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INTRODUCTION. SPEAKER. Now, that the Sacred Writings are thus inspired, we have abund- sent man in a lapsed state, a rebellious and fallen being, alienated from God snt evidence of various kinds, amounting to a moral demonstration. For, and goodness, averse by nature to all that is good and amiable, and prone to
L The sacred writers themselves expressly claim Divine inspiration ; and every thing that is sinful and hateful, and consequently exposed to the eter sahesitatingly and unequivocally assert that the Scriptures are the Word of nal wrath of God. The Scriptures, however, do not leave us in this wrotched God. All the prophets, in the Old Testament, speak most decidedly of them- stato ; but they propose an adequate remedy for all our diseases, and an ample selves, and their predecessors, as declaring not their own words, but the supply for all our wants. They show us how to be delivered from the doword of God. (2 Sa. xili. 1, 2 Ne. ix. 30. Ps. xix. 7..11. Is. viii. 20. Je. xx. minion and awful consequences of sin, and how human nature may be truly 1.9. U. 3, 4. xxvi. 12.19. Eze. i. 1..3. Xxxviii. 16, 17. Da. ix. 12, 13. Mi. iii. improved and perfected, through the obedience, death, and mediation of the 1.12 Zee. i. 5, 6.) They propose things, not as matters for consideration, only begotten Son of God, by recsiving him as made of God unto us wisdom, at for adoption: they do not leave us the alternative of receiving or reject righteousness, sanctification, and redemption--as an effectual root and prinng: they do not present us with their own thoughts, but exclaim, Thus ciple of holiness; and by walking in him by faith, denying ungodliness and si the LORD, and on that ground claim our assent. The Apostles and worldly lusts, and living soberly, righteously, and godly in this present miters of the New Testament, also speak respecting the prophets of the Old world, sotting our affections on things above, where Christ is, and mortisy. festament, 'as holy men of God, who spake as they were moved by tho ing, through the Holy Spirit, every sinful and corrupt affection. We are Holy Ghost' (2 Pe. 1. 19..21. He. i. 1, 2.) These writings are expressly af: taught to love the Lord our God with all our heart and all our soul ; to lovo firmed to be the Oracles of God,' (Ro. iij. 2.); and it is declared that all our neighbours as ourselves ; to fulfil perfectly the particular duties of every Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for relative station ; to lay aside all malice, envy, hatred, revenge, and other reprool, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God malovolent dispositions or passions; to love our enemies ; to render good for may be perfeet, thoroughiy furnished unto all good works.' Our Saviour evil, blessing for cursing; and to pray for them who despitefully use us. hinalf expressly recognizes them, on various occasions, as the infallible These laws of universal purity and benevolence are prescribed with an auWord of God, and of Divine authority. (Mat. iv. 4..11. xii. 1..5, 41, 42. thority proper only to God, and extended to such a compass and degree as
. L. 14. IXIL 2..32, 41.46. Mar. vii. 1..9. Lu. iv. 23. 27. xvi. 29..31. Jn. v. God alone can demand ; and thuse sins are forbidden which God alone 39. 47.) The sacred writers of the New Testainent also adopt language, could either observe or prohibit. The most powerful motives to duty and which, in its most obvious meaning, claims the attention of their readers to dissuasives from vice, are wisely proposed and powerfully urged ; motives their own instructions as to the Word of God ; and they also thus attest and drawn from the nature and perfections, the promises and threatenings, the sanction one apother's writings in the most unequivocal manner. (1 Co. vii.
mercies and judgments of God, particularly from his overflowing benevolence 39, 40. i Th. iv. 6..8. 2 Pe. iii. 1..4, 14..16.) Now, admitting the veracity of and mercy in the work of our redemption, and from advantages and disadthe writers, (which, we have seen, is absolutely unimpeachable,) we must vantages, temporal, spiritual, and eternal. And, while the most excellent admit that the Seriptures are the inspired and infallible word of God. I means of directing and exciting to the exercise of piety and virtue are they were rise men, (and every man must perceive that they were neither established in the most excellent forms and authoritative manner, the most imorant nor void of sense.) they could not have been deluded into the perfect and engaging patterns of holiness and virtue are set before us in the imagination that "hey, their predecessors and contemporaries, were inspired ; example of our Redeemer, and of God as reconciled in Him, and reconciling and, if they were good men, (as they certainly must have been, for bed men, the world to himself. Now, all these things were written at a time when all if they could, would not have written a book which so awfully condemned the rest of the world, even the wisest, and most learned, and most celebrated themselves.) they would not have thus confidently asserted their own inspi- nations of the earth, were sunk in the grossest ignorance of God and religion; ration, and sanctioned that of each other, unless they had been inspired ; were worslapping idols and brute beasts, indulging themselves in the most they would not have ascribed their own inventions to inspiration, especially abominable vicea, living in envy, hatred, and strife, hateful, and hating one as such forgeries are bo severely reprobated in every part of them. Con- another. It is a most singular circumstance, that a people in a remote, obpendly, the Bible must be the word of God, inspired by him, and thus
scure corner of the world, far inforior to several heathen nations in learning, given to man.
in philosophy, in genius, in science, and in all the polite arts, should yet be 2 A great many wise and good men, through many generations, of various o infinitely their superiors in their ideas of a Supreme Being, and of every nations, and in different countries, have agreed in receiving the Bible as a thing relative to morality and religion. This cannot be accounted for on Divine revelation. The Jews have unquestionably in all ages acknowledged any other supposition than that of their having been instructed in these the Scriptures of the Old Testament as the word of God; and Christians, things by God himself, or by persons commissioned and inspired by Him; from the earliest ages to the present time, have not been less backward in that is, of their having been really savoured with those Divine revelations testifying the belief in the inspiration of both the Old and New Testament. which are recorded in the sacred books of the Old and New Testaments. Many of them have been distinguished for piety, erudition, penetration, and Indeed, both the doctrines and morality of the Sacred Scriptures infinitely impartiality in judging of men and things. With infinite labour and patient transcend the abilities of the penman, if they were not inspired. Men of the investigation, they detected the impostures by which their contemporaries best education, far less men of no education, could not of themselves form were doned; but the same assiduous examination confirmed them in be- such exalted schemes of religion, piety, and virtue ; and wicked men, as hieving the Bible to be the word of God; and induced them, living and they must have been if they wero impostors, would not publish and prosecute dying to recommend it to all others, as the source of all true wisdom, hope, such a scheme of mystery, holiness, and morality, and consolation. Now, although this does not amount to a demonstration, 5. The harmony of the sacred writers fully demonstrates that they wrote yet it is a strong presumptive proof, of the inspiration of tho Scriptures; hy the inspiration of the Spirit of God. Other historians continually differ and it most be allowed to bo a consideration of vast importance, that the from each other the errors of the former writers are constantly criticised whole company of those who worshipped the living God in spirit and in and corrected by the latter; and it even frequently happens that contempotruth,' ineluding those who laid down their lives as a testimony of their un- rary writers contradict each other in relating a fact that happened in their Bhaken belief, and who wore the most pious, holy, and useful men in every own time, and within the sphere of their own knowledge. Should an equal age, have unanimously concurred in handing them down to us as a divine number of contemporaries, of the same country, education, habits, profesrerelation, and have very little differed about the books which form that sion, natural disposition, and rank in life, associating together as a distinct sacred deposit
