It was in the year 1702, then, that we find Peter Fauconnier with his wife and children permanently settled in New York City. His children altogether were eight in number, in order of age, as follows: Theodorus, Andre, Madeleine, Pierre and Estienne, twins; Estienne, Jeanne Elizabeth, and Anne Magdalene. Of these, the first Estienne died in England.

A census f of New York City taken in 1703^ enumerates the family of Peter Fauconnier residing in the West Ward,§ viz: "Peter Fauconnier, Master of the Family, three females, two male children, two female children, and two negroes, male and female."

Peter Fauconnier had now fully entered upon his public career, and rose rapidly to eminence in the affairs of the Colony. Lord Cornbury by virtue of his influence as Governor of both New York and New Jersey, was enabled to advance him to important positions in both Provinces. The Rev. Dr. McVickar in his Life of Dr. Samuel Bard, says this influence gained for Fauconnier the post of Surveyor-General, which he took advantage of to further his interest in the land patents of the period. One of the first positions he held was his appointment for the government, as one of three excellent accountants, to audit the estate of Lord Bellomont, the late Governor of the Province—the other two auditors were Mr. Barbarie and Mr. Jamieson—all three being recommended by Lord Cornbury, as skillful men for the service, when he appointed them.

In 1702, Peter Fauconnier was made one of three Commissioners, for managing the office of Collector and Receiver-General of New York, the other two being

* From Mr. Arthur Sands.

t *'Doct. Hist. N. Y.," Vol. I, p. 621.

t Peter Fauconnier was then 44 years of age as stated in his report as Naval Officer, dated October 15th of this year, and on record at Albany, N. Y.

I It extended west of Broadway to the Hudson River.

Caleb Heathcote and Thomas Wenham. This Commission held over till the next year, as the following warrant for their surrender of the Custom House, still preserved in the State Library at Albany, N. Y., shows:

"By his Excell. Edwd. Viscount Cornbury Capt.
Genell. and Govr. in cheif in and over her Maty. prov-
ince of New York and territory depending thereon in
America &c.

"To Coll. Caleb Heathcote Coll. Thomas
Wenham and Peter Fauconnier Esqr.
Commrs. for managing the office of Collr. and
Recr. Genell. of the province of new york
Whereas Thomas Byerley Esqr. hath this day
produced to me her Matys. Commission under
ye. great seal of England constituting and ap-
pointing him to be her Matys. Collr. and re-
ceiver Genell. of this her province of New
York.

"you are hereby required and commanded imme-
diately after yr. receipt hereof to deliver into the
custody and possession of him the said Thomas Byer-
ley her Matys. Custome House wth. in the City of New
York together wth. all such matters and things as now
are in yr. or either of your custody's or possessions re-
lating in any wise to his said office and this shall be yr.
sufficient warrant and authority for so doing. Given
under my hand and seal at fort Anne in New York this
thirtieth day of July 1703 and in the second year of her
Majesties reigne.

Cornbury"

"Official: Peter Fauconnier was Receiver-General from June 9, 1702, to Sept. 26, 1702, and from April 17, 1705, to Feb. 6, 1707. Superceded by Mr. Thomas Byerley in Both cases.'" His Bond for the second holding of this office, on record at Albany, N. Y., was entered April 18, 1705, and names as his security: himself, Stephen De Lancy, Thomas Wenham, and Daniel Cornelius.

Warrant, f

"[seal] Edward Viscount Cornbury Capt. General and Governor in Chief in & over the Provinces of New York, New Jersey & Territories Depending thereon in America & Vice Admiral of the same &c.

"To Peter Fauconier Esq. Greeting

"Whereas. I have thought fit to Suspend Thomas Byerly Esq. Collector & Receiver General of the said Province of New York from his Office of Collector & Receiver General aforesaid until her Majestys Pleasure be known therein. I have therefore thought fit to Nominate—Constitute & Appoint & I do by Virtue

* From "Civil and Constitutional History of the Colony and State of New York," by Edgar A. Werner, 1889.

VThe original of this, in a fine handwriting, is still in existence, and owned by Mr. E. A. Marschalk, one of auconnier's descendants. It is so much faded that a fac-simile of it was useless for insertion here. The copy in the text was obtained by the aid of a magnifying glass.

of the Power & Authority to me given by her Majesty under the broad seal of England hereby Nominate, Constitute & Appoint you ye. said Peter Fauconier to be Comissioner to Execute ye. sd. Office of Collector & Receiver General of all her Matys. Revenues arising or growing due or payable or wch. are already due, or hereafter shall arise, grow due or payable to her Maty. her Heirs or Successors, for Rents, Revenues, Dutys, Customes, Excises, Prizes, Fines, Escheats, Seizures, Forfeitures, or by all or any other Ways & means whatsoever in the sd. Province of

Commissioner to Execute the office of

New York To have, hold, Exercise & Enjoy ye. sd. Office of ACollector & Receiver General of this Province unto you the said Peter Fauconier for & during so long time until her Matys. Pleasure shall be made known herein together wth. such and the Like Salarys, Fees, Perquisites, Profits, Powers, Benefits & Advantages as the said Thomas Byerly had received or Enjoyed, or Lawfully might have had, received Enjoyed or taken, for or in respect of the Execution of the said Office of Collector & Receiver General of this Province. Given under my hand & Seal at Fort Anne in New York this Seventeenth day of April, in the Fourth Year of her Majestys Reign Annoq. Dom. 1705.

Cornbury"

Lord Cornbury (about 1705) sent a letter * to the Lords of Trade, informing them of the complaints made against Mr. Byerley, whilst executing the office of Collector and Receiver-General, mentioning his ill-behavior, constant disobedience to orders, and countenance of Illegal Trade. The portion of this communication, in which the Governor states that he had suspended Mr. Byerley upon these charges, and appointed Peter Fauconnier to succeed him, reads thus: "I thought it my duty to suspend Mr. Byerly, till I could inform your Lordpps. in this matter and receive Her Majesties [pleasure] thereupon, and in the meantime I have appointed Mr. Peter Fauconeer to be Commissr. to execute the office of Collector and Receiver-General of this Province, he is a man whom I have had experience of, and he has given security to the value of .£8000 for the faithful discharge of the Trust reposed in him, till her Majesties pleasure may be known. If it shall be the Queen's pleasure to approve of the suspension of Mr. Byerly, as I hope she will, I beg your Lordpps. favour for the Recommending Mr. Fauconnier for the place of Collector and Receiver-Genl. of this Province—he is one of the best accomptants that ever I knew, he is a Man of very great application to and diligence in business; And I have by experience found him a very honest man, he has been Naval officer ever since I came into this Province, which he has executed with utmost diligence, and has taken pains to acquaint himself very well with the Laws of Trade; he will give any security the Right Honble. my lord High Treasurer shall please to require"

"As Naval Officer, Fauconnier seized a sloop for Illegal Trade, and libelled against her in the Court of Vice-Admiralty, where her Master, Ebersen, appeared to defend her. The vessel was accused of having privately taken on board, nine miles below the city, some Hogsheads of Tobacco and of Cocoa, after she had cleared at the Custom House. She had once before been seized by Mr. Fauconnier on the same grounds, but for lack of full proofs was allowed to sail for Surinam, being condemned upon her return." Another instance of the same character, illustrating Peter Fauconnier's integrity and vigilance, is the following: "In Septr. 1704 one Hugh Coward, Master of the sloop Mary, came from Rhode Island

* "Col. Hist. N. Y ," Vol. IV, p. 1142.

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