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voting thereon, and approved by the Legislature as herein provided for the approval of the charter. Whenever fifteen per cent of the qualified voters of the city shall petition the legislative authority thereof to submit any proposed amendment or amendments to said charter to the qualified voters thereof for approval, the legislative authority thereof must submit the same. In submitting any such charter. or amendments thereto, any alternative article or proposition may be presented for the choice of the voters, and may be voted on separately without prejudice to others. [Amendment adopted November 4, 1902.]
CHARTERS OF CITIES, MAY PROVIDE WHAT
SEC. 81. It shall be competent, in all charters framed under the authority given by section eight of article eleven of this Constitution, to provide, in addition to those provisions allowable by this Constitution and by the laws of the State, as follows:
1. For the constitution, regulation, government, and jurisdiction of Police Courts, and for the manner in which, the times at which, and the terms for which the judges of such courts shall be elected or appointed, and for the compensation of said judges and of their clerks and attachés.
2. For the manner in which, the times at which, and the terms for which the members of boards of education shall be elected or appointed, and the number which shall constitute any one of such boards.
3. For the manner in which, the times at which, and the terms for which the members of the boards of police commissioners shall be elected or appointed; and for the constitution, regulation, compensation, and government of such boards and of the municipal police force.
4. For the manner in which, the times at which, and the terms for which the members of all boards of election shall be elected or appointed, and for the constitution, regulation, compensation, and gorernment of such boards, and of their clerks and attachés; and for all expenses incident to the holding of any election.
Where a city and county government has been merged and consolidated into one municipal government, it shall also be competent in any charter framed under said section eight of said article eleven, to provide for the manner in which, the times at which, and the terms for which the several county officers shall be elected or appointed, for their compensation, and for the number of deputies that each shall have, and for the compensation payable to each of such deputies. [Amendment adopted November 3, 1896.]
(Article XI, section 8, 1905)
Sec. 8. Any city containing a population of more than three thousand five hundred inhabitants may frame a charter for its own government, consistent with and subject to the Constitution, (or, having framed such a charter, may frame a new one), by causing a board of fifteen freeholders, who shall have been for at least five years qualified electors thereof, to be elected by the qualified voters of said city at any general or special election, whose duty it shall be, within
ninety days after such election, to prepare and propose a charter for such city, which shall be signed in duplicate by the members of such board, or a majority of them, and returned, one copy to the mayor thereof, or other chief executive officer of such city, and the other to the recorder of the county. Such proposed charter shall then be published in two daily newspapers of general circulation in such city, for at least twenty days, and the first publication shall be made within twenty days after the completion of the charter; provided, that in cities containing a population of not more than ten thousand inhabitants, such proposed charter shall be published in one such daily newspaper; and within thirty days after such publication it shall be submitted to the qualified electors of said city at a general or special election, and if a majority of such qualified electors voting thereon shall ratify the same, it shall thereafter be submitted to the legislature for its approval or rejection as a whole, without power of alteration or amendment. Such approval may be made by concurrent resolution, and if approved by a majority vote of the members elected to each house, it shall become the charter of such city, or, if such city be consolidated with a county, then of such city and county, and shall become the organic law thereof, and supersede any existing charter, (whether framed under the provisions of this section of the Constitution or not,) and all amendments thereof, and all laws inconsistent with such charter. A copy of such charter, certified by the mayor, or chief executive officer, and authenticated by the seal of such city, setting forth the submission of such charter to the electors, and its ratification by them, shall after the approval of such charter by the legislature, be made in duplicate, and deposited, one in the office of the secretary of state, and the other, after being recorded in said recorder's office shall be deposited in the archives of the city, and thereafter all courts shall take judicial notice of said charter. The charter, so ratified, may be amended at intervals of not less than two years by proposals therefor, submitted by the legislative authority of the city to the qualified electors thereof at a general or special election, held at least forty days after the publication of such proposals for twenty days in a daily newspaper of general circulation in such city, and ratified by a majority of the electors voting thereon, and approved by the legislature as herein provided for the approval of the charter. Whenever fifteen per cent of the qualified voters of the city shall petition the legislative authority thereof to submit any proposed amendment or amendments to said charter to the qualified voters thereof for approval, the legislative authority thereof must submit the same. In submitting any such charter, or amendments thereto, any alternative article or proposition may be presented for the choice of the voters, and may be voted on separately without prejudice to others.
(Article XI, section 131, 1905)
Sec. 137. Nothing in this Constitution contained shall be construed as prohibiting the state or any county, city and county, city, town, municipality, or other public corporation, issuing bonds under the laws of the state, to make said bonds payable at any place within the United States designated in said bonds.
(Article XI, section 161, 1905)
Sec. 161. All moneys belonging to the state, or to any county or municipality within this state, may be deposited in any national bank or banks within this state, or in any bank or banks organized under the laws of this state, in such manner and under such conditions as may be provided by law; provided, that such bank or banks in which such moneys are deposited shall furnish as security for such deposits, bonds of the United States, or of this state or of any county, municipality or school district within this state, to be approved by the officer or officers designated by law, to an amount in value of at least ten per cent in excess of the amount of such deposit; and provided, that such bank or banks shall pay a reasonable rate of interest, not less than two per cent per annum on the daily balances therein deposited, and provided, that no deposit shall at any one time exceed fifty per cent of the paid-up capital stock of such depository bank or banks, and prorided further, that no officer shall deposit at one time more than twenty per cent of such public moneys available for deposit in any bank while there are other qualified banks requesting such deposits.