company, concur in writing a book on religious subjects, of even less extent 2. The matter contained in the Scriptures requires a Divine inspiration than that of the Bible, each furnishing nis proportion without comparing setting aside, for a moment, the prediction of future events, and the excel. notes, the attentive reader would easily discover among them considerable ledey of its doctrines and morality, and merely admitting the veracity of the diversity of opinion. But the writers of the Scriptures succeeded each other wered writers, (which we have every reason to do.) we must admit that during a period of nearly sixteen hundred years; some of them were princes mrh of the information contained in the Bible absolutely required a Divine or priests, others shepherds or fishermen ; their natural abilities, education, Frelation. The history of the creation, part of that of the flood, &c. as re- habits, and occupations, were exceedingly dissimilar ; they wrote laws, hislated in the Scripturca, could have been known to God alone. Mysteries tory, prophecy, odes, devotional exercises, proverbs, parables, doctrines, and relative to a Trinity of persons in the Godhead, the nature and perfections controversy, and each had his distinct department; yet they all exactly agree of God, -the covenant of grace,-the incarnation of the Son of God, -hijs in the exhibition of the perfections, works, truths, and will of God ; of the media’orial offices, and redemption through his blood-justification, adop- nature, situntion, nnd obligations of man; of sin and salvation ; of this world bon, sanctification, and eternal blessedness in him,-and the offices of the and the next; and, in short, in all things connected with our duty, safety, Holy Spirit the Comforter,-these, and many others of a like nature, God interest, and comfort, and in the whole of the religion which they have oniy could either comprehend or discovor. Mysteries, therefore, in the promulged: they all were evidently of the same judgment, aimed to esStriptures, rather confirm than invalidate their inspiration : for a book, tablish the same principles, and applied them to the same practical purposes. claiming to be a revelation from God, and yet devoid of mystery, would, by One part of Scripture is so intimately connected with, and tends so powerthis very circumstance, confute itself. Incomprehensibility is inge paraule fully to the establishment or another, that one part cannot be reasoundly refrom God and his works, even in the most inconsiderable, such, for instance, ceived without receiving the whole ; and the more carefully it is examined, as the cowl: of a blade of grass. The mysteries of the Scriptures are sub- and the inore diligently it is compared, the more evident will it appear, that lurre, interesting, and useful : they display the Divine perfections ; lay a every part, like the stones in an arch, supports, and receives support from the frondation for our hope ; and inculcate humility, reverence, holiness, love, rest, and that they unitedly constitute one grand and glorious whole. In and grabi lode. What is incomprehensible must be mysterious; but it may both the Old and New Testaments, the subsequent books, or succeeding be intelligible as far as it is revealed ; and though it be connected with parts of the same book, are connected with the preceding, as the narrative thibo abore our reason, it may irnply nothing contrary to it. Hence, it may either of the execution of a plan, or of the fulfilment of a prediction. If we be confulently inferred, from these matters contained in the Scriptures, that receive the history, we must also receive the prediction; if we admit the prethay were given by inspiration of God.
diction, we must also admit the history. Every where the same facts are sup« The scheme or doctrine and morality contained in the Bible is so exalt. posed, related, or prepared for ; the same doctrines of a gracious redemption ed, pure, and benevolent, that God alone could either devise or appoint it. through Jesus Christ exhibited or supposed to be true; the same rules or ex. la tha Seriptures alone, and in such books as make them their basis, is tho emplifications of piety and virtue; the same motives and inducements to the infioite God introduced as speaking in a manner worthy of himself, with performance of duty; the same promises of mercy, and threatenings of just siruplicity, mjesty, and authority. His character, as there delineated, com- misery to persons, societies, or nations, without a single contradiction. prixes all posible excellence, without any intermixture ; his laws and ordi- Apparene inconsistencies may indeed perplex the superficial reader ; but they cances acend with his perfections ; his works and dispensations exhibit vanish before an accurate and persevering investigation ; nor could any then ; and all his dealing with his creatures bear the stamp of infinite charge of disagreement among the sacred writers ever be substantiated ; for wisdom, power, justice, purity, truth, goodness, and mercy, harmoniously it could only be said that they related the same facts with different circumdisplayed. While the Supreme Being is thus described as possessed of every stances, which are perfectly reconcileable, and that they gave instructions perfection, unbounded and incomprehensible in his essence and nature, and as suited to the persons they addressed, according to various circumstances of the Creator, Governor, and Benefactor of his creatures, the Scriptures repre. time, place, and manner, without systematically showing their harmons w
INTRODUCTION. other parts of divine truth. They did not write in concert, and they be the latest of which was delivered 1700 years ago, and some of them 8006 stowed no pains to avoid the appearance of inconsistency; yet the exact years ago, the descendants of Shem and Japheth are • ruling' and enlarged, coincidences plainly perceptible among them,—not only in their grand, pri and the wretched descendants of Ham are still the servants of servants,' mary, and general objects, which are written as with the beams of the sun, (Ge. ix. 25..27.) ;-the posterity of Ishmael have ‘multiplied exceedingly,' but in particular subjects comprehended in their plan, and even in particular and become ' a great nation' in the Arabians; yet living like 'wild men,' and words and expressions, (though they evidently borrowed nothing from one shifting from place to place in the wilderness,' their hand against every another,)—is truly astonishing, and cannot be accounted for on any rational man, and every man's hand against them,' and still dwelling,' an independprinciples, without admitting that they all wrote 'as they were moved by ent and free people, ' in the presence of all their brethren,' and in the prethe Holy Ghost,'—that all their writings were indited under the influence of sence of all their enemies, (Ge. xvj. 10.. 12. xvii. 20.) ;-the family of Esau has the same Spirit, and flowed from the same infallible Source.
become extinct, 'cut off for ever,' so that there is none' remaining of the 6. The multitude of miracles, which only the infinite power of God could house of Esau,' (Je. xlix. 17, &c. Eze. xxv. 12, &c. Joel iii. 19. Am. i. 11, &c. effect, wrought in confirmation of the divine mission of the writers of the Ob. 10, 18, &c.) ;- the sceptre has departed from Judah,' (Ge. xlix. 10.), Sacred Scriptures, afford us a most convincing proof of their inspiration. It though the Jews still' dwell alone, and are not reckoned among the nahas been already seen, that the narrations of these miracles were published tions,' while the remembrance of Amalek is utterly put out from under very soon after the time, and at the places, in which they were said to have heaven,' (Nu. xxiii. 9. xxiv. 20 ) ;-Nineveh is so completely destroyed, that been wrought; that they were performed in the most conspicuous manner, the place thereof cannot be known, (Na. L.III.) ;--Babylon has been swept before very great multitudes, enemies as well as friends ; that they were of with the besom of destruction, and is made 'a desolation for ever, a posses such a nature,-appealing to the very senses of men, -as totally precluded sion for the bitiern and pools of water,'' a dwelling place for dragons, an the possibility of deception; that public ceremonies were instituted in astonishment and hissing, without an inhabitant,' (Isa. XIII. XIV.) ;-Tyre memory of several of them, which have been observed in all ages ; that the has become like the top of a rock, a place for fishers to spread their nets reality of them, as facts, was admitted even by the most determined enemies upon," (Eze. xxvi. 4, 5.) ;-Egypt,' a base kingdom, the basest of the kingof Divine revelation ; that the witnesses, from whom we have received the doms,' still tributary and subject to strangers, so that it has never been able accounts of them, were many in number, unanimous in their evidence, of un- to exalt itself above the nations,' (Eze. xxix. 14, 15.) ;-the fourth and last questionable good sense, undoubted integrity, and unimpeachable veracity, of the four great empires, which was greater and more powerful than any of who showed the sincerity of their own conviction by acting under the uni. the foriner, has been divided into ten lesser kingdoms; and among them has form influence of the extraordinary works to which they bore witness, in arisen a power with a triple crown diverse from the first,' with 'a mouth opposition to all their former notions and prejudices, and in contradiction of speaking very great things,' and with a look more stout than his fellows, every worldly honour, profit, or advantage, either for themselves or friends, speaking great things against the Most High, wearing out the saints of and at last by laying down their lives in confirmation of the facts which they the Most High, and changing times and laws,' which did 'cast down the attested ; and that vast multitudes of their contemporaries, men of almost truth to the ground, and prosper, and practice, and destroy the holy people, all ages, tempers, and professions, were persuaded by them that they really not regarding the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard were performed in the manner related, and gave the strongest testimony any god,' but 'honouring the god of forces,' or Mauzzim, gods-protectors, which was in their power of the firmness of their belief, by foregoing every and causing the priests of Mauzzim “to rule over many, and divide the land worldly advantage, and suffering every temporal evil which was endured by for gain,' (Da. xi. 37..39.) Jerusalem has been destroyed, with all the cirthe original witnesses. To this it may be added, that the number of the cumstances related in the Evangelists, and the Jews have been 'led away miracles is almost incalculable; that they were all calculated to answer into all nations, and Jerusalem trodden down by the Gentiles,' through a some great and benevolent end, every way worthy of the infinitely wise and long series of ages, (Lu. xxi. 24.) ;-for their infidelity and disobedience to beneficent Creator; that they were wrought in attestation of nothing but their great Prophet like unto Moses, they have been 'plucked from off their what was agreeable to reason, so far as reason could apprehend it, and in own land, and removed into all the kingdoms of the earth, and scattered confirmation of a religion the most holy, pure, and benevolent; and per- among the heathen, among the nations, among all people, from one end of formed by persons of the greatest moral worth, and the most eminent pat- the earth even to the other,' sifted ' among all nations, like as corp is sifted tems of every virtue. Now, admitting the reality of the miracles related in in a sieve,' having been left sew in number among the heathen,' have'pined the Sacred Writings, (as every unprejudiced mind must be constrained to away in their iniquity in their enemies' lands,' have become an astonishdo,) and rationally believing, that the Supreme Being, the God of truth, wis- ment, a proverb, and a by-word among all nations,' 'a reproach, a taunt, dom, and goodness, can never give his testimony to falsehood, it irresistibly and a curse,' have found 'among these nations no ease, and the sole of their follows that the Scriptures are, as they unequivocally claim to be, the Word root has had no rest; but the Lord has given them a trembling heart, and of God, written by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.
failing of eyes, and sorrow of mind, and sent a faintness into their hearts in 7. The astonishing and miraculous preservation of the Scriptures from be- the lands of their enemies, so that the sound of a shaken leaf has chased ing either lost or corrupted, is an overwhelming instance of God's providen- them,' and they have been 'many days without a king, and without a prince. tial care, and a constant sanction and confirmation of their truth and Divine and without a sacrifice, and without an image, and without an ephod, and authority, continued by Him in all ages of the church. While the histories without a teraphim,' (Le. xxvi. 38, 39. Deut. xxix. 62.67. Ezo. v. 10..15. Ho. of mighty empires, and innumerable volumes of philosophy and literature, in iii. 4.); and yet, while their mighty conquerors are every whera destroyed, the preservation of which the admiration and care of all mankind seemed to they are miraculously preserved a distinct people, and neither swallowed up conspire, have been lost and forgotten in the lapse of time, the Sacred Scrip- nor lost among the various nations amidst whom they are dispersed, but are tures, though far more ancient, and though hated and opposed by Satan and reserved · until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled,' when they shall ‘seek his agents in all ages, who sought with the deadliest hatred to cause their the Lord their God, and David their king: and shall fear the Lord and his very memory to perish from among men, have come down to our own lime goodness in the latter days;'-in the mean time, the Gentiles have been adentire and genuine, free from every material error, and nearly in their original vanced in their room, and God has given to the Messiah 'the heathen for purity. With great wisdom, God, for their preservation, ordered an original his inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for his possession,' (Ps. copy to be deposited in the holy of holies, (Deut. xxxi. 26); appointed the 11. 8.), and the gradual, but progressive, and steadily advancing conversion careful and frequent reading of them, both in public and private; and that of heathen nations in our own days, prepares us to expect the speedy arrival every Hebrew monarch should write out a copy for his own use, (Deul xvii. of the time when Jehovah shall be worshipped 'from the rising of the sun 18.) With astonishing kindness and wisdom has he made the various con- even to the going down of the same,' and when his name shall be great tending parties who had access to the Scriptures, such as the Jews and Is- among the Gentiles,' (Mal. i. 11.) ;--the grand apostacy from the Christian raelites, the Jews and Samaritans, the Pharisees and Sadducees, the Jews faith has already taken place, which consists in giving heed to reducing and Christians, and the various sects and parties of Christians,-mutual spirits, and doctrines of devils, (or demons, worshipping angels and departed checks upon each other for almost three thousand years, that they might saints, and is promoted through) speaking lies in hypocrisy, having their not be able either to extirpate or corrupt any part of them; and by quickly consciences seared with a hot iron ; forbidding to marry, and communding multiplying the copies both of the original and translations, as well as the te abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanks. readers of the Scriptures, he rendered it absolutely impossible to falsify giving of them which believe and know the truth,' (1 Ti. iv. 1..3.) The seren them in any thing important, without causing the corruption to start up in churches of Asia lie in the same desolate state that the angel signified to every copy dispersed through the world, and in the minds of almost every St. John, (Re. II. III.) their candlestick removed out of its place,' their reader-than which supposition nothing can be more absurd and monstrous. churches turned into mosques, and their worship into superstition ;-aud the By what tremendous judgments did he restrain and punish Antiochus characters of the beast and false prophet,'-to whom. was given to make Epiphanes, the Syro-grecian king, Dioclesian, the Roman emperor, and war with the saints, and to overcome them,' and power over all kindreds, others, who attempted to destroy the Sacred Scriptures, in order to extirpate and tongues, and nations,' so that ‘all that dwell upon the earth worshipped the Jewish or Christian religion! And he has bestowed amazing support him,'-have been exemplified in every particular, and also those of the and consolation on such as have risked or parted with their lives rather whore of Babylon,'' mystery, Babylon the great, the mother of harlots, and than deny the dictates of Scripture, or in the least contribute to their de- abominations of the earth : with whom the kings of the earth have commitstruction or misinterpretation. During the profanation of Antiochus, who ted fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with ever was found with the book of the law was put to death, and every copy the wine of her fornication,' while she herself has been drunken with the that could be found, burned with fire ; and Dioclesian, after the most bar- blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus,' and she is barous havoc of the Christians, issued an edict, commanding them, on pain that great city (sented upon soven mountains) which reigneth over the kings of death under the most cruel forms, to deliver up their Bibles; though of the earth,' (Re. XIII. XVII.) These, and many other events, sulfilling anmany complied with this sanguinary edict, yet the greater part disregarded cient predictions, very many ages after they were delivered, can never be it; and notwithstanding these, and numberless other calamities, the Sacred accounted for, except by allowing, that He who sees and declares the end Volumes have survived pure and uncorrupted t the present day, and doubt from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done,' leas will exist as long as there is a church in the world-till the end of time (Isa. xlv. 21.), thus revealed his secret purposes, that their accomplishment and the consummation of all things~ monument of God's uncensing and might prove the Scriptures to be His word. The prophecies also, though providential carc, and an unquestionable altestation of their inspiration and written by different men, in different ages, have yet a visible connexion and Divine authority.