(Article XI, section 18, 1900)
ANNUAL DEBT NOT TO EXCEED ANNUAL INCOME
Sec. 18. No county, city, town, township, board of education, or school districts, shall incur any indebtedness or liability in any manner or for any purpose exceeding in any year the income and revenue provided for such year, without the assent of two thirds of the qualified electors thereof, voting at an election to be held for that purpose, nor unless before or at the time of incurring such indebtedness provision shall be made for the collection of an annual tax sufficient to pay the interest on such indebtedness as it falls due, and also provision to constitute a sinking fund for the payment of the principal thereof on or before maturity, which shall not exceed forty years from the time of contracting the same; provided, however, that the City and County of San Francisco may at any time pay the unpaid claims, with interest thereon at the rate of five per cent per annum, for materials furnished to and work done for said city and county during the forty-first, forty-second, forty-third, forty-fourth, and fiftieth fiscal years, and for unpaid teachers' salaries for the fiftieth fiscal year, out of the income and revenue of any succeeding year or years, the amount to be paid in full of said claims not to exceed in the aggregate the sum of five hundred thousand dollars, and that no statute of limitations shall apply in any manner to these claims; and provided further, that the City of Vallejo, of Solano County, may pay its existing indebtedness incurred in the construction of its waterworks whenever two thirds of the electors thereof voting at an election held for that purpose shall so decide, and that no statute of limitations shall apply in any manner. Any indebtedness or liability incurred contrary to this provision, with the exceptions hereinbefore recited, shall be void. [Amendment adopted November 6, 1900.]
(Article XI, section 18, 1906)
(The following added to the section :)
The city and county of San Francisco, the city of San José and the town of Santa Clara may make provision for a sinking fund, to pay the principal of any indebtedness incurred, or to be hereafter incurred, by it, to commence at a time after the incurring of such indebtedness of not more than a period of one fourth of the time of maturity of such indebtedness, which shall not exceed seventy-five years from the time of contracting the same. Any indebtedness incurred contrary to any provision of this section shall be void. (Article XIII, section 1, 1894; section 13, 1900; section 1%, 1902; section 123,
PROPERTY TO BE TAXED ACCORDING TO VALUE-EXEMPTIONS
SECTION 1. All property in the State, not exempt under the laws of the United States, shall be taxed in proportion to its value, to be ascertained as provided by law. The word “ property," as used in this article and section, is hereby declared to include moneys, credits, bonds, stocks, dues, franchises, and all other matters and things, real, personal, and mixed, capable of private ownership; provided, that property used for free public libraries and free museums, growing crops, property used exclusively for public schools, and such as may belong to the United States, this State, or to any county or municipal corporation within this State, shall be exempt from taxation. The Legislature may provide, except in case of credits secured by mortgage or trust deed, for a deduction from credits of debts due to bona fide residents of this State. [Amendment adopted November 6, 1894.]
CHURCHES EXEMPT FROM TAXATION SEC. 11. All buildings, and so much of the real property on which they are situated as may be required for the convenient use and occupation of said buildings, when the same are used solely and exclusively for religious worship, shall be free from taxation; provided, that no building so used which may be rented for religious purposes and rent received by the owner therefor, shall be exempt from taxation. [ Amendment adopted November 6, 1900.]
STATE, COUNTY, AND CITY BONDS EXEMPT FROM TAXATION SEC. 11. All bonds hereafter issued by the State of California, or by any county, city and county, municipal corporation, or district (including school, reclamation, and irrigation districts) within said State, shall be free and exempt from taxation. [New section; amendment adopted November 4, 1902.1
FRUIT AND NUT-BEARING TREES EXEMPT FROM TAXATION Sec. 123. Fruit and nut-bearing trees under the age of four years from the time of planting in orchard form, and grapevines under the age of three years from the time of planting in vineyard form, shall be exempt from taxation, and nothing in this article shall be construed as subjecting such trees and grapevines to taxation. [Amendment adopted November 6, 1894.]
Article thirteen of the Constitution of the State of California is hereby amended by striking therefrom and repealing section five thereof, which section reads as follows:
“Sec. 5. Every contract hereafter made, by which a debtor is obligated to pay any tax or assessment on money loaned, or on any mortgage, deed of trust, or other lien, shall, as to any interest specified therein, and as to such tax or assessment, be null and void."
(Article XX, section 16, 1905) Sec. 16. When the term of any officer or commissioner is not provided for in this Constitution, the term of such officer or commissioner may be declared by law; and, if not so declared, such officer or commissioner shall hold his position as such officer or commissioner during the pleasure of the authority making the appointment; but in no case shall such term exceed four years; provided, however, that in the case of any officer or employé of any municipality governed under a legally adopted charter, the provisions of such charter with reference to the tenure of office or the dismissal from office of any such officer or employé shall control.
(Article XX, section 17, 1902)
HOURS OF LABOR
SEC. 17. The time of service of all laborers or workmen or mechanics employed upon any public works of the State of California, or of any county, city and county, city, town, district, township, or any other political subdivision thereof, whether said work is done by contract or otherwise, shall be limited and restricted to eight hours in any one calendar day, except in cases of extraordinary emergency caused by fire, flood, or danger to life and property, or except to work upon public, military, or naval works or defenses in time of war, and the Legislature shall provide by law that a stipulation to this effect shall be incorporated in all contracts for public work, and prescribe proper penalties for the speedy and efficient enforcement of said law. [Amendment adopted November 4, 1902.]