dependency, an entire harmony and agreement with one another; forming 8. The prophecies contained in the Sacred Scriptures, and fulfilling to this altogether a prophetical history of the world, as to the grand outlines, from day, which form a species of perpetual miracles, challenging the investiga- the beginning of time to the consummation of all things; and accompanied tion of mon of every age, fully demonstrate that they are divinely inspired with such a distinct notation of order, place, and time, as has been justly Almost every historical passage of the Bible is a narrative of something an- termed the geography and chronology of prophecy. As ono prediction retecedently foretold ; and the New Testament is little else than a relation of ceived its accomplishment, others were given, connecting prophocy with the fulfilment of the predictions and types of the Old Testament, relative to history, till the Revelation of St. John concluded the whole; and even to
INTRODUCTION. predictions. So many extraordinary and improbable events, which have oco | Christians are not at all qualified to dispute with infidels, yet they are ena. curred through so many ages, and in so many nations, as foretold in the bled, through this inward testimony, to obey the Gospel, and to suffer in its Scriptores, could only have been made known by the Omniscient God hiin- cause; and they can no more be convinced by reasonings and objections, that self; and must convince every rational mind, that the prophecy came not uninspired men wrote or invented the Bible, than they can be persuaded that of oid line by the will of man; but boly men of God spake as they were man created the sun, whose light they behold, and by whose beams they are moved by the Holy Ghost' 2 Pet. i. 20, 21.
warned and cheered. 2. The extraordinary success which has attended Christianity, which is founded on the Sacred Scriptures, while it proves the truth of the facts TESTIMONY TO THE CORRECTNESS OF THE AUTHORIZED which they detail, and demonstrates the fulfilment of the prophecies they
TRANSLATION. cootain, is a continued miraculous proof of their divine origin. Other relirions have owed ucir extension and prevalence to the celebrity of their The venerable Bede seems to have been the first person who attempted the founders, to the learning of their advocates, to their conformity to the pre- translation of the Scriptures into Anglo-Saxon. He translated the Psalter, jadies and passions of men, to the energy of the secular arm, or even to the and afterwards the Gospel of John. This was in A. D. 734. In the latter Dover of the sword; but Christianity was totally destituto of all these ad part of the next century, Alfted the Great ordered the whole Bible to be vantages (if such they may he termed,) either to recommend or enforce its translated into Anglo-Saxon, and himself undertook to translate the Book of reception in the world. Its founder was put to an ignominious death by the Psalms, but died in A. D. 900, before it was completed. Little or nothing commog consent of his countrymen ; its original promulgators were twelve was done in the next 400 years, till the time of Wickliffe, who, in 1380, comWliterate men, wholly devoid of every kind of worldly intluence; its doc- pleted the whole Bible. In the fifteenth century printing was invented, and trines were opposed to the principles and practices of the whole world, immediately employed for multiplying copies of the Scriptures. In 1526, deeply rated by inclination, and firmly established by extensive custom, by William Tyndal (a Welshman) printed his first New Testament at Antwerp, loog contirted laws, and by the higli and universal authority of patious. and was soon after burned for heresy in Flanders. He expired praying, Yet, by the simple preaching of the Gospel, Christianity triumphed over the
“Lord, open the King of England's eyes!" cralt, rage, and power of the infuriated Jews,-over the haughtiness, policy, Henry VIII. was long averse to having the Scriptures in English ; but as and power of the Roman empire, -over the pride of learning, and the obsti. soon as Cranmer could get permission, he divided the New Testament into nary of ignorance, hatred, prejudice, and lust, -over the hardened inclina- nine parts, and sent it to as many learned divines for a new translation, who tona, deep-rooted customs, and long-established laws of both Jews and all performed their parts except Tonstall, Bishop of London, who sent word Pagans, - that, notwithstanding every conceivable forma of opposition, to the Archbishop, he would have no liand in it. The work was, however, within a few years after Christ's Ascension, it prevailed, in a greater or less finished; and, after much difficulty, printed and published. In 1539, Lord degree, in almost every corner of the Roman empire, and in the countries ad- Cromwell procured from Henry VIII. license for the people to read the Word jaarst; and multitudes, at the hazard of every temporal loss or punishinent, of God i and the permission was most joyfully received. The first Bible thus readily believed, constantly adhered to, and cheerfully and strictly practised tolerated was called Coverdale's, because he superintended the publication, its pare and holy precepts. Nor has the success of Christianity been con- During the next reign, that of Edward VI., Bibles were placed in all the &ned to the early ages only ; for, during the period of eighteen centuries, churches; but wore again displaced at the accession of the crue! Queen Datwithstanding innumerable persecutions, together with the wickedness of Mary, and every person endangered his life who was found reading it* profesors, and the inconceivable villanies and base indifference of the clergy. Great numbers of the clergy, and other friends to the Reformation, now fled it has been more or less successful in reforming the hearts and lives of mul- to Geneva, where the edition called the Geneva Bible war printed, in 1560. tituides in almost every nation under heaven; and we may assert, that even Eight years afterwards, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, was printed the at present, there are many thousands, who have been reclaimed from a pro- Bishops' Bible; so called as being prepared and published under the care of fane and immoral course of conduct, to sobriety, equity, truth, purity, and Archbishop Parker, with the aid of seven other Bishops. puty, and to an exemplary behaviour in the relative duties of life. Having
At the Hampton Court Conference, in 1603, Dr. Rainolds suggested tho been 'made free from sin, and become the servants of God, they have their propriety of a new translation, which being approved by the King, fisy-four fruit unto holiness ;' and, after 'patiently continuing in weil-doing,' and learned divines, of Westminster and the two English Universities, were ap. cheerfully bearing various afflictions, they joyfully meet death, being suppointed to the task, though forty-seven only appear to have engaged in it. portert by the hope of eternal life, 'as the gift of God through Jesus Christ:' The divines of Westminster translated the historical books of the Old Testawhile tbey who are best acquainted with them, are most convinced, that ment, from Genesis to Chronicles, and also the Apostolical Episties ; those they have been rendered more wise, holy, and happy, by believing the Bible; at Cambridge took the rest of the Old Testament to the end of Ecclesiastes, and that there is a reality in religion, though various interests and passions and the Apocrypha; and the divines of Oxford, the Prophets, the Gospels, mar kpop thean from duly embracing it. This would, indeed, be far more the Acts, and the Apocalypse. apparent were the Gospel more generally, or fully believed and obeyed. Among the Westminster divines were Drg. (afterwards Bishops) Andrews Did ali men believe and obey the Bible, as a divine revelation ; were repent and Overall. The foriner said to be acquainted with fifteen languages, and a ance, and renunciation of all vice and immorality, universal or even general, most excellent divine : the other, unquestionably a man of learning, and combined with the spiritual worship of God, faith in his truth and mercy, Rogius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge. Dr. Seravia, who had been Prothrough the mediation of his Son, and the fruits of the Holy Spirit, as visi fessor of Divinity at Leyden, and, after coming to England, Prebend of Westble in erery true believer, they would form the bulk of mankind into such minster. He was the bosom friend of the immortal Hooker, who actually characters, and would produce such eff ts, as the world has never yet wit- died in his arms. An Mr Bedwell, a great Arabic scholar. The University Doved. Men would then habitually and uniformly do justice, speak truth, lists included the Professors of Greek and Hebrew, Archbishop Abbot, and how meres, exercise mutual forgiveness, follow after peace, bridle their Dr. Rainolds, with whom the work originated, and other divines, of eminent appetites and passion, and lead sober, righteous, and godly lives. Murders, learning and great respectability. When the work was gone through, three wars, elavery, cruel oppressions, rapine, fraud, and unrestrained licentious- copies were sent to Stationers' Hall, London, and revised by two divines
, would no more desolate the earth, nor fill it with misery, nor would from each University, and two from Westminster. The whole was again rebitter contentions ever more destroy domestic comfort ; but righteousness, viewed by Bilson, Bishop of Winchester, and Dr. Myles Smith; these progødness, and truth, would blew the world with a felicity far exceeding all fixed arguments to the several books, and the latter wrote the preface to the our present conceptions. Such has been the extraordinary success and happy whole. In 1611, the work was published, dedicated to the King, and ordered eterus of the religion of the Bible; and such is doubtless the direct and le. to be read in churches. Etimate tendency of its doctrines, precepts, motives, and promises. To Messrs. Thompson and Orme, from whom many of these particulars are what cause, then, can we attribute the success which has attended Chris.
taken, vive it the following character :-“ Like every thing human, it is no tianity in the ab-ence of every thing else to recommend or enforce it, but to doubt imperfect; but, as a traukintion of the Bible, it has few rivals, and no an Almighty intiuence accompanying the preaching of the Gospel'-to its superior. It is in general faithful, simple, and perspicuous. It has seized the kinz preached with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven?' And is not spirit, and copied the manner of the divine originals; it seldom descends to the vne of the strongest possible attestations made by the God of truth meanneas or vulgarity, but often rises to elegance and sublimity; it is level bimall, to the truth and Divine inspiration of the Sacred Volume? And, to the understanding of the cottager, and fit to meet the eye of the critic, the wise ils extraordinary success and effects thus constrain us to admit the poet, and the philosopher. Its phraseology is now familiar to us from our Ditte authority of the Scriptures, the holy and happy tendency of its doc- infancy; it has had the most extensive influence on the style of religious tripes proves, that they could not have originated either with bad angels or works of every description, and has contributed much to fix the standard of Diil, since they are so diametrically opposite to their vicious inclinations, the English language itself. No work has ever been more generally read, or mletexts, and honour; nor yet with uninspired good men, who would not more universaliy adinired ; and such is its completo possession of the public Lare dared thus to personate God, and to ascribe their uwo inventions to in mind, that no translation differing materially from it can ever become spiratwe. It remajns, therefore, that God must be their author; and that popular." *troly mrn of old spake as they were moved by the lloly Ghost,'' not in the Selden, a very learned lay meniber of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, vurds which men's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth.' in his " Table Talk," says, "The English translation of the Bible is the best Co. u. 13.
translation in the world; lakiug in for the English translation the Bishops' 10. Lastly, Though these arguments are abundantly sufficient to ailence ob- Bible, as well as King James'." gretars, and to produce a rational conviction of the Divine origin and au- Bp. Ilalton, author of the Polyglot Bible, says, "The last English transla. cority of the Scriptures, yet it is only the effectual application of them to tion, made by diverse learned men at the command of King James, may justly the mind, conscience, and heart, in their self-evidencing light and power, contend with any now extant, in any language of Europe." wlach can produce a cordial and saving persuasion that they are indeed L. Carellus, Professor of Divinity and the Oriental languages at Saumur, TIE WOUD OF GOD. But when thus applied, then He that believeth bath and author of the " Critica Sacra," bears witness to our translation as "both the wts in hunsell,' (1 Jn. v. 10.) The discoveries which he has made true and agreeable, as well to the original words as to the analogy of faith." by the Divide light of the Scriptures; the sanctifying and abiding effects Dr. Durell, a celebrated Hebrew critic, was of opinion, that "the chief Drogord op hue judgment, dispositions, and affections; the comfortable ex- excellency of the version now in use, consists in its being a closer translation pericace which he has had, that God fulfils the promises of His word to than any that had precedod; in using the properest language for popular use." then nho trust in them; and the earnests of heaven enjoyed by him in • The late Dr. Franklin relates of his pious great-grandfather, in the reign of this SERONUDO with God, put the matter beyond all doubt; so that there is no Queen, that, having an English Bible, which was then a mark of heresy, they were shuttug the eyes, bor hardening the heart against them, -no possibility of obliged to conceal it under the lid of a nighe-stool. When he read it, one of the family continuing stupid and unconcerned under them; but the whole faculties or was set to watch, lest an officer of the Spiritual Court should be on the listen ; and when the sul are necessarily affected with them, as indeed stamped with diving he had done, he restored it to its hiding-place, till another opportunity occurred of read evidence, and attended with almighty power. And, though many real ling it.- Ftanklin's Life.
INTRODUCTION. Dr. Gray says, “The present translation is, indeed, highly excellent, being in 2. The night among the Hebrews was anciently divided into three parts of its doctrines uncorrupt, and in its general construction faithful to the original." | watches, (Ps. Ixii. 6. XC. 4.) though the division of it into twelve hours, like
Dr. Diddrilgo observes, “On a diligent comparison of our translation with those of the day, also afterwards obtained. The first was called the beginning the original, we find that of the New Testament, and I might also add that of of the watches, (La. ii. 19.); the second, the middle witch, (Ju. vii. 19.) ; and the Old, in the main, faithful and judicious."
the third, the morning watch, (Ex. xiv. 24.) Subsequently, in the time of our Dr. John Taylor, author of the Hebrew Concordance, though an Arian in Saviour, the night was divided into four watches; a fourth having been iu. sentiment, assures his readers-_“You may rest fully satisfied, that, as our troduced by the Romans, who derived it from the Greeks. The first watch translation is in itself by far the most excellent book in our language, so it is commenced about six and continued till nine ; the second (Lu. xii. 38.) bea pure and plentiful fountain of divine knowledge, giving a true, clear, and gan at nine and ended at twelve; the third lasted from twelve to three; and full account of the divine dispensations, and of the gospel of our salvation ; the fourth (Mat. xiv. 25.) began at three and closed at six. All these are disinsomuch that whoever studies the English Bible, is sure of gaining that tinctly mentioned in Ma. xiii. 35. knowledge and faith, which, if duly applied to the heart and conversation, 3. Seven natural days constituted a week. This division of time appears will infallibly guide him to eternal life."
to have been observed by all nations, probably from the beginning of the Dr. Geddes, a Socinian Catholic priest, though the author of a new transla- world; and, it originated with God himself, who, after he had created the tion and commentary, bears this testimony to our authorized Protestant ver- world in six days, ' rested on the seventh,' or Sabbath, and blessed and sancsion :-" If accuracy, fidelity, and the strictest attention to the letter of the tified it. It does not appear that the Hebrews had any dames for the days text, be supposed to constitute the qualities of an excellent version, this, of of the week; but they nuinbered them in their order, the firsi, the second, all versions, must in general be accounted the most excellent.”
&c., the seventh, or last day of the week, being the Sabbath. Dr. Middleton, late Bishop of Calcutta, and author of a celebrated work on 4. The months of the Hebrews, which were lunar ones, took their name the Greek Article, thus commends the same version :--" Its general fidelity from the moon, because their months began with the new moon. As the has never been questioned ; its style is incomparably superior to any thing synodical lunar month is about 29 1-2 days, they made their month consist that might be expected from the finical and perverted taste of our own age. alternately of 29 and 30 days, according as the new moon appeared sooner or It is simple; it is harmonious; it is energetic; and, which is of no small in- later; and by this mean their months were made to keep pace nearly with portance, use has made it familiar, and time has rendered it sacred."
the lunations. In this manner the Jewish calendar was regulated by the law The Rev. Professor Stewari, of the Theological Seminary of Andover, of Moses, which appointed the day of the new moon, or rather the first day Massachusetts, gives the following decided testimony :-"Out of some eight of its appearance, to be a solemn festival, and the beginning of the month. hundred thousand various readings, about seven hundred and ninety-nine But it appears that in the time of Noah, the year consisted of twelve months, thousand are of just about as much importance to the sense of the Hebrew each of thirty days; for in the account of the deluge, 150 days are mention Scriptures, as the question in English orthography is, whether the word ed as equivalent to five months. (Ge. vii. 11, 24. viii. 3, 4, 13, 15.) From honour shall be spelled with the u or without it. Of the remainder, some these passages it appears the months originally had no particular names, change the sense of particular passages or expressions, or omit particular but were called the first, second, third, &c. Afterwards, however, they words and phrases, or insert them ; but not one doctrine of religion is acquired distinct namnes; as Abib, (Ex. xiii. 4.); Zir, (1 Kivi. I, 37.); changed ; not one precept is taken away ; not one important fact is altered, Ethanim, (1 Ki. viii. 2.); and Eul, (1 Ki. vi. 38.) These names, after the by the whole of the various readings collectively taken. There is no ground, Babylonian captivity, were exchanged for others of Chaldean, Syrian, or then, to fear for the safety of the Scriptures, on account of any legitimate Persian origin : thus Abib was termed Nisan ; Zif, lyar, &c. criticism to which the text may be subjected."
5. The Jewish year consisted of twelve lunar months, amounting to 354
days ; but, as this falls eleven days short of the solar year of 365 days, it DIVISIONS AND MARKS OF DISTINCTION IN THE SCRIPTURES. would have produced an entire change in the seasons, and with it a total de
rangement of the fasts and festivals. In order to remedy this inconvenience, 1. THE SCRIPTURES are so termed as being the most important of all they added a whole month to the year, as often as it was necessary; comWritings ; and are also called Hoły or Sacred, because composed by holy or only once in three years, and sometimes once in two years. The interinspired men; and Canonical, either because they are the rule of faith and calary month was added at the end of the ecclesiastical year, after the month practice, or because they were received into the ecclesiastical canons or Adar, and was therefore called Veader, 'and Adar,' or a second Adar.
At catalogues, and thus distinguished from those which were apocryphal, or of first the Jews began the year with the autumnal equinox, or the month uncertain authority.
Tisti, because it was believed the world was created at that time ; and from 2. The most common and general division of these Sacred Books, is that it they continued to compute their jubilees, and to date contracts and other of the Old and NEW TESTAMENT, an appellation derived from 2 Co. inl. 6, common occurrences, whence it was termed the ctot! year. But alter their 14. where the Greek words are rendered by the Latin translators, Antiquium departure from Egypt, which happened in the month Abib or Nizan, in comtestamentum, and Novum testamentum, and from them by our translators, The memoration of this deliverance, they afterward began their year from the Ou Testament, and the New Testament, would be more correctly rendered, beginning of that month, which usually happened about the time of the The Ol Corenant, and The New Covenant. The divisions of the Old Testa vernal equinox; and according to this form, which was termed the sacred or ment which now generally obtain are, 1. The Pentaleuch, or the five books ecclesiastical year, they celebrated the fasts and festivals, and other ecclesias. of Moses. 2. The Historical Books, comprising Joshua to Esther, inclusive. tical matters. 3. The Poetical, or Doctrinal Books, from Job to the Song of Solomon, in- The Jewish year being composed of months purely lunar, and the intercaclusive. 4. The Prophetical Books, from Isaiah to Malachi, The New Teslations being made of one whole lunar month at once, the commencement of tament is usually divided into, 1. The Historical Books, containing the four their months cannot be fixed to any certain day in the Julian calendar, but Gospels and the Acts. 2. The Doctrinal Books, comprising all the Epistles they fall within the compass of thirty days snoner or later. The following written by the Apostles, from Romans to Jude. 3. The Propherical, being table exhibits the Jewish months in the order of the sacred year, with the the Book of the Revelation of St. John.
corresponding months of the Julian year within the compass of which the 3. The Jews, at an early period, for the sake of convenience, divided the Jewish months fell : five books of Moses into sections, equal to the number of Sabbaths in their year. The division of chapters and verses was first attempted A. D. 1240, by
days. Cardinal Huzo, for the purpose of forming a concordance to the l'ulgate ver. 1. Nisan or Abib, the 7th month of the civil year, 30 March and April. sion. Rabbi Nathan, in 1438, adopted a similar plan in arranging a concord- 2. Zif or Iyar, the 8th month of the civil year, 29 April and May. ance of the Hebrew Bible. The division of the New Testament into verses 3. Sivan, the 9th month of the civil year,
30 May and June. was made by Robert Stephens, 1551.
4. Tammuz, the 10th month of the civil year,
29 June and July 5. Ab, the 11th month of the civil year, .
30 July and August. MODES OF COMPUTING TIME.
6. Elul, the 12th month of the civil year,
29 August and Sept
7. Tisri or Ethanim, the 1st month of the civil year, 30 Sepland October. 1. The Hebrews, in common with other nations, distinguished their days 8. Marchesvan or Bul, the 2d month of the civil year, 29 October and Nov. into natural, containing day and night; and artificial, from sunrise to sunset, 9. Chisleu, the 3d month of the civil year,
30 Nov. and Dec. They reckoned their natural days from sunsel to sunset, according to the 10. Tebeth, the 4th month of the civil year,
Dec. and Jan. original arrangement,-' the evening and the morning were the first day,' 11. Sebat, the 5th month of the civil year,
30 Jan. and Feb. (Ge. i. 5.) The artificial day, which began at sunrise and ended at sunset, 12. Adar, the 6th month of the civil year,
29 Feb, and March. consoquently varied in its length according to the season of the year, though Canaan being situated much nearer the Equator, the difference was not so The thirteenth month, Veadar, answered mostly to the end of March, it great as in our country: the longest day being only fourteen hours and being only intercalated when the beginning of Nisan would otherwise be tweive minutes of our time, and the shortest, nine hours and forty.eight carried back into the end of February. In the above table, we have given seconds.
the corresponding months of the Julian calendar as usually reckoned; but 2 The day was divided into twelve hours, which were equal with respect it is highly probable, if not certain, that the Jowish calendar has been cor. to each other, but consequently unequal with respect to the different seasons rupted, at some period subsequent to the dispersion, and that every month of the year. These hours were computed from about gjx in the morning to originally commenced one month later: thus Nisan instead of March shoule blx in the evening; the first hour corresponding to our seven o'clock, the begin in April ; lyar instead of April should begin in May, &c. For evidence second to our eigh:, the third to our nine, &c.
in support of this opinion, see MICHAELIS on the Hebrew morths. 8
INTRODUCTION TO THE NEW TESTAMENT.
* WROCVAR would attain to a true knowledge of the Christian Religion, in " the knowledge and the glory of God shall cover the earth as the waters do tho
full and just extent of it," says Locke, “let bim study the Holy Scripures; bottom of the sea. ennily the Nao Testament, wherein are contained the words of eternal It has Gud for its salvation for its end, and truth, without any
The Evidences of Christianity. mixture terror, fix its matter."
In call the latter part of our Scriptures the New Testament, reference was II. In our Introduction to the Old Testament, we touched upon several points urbibudly hard to Heb ix. 16, 17, wherein the death of Christ is represented as relative to the authenticity and inspiration of the Old Testament Scriptures ;
line lo lievers all the blessings of the Gospel: and yet the original term but whatever arguneut may be named in defence of the Jewish Scriptures, Diecieis so much ofteuer rendered Curenant than it is Testament, that we applies with two-fold, yea, with seven-fold, force in favour of the Christian ont let ate with Deldridge, Campbell, and most modern commentators. revelation, while there are others peculiar to itself, one only ot' which we can that our Scriptures would be more accurately detined, The Old and New here mention, referring our readers, who wish to examine for themselves, to Mr. Ouren;" as containing the lustury and doctrine of the Two Covenants, Horne and other able writers, hexal ani evangelical: the former ratitied by the Mosaical sacrifices; the latter, The argument here presented to our readers, is from one who boldly assumed by the author of Jesus Christ.
the character of a free-thinker," and scorned the shackles of a creed: we reThe first part of the New Teclament contains the history of Jesus Christ, as fer to ROUSSEAU. To by the four Evangelints, whose rumours are therefore usually called "I will contess to you, that the majesty of the Scriptures strikes me with adth for Gospels* as containing the good tidings of our salvation. These we miration, as the purity of the gospel bath its influence on iny bart. Peruse tho Cotier as distinct and indepandent narratives, compiled partly perhaps tron works of our Philosophers with all their pomp of diction : how mean, how contratto, lat reduced to their present form under the intluence of the same temptible are they, compared with the Scriptures! Is it possible that alkok, at Sbs which the authors preached the gospel, and wrought mimcles in its once so simple and sublime, should le merely the work of man? Is it posaiblo drick !! is questioned whether either of theso Evangelists bad seen the that the sacred personage, whose history it contains, should be bimself a inere W!!urs of the other.
man! Do we find that he assumed the tone of an enthusiast, or an ambitious Iti natural to suppose, that four persons, writing contemporary narratives, soetary! What sweetnexe, what purity in his manners! What an aflicting dit late diferent incidents relative to the same facts ; one being more in Eracefulness in his delivery! What sublimity in luis maxims! What profound prilby one circumstance, and another by a different one. It inust also be wisdom in his discourses! What presence of mind, what subtlets, what truth in tricted, that the aptles were not always together, being sent forth on dir his replies! How great the cominand over his passions! Where is the man,
sont tiesions ; Qark vi. 7.;) consequently they did not all witness the same wbrire the philosopher, who could so live, and so die, without weakness, and muro des nok all hear the same discouncs. Our Lord muht work many similar without ostentation? When Plato described his iniaginary good man, loaded minries, and deliver the same parables, with some variety of imagery or ex with all the shame of guilt, yet meriting the highest rewards of virtue, he dePression), on different occasions. Matthew or Mark might record the one, and scribed exactly the character of Jesus Christ : the resemblance was so striking, Luke of John the otlar; and this would account for discrepancice which have, that all the Fathers perceived it without praxen, been magnified into contradictions. There is also a great lati- " What prepossession, what blindness must it he, to compare the son of sothe differently rendered, may occasion seeming'inconsistencies, where are an phroniscus (Socrates) to the son of Mary! What an infinite disproportion there
is between them! Socrates, dying without pain or ignominy, easily supported es have not existed.
his character to the last ; and if his death, however easy, had not crowned his
life, it might have been doubted wiether Socrates, with all his wisdom, was any The Old and New Dispensations (or Testaments) compared. thing more than a voin sophist. He invented, it is said, the theory of morals
Others, however, had put them in practice; he had only to say, therefore, what I But there is another point of view in which the harmony of the Now Testa- they had done, and to reduce their examples 10 precepts. Aristides huuleen Dent my backítered, namely, as it corresponds with the Old Testament in just before Socrates defined justice; Leonidas had given up his life for hit counkural interestine joint of view, two or three of which we shall just mention. try before Socrates declared patriotism to be a duty; the Spartans were a sober
Constid nuslovically, we may observe, that tim: Moraic revelation is not people before sociales recommended sobriety: before he had even detined vir.
y adott lut control by that of Christ. The former may lead a dispas. iue, Greece abounded in virtuous men. But where could Jesus leam, among Sematic puro to enlace the latter ; but the latter so necessarily supposes the his competitors, that pure and sublime morality, of which he only hath given us Een that we find it dibicult to conceive of any man as a believer in Christ, both precept and example? The greatest wintlom was made known amidst the
y test. Murs and the Prophets. Indeed our Saviour himself places this in most bigotio fanaticism, and ibe simplicity of the most licroic viriuos dil honour tanut juhint of vw, when he says, "If men her not Moses and the to the vilest people upon carth. The death of Socrates, peaceably philosophiPruits. Deither will they be persuaded, though one rise from the dead." (Luko zing with his friends, appears the most agreeable that could he wished for: that 21:11
of Jesus, espiring in the midst of agonizing pains ; abused, insulted, and accu2. The New Testament corresponds with the Old as it contains the fulfilment sed by a whole nation ; is the most horrible that could be feared. Socrates, on of means of lia prophecies; those particularly which relate to the Messiah. To receiving the cup of joison, blessed indeed the weeping executioner wire ndhi: are all the Prophets witness." From the first promise, that the seed of ministero it; but Jesus, in the midst of cxcruciating tortures, prayed for his # nan chuld bruin the serpent's head, we have a long series of predictions, merciless tormentors, Yen, if the life and death of Socrates were those of
the baracter and works, the life and death, resurrection and future sage, the life and death of Jesus are those of a God shall we suppose the Evar inom of the Messiah, the fulfilment of which is distinctly pointed out in celical History a mere tiction Indeed, my friend, it bears not the marks of hicpo pirts of the New Testament, and particularly in the Gospels. Some tion, on the contrary, the history of Socrates, which nobruly prosimes to doubt. Teen! The Old Testament may be cited valy by way of accomodation, is not so well atiested as that of Jesus Christ. Such a supposition, in fact, only
11, runni tan thens, quoted by way of argument, have stood the test of shifts the difficulty, without obviating it: it is more inconceivable that a nini tt ffynt THIS tunination.
ber of persons should agree to write such a history, than that one only abould 17! nutitutions are a species of prophrey, by means of emblems and figurumi ali the subject of it. The Jewish uuthors were incapable of the diction, Twitter wrich, though not so well understood in our western world, were and straters to the morality contained in the gospel, the marks of whose truth to Eastpally in16lugile uuu satisfactory with the clearest verbal prophe- are so striking and inimitable, that the inventor would be in mure antonishing
Truters into these countries are surturised to find the frequency of ligu. character than the hero." (Letter to the Archbishop of Paris.) IVF acim, tunithe case with which it is understood. Among the Old Testa
How lamentable is it to add, that a man who saw thus clearly the beauty of et tye, Ups enfices are the most interesting and important. 'The scape- the gospel, was prevented, by the deprarity of his own leart, frum embracing BET Uw whal lamb, and the whole burnt offering, all, though in different it. Ho at onre admired and hated it.
of now, direct us to the one ottering of Messic. But the New Testafinnt wubt it cipars away the obscurity of funner prophecies, presents us with
The Authenticity of the four Gospels. ..nnd erlendis no les distance into futurity than those of Abraham and Pambant irmunating only with the church and with the world. Our Lord m. Of the authority of the four Gospels already named, we shall quote only bene unted the past calamities and present dispersion of the Jews, St. the concluding remarks of Dr. Lardner. Matias drawn the character of the Man of Sin, and marked his progress and "In the first part of this work is 'Credibility') it was shown," says the Doc#alwertiw; but st John, in luis Revelations, presents us with the most ex- tor, " that there is not any thing in the books of the New Testament, however
sve protectes ever exhibited. They are indeed cnveloped in the same ob- strictly canvaesed, inconsistent with their supposed time and authors. etty in those of funner ager but Time has already partially withdrawn the In this second part we have had express and positive evidence, that these books ved and, ay he pass on, will still coll back the remaining clouds.
were written by those whose names they bear, even the Apostles of Jesus Christ, 3 AM prant of view in which these dispensations may be compared, re- who was crucified at Jerusnlem in the reign of Tiberius Caesar, when Pontius pins tre pour tenter and spirit. That of the Old Testament was partial Pilate was governor in Judea ; and their well known companions and fellow
11 was contined to the children of circumcision ; yea, with some labourers. It is the concwring testimony of early and later ages, and of writers ( 515, to a single nation, and that one of the smallest, and which, as their in Europe, Asia and Africa, and of men of diferent sentiments in divers reO*rintire aruto us, had as little to boast in respect of merit as of nun- spects. For we have had before us the testimony of those called heretics, be Dot ni. 7, s. Dan. ix. 8, 16.) But the gospel has in it nothing peculiar as well as Catholics. These books were received from the heginning with the
any tit, ur country, We have the clearest proofs in matter of fact, that greatest respect, and have been publicly and aolemnly read in the assemblies of Wire ually with the climates of England, of India, and of Labrador. It is Christians throughout the world. in every age from that time to this. They were
ritmit therefore, for universal use, and its universal spread is promised. carly translated into the languages of divers countries and people. They were I aran' sert alan to the miracles with which each «lisuudeation was introduced, moted by way of proof in all arguments of a religious nature: and were apifru tinee of Moses were miracles of judgment, inflicting punishment upon waled to, on both sides, in all point of controversy that arose among Chris
un mot, indred, underval) but of a very different character from those tians themselves. They were likewise recommended to the perusu! of others as bo wtrh our Redeemer introduced the gospel: these were, almost without ex. containing the authentic Account of the Christian doctrine And many com: CRM, miracles of mercy.
mentaries have been wait to explain and illustrate them. All which afford full Arthurt soint of view in which we may advantageously compare the old assurance of their genuineness and integrity. If these books had not been writ and New Testaments, relates to the gradual development of livine truth, which by those to whom they are ascribed, and if the things related in them had not insan chet of lucht, "spining more and more unto the perfect day." The gos; been true, they coull not have lxen received from the beginning. If they con Disaison dawned on Adam, and gradually opened during the Patriarchal tain a true account of things, the Christian religion is from God, and cannot but aliud Mirage dispensatione : the Sun of righteousness are under the clerrer be embraced by serious and attentive men, who impartially examine, and are
burs of David and Zulomon; but attained not its zenith until the day of willing to be determined by evidence." Pin****, win the shadows of the Old Testament types were all withdrawn, of these four Gospels, the first and last (Matthew and John) were written and whole scheme of redemption by Jesus Christ exhibited.
by two of our Lord's Apostles: the other two lng the travelling companions of During the middle arrs, in teed, darkness, even“ such as might be felt," ugain Apostles, Mark with Peter, and Luke with Paul: so that, independent of their cond Chari-true, but the Reformation in a great measure cleared away own inspiration, the writers had the best possible means of correct information. the di anel that mighty engine, Printing, has diffused its truths more Fengsryttan ten thousand Missionaries could have done. Nor has it rested
† A judicions writer has remarket, that few Deists have ventured to attack the mornl cha. By the invention of steretype and steam printing, a new impulso has racter of Churat Even Thomas Paine, in the inidst of his virulence uirt Christianity, to even the vast machine. Steam navigation is another important dis- uborrves, "Nothing that is here said can apply, even with the most distant disrespect, to the Dutery, which will facilitate the rapid dispersion both of Bibles and of Missiona- real character of Jesus Christ. He was a tirlunya and amiable man. The moruity that he w throzbout the world.
preachel and practised was of the most benesolent kind." The revival of real and energy in the propagation of the Christian religion
Nothing, however, is too daring for some writers A French infidel of the name of Volney among almost all denominations of Christians, promises a speedy accomplish: oriorik to prove, in spite of all history, sacrul and produne, that Christ (or Chros:118, as he tort of the divine predictions. Christianity is planted in every quarter of the calls him) was an allegorical personage the Sun. I answer to which ridiculous notion
we need only refer to Grotius' work in the Truth of the Christian Religion." plate and is sprending on every hand. Savages of Africa, and in every part of it Parthor Orian, hitherto considered as the most untameable, are stretching
Grotius says, " That Jesus of Nazareth formerly lived in Juden, in the reign of Tiberius,
the Roman emperor, is constantly acknowlelgel, not only by Christianedigerned all over the out haridy to welcome it ; Hindoes have began to throw away their caste; world, but also hy all the Jerca which now are, or have ever wrote since that time; the simne I lim bried Chicke am studying in their own language, the printed word of is also testified lay heathens, that is, such as did not write either on the Jewish or Christian
There is a shaking eveu among the dry bones" of the house of 1s- religion: Suetonius. Tacitus, Pliny the younger, and many after these" rael, and Brripture and facts eally assuro is, that the time is coming, when
Appeal may also he male, not only to the recreved, but the apocryphal gospels; not only
to Josephus, but to Trypho an! Celsus, the great Jewish anel Pagan antagonists of Chris True urn cuangelion (zospel) signifies "good news" in genern); in the New tinnityIn short, there is no great character of equal antiguity-neither Juwe nor Augusto Teso, confirmed to the area of Bulvation by Jesus Christ." The word gospel Corsar; neither Calo nor Cicuro; neither Virgil nor Horace-whore exista and abaracter derived from Uwe Anslo-Saxon god, good, and fall, message, or new
is better allested.