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jobably to understand that the height includes the pedestal or pillar on which the statue was elevated. That the zaldeans were accustomed to set up vast golden images of their gods, and particularly of Belus, appears from Herotus, who, after describing the famous temple dedicated to him, and in which there was no statue, adds, that within precincts of this temple. there was a smaller sacred edifice, upon the ground ; within which there was an immense ideo statue of Jupiter Belus), in a sitting posture: around the statue were large tables, which, with the steps and vue, were all of gold, and. as the Chaldeans affirmed, contained eight hundred talents of gold. He adds that there -s also not long sioce, within the sacred enclosure, a statue of solid gold, twelve cubits in height. Darius Hystaspes old faiu have taken away this figure, but dared not execute his wishes : but his son Xerxes not only did so, but put leath the priest who endeavoured to prevent its removal. It may seem by no means unlikely that one of these tues, and more particularly, perhaps, the one mentioned last, was the very same that was made by Nebuchadnezzar, I which, after the transaction recorded in this chapter, we may suppose to have been removed from the plain of Dura be sacred enclosure of the temple. . " Hurr." – This is the first instance in which division of time by hours occurs in Scripture; and we are, therefore, plied with a tolerably certain intimation that this was one of the useful things which the Hebrews learnt from the deans. We merely notice this circumstance in passing; as John ix. 11, will afford us a better opportunity of conning the manner in which the day was anciently divided into hours. 0. “ The sound of the cornet,” &c.—All the inquiry which has been directed to the discrimination of the several ruments of music mentioned in this chapter has not been attended with any very satisfactory results. The whole ject is involved in great obscurity, which there seems no hope of seeing dispelled; for which reason, as well as bese the general subject, and also several of the instruments, have already received some attention in the notes to the Kof Psalms, we shall avoid any extended investigations, and confine ourselves to a few brief notices on such points are not already been considered. “ Cornets” or horns, “ harps,” and “psalteries," do not appear to require further re than they have already obtained.
Piute.”—The Chaldee word used here (Xipiowo mashrokitha) occurs nowhere but in this chapter, and appears enote all such instruments of the pipe or flute class as were in use among the Babylonians. The corresponding rew word is boboi chalil, usually rendered “ pipe” in our version, which we suppose not only to have been a tal term, but to have specially denoted the pipe of a single stem, with an orifice through it, while the occurrence le word niboni) nechiloth, in a plural form with a singular sense, suggests that they had also the double pipe or
Both words come from roots which signify “to bore through.” Some also find the name of a pipe, as our slators do, in the word ap) nekeb (Ezek. xxviii. 13); but this sense does not agree with the context, and a caskel ore probably intended. Flutes and pipes are mentioned under a great many different names by ancient writers, specific distinctions of which it is now impossible to discover. They acquired such different names rather perhaps I the dispositions of parts producing variations of musical power, than from any marked distinctions of form. We I therefore only generally state that the ancient flutes were cylindrical tubes, sometimes of equal diameter throughbut often wider at the off than the near end, and sometimes widened at that end into a funnel shape, resembling irionet. They were always blown, like pipes, at one end, never transversely: they had mouth-pieces, and somes plugs or stopples, but no keys to open or close the holes beyond the reach of the hands. The holes varied in iber in the different varieties of the Aute. In their origin they were doubtless made of simple reeds or canes, but be progress of improvement they came to be made of wood, ivory, bone, and even metal. They were sometimes
le in joints, but connected by an interior nozzle, which was generally of wood. The flutes were sometimes double, 11: is. a person played on two instruments at once, either connected or detached ; and among the classical ancieuts, player on the double-fute often had a leathern bandage over his mouth to prevent the escape of his breath at the
The ancient Egyptians, as appears by our first engraving, used the double Aute; but we have not, among n. been able to find any example of the bandaged mouth, of which many instances occur in classical remains. To other illustrations we have added a very simple instrument (the ndy), which is a favourite with the modern
Orientals ; and appears to answer very correctly in its form and use to the more common instrument of ancient times Instruments of the pipe class are of such high antiquity, and so universally diffused, that we have deemed it useless to inquire concerning the inventor, or the time and place of its origin. The reader may find much curious information on the ancient and the modern Oriental instruments of this class in the following papers in the Description de l'Egypte ;'- Mémoire sur la Musique de l'Antique Egypte ;'. Dissertation sur les Instrumens de Mus:que des Egyptiens :' and Instrumens de Musique des Orientaux.' Rosellini has also something on this subject; and Lane's • Modern Egyptians' should not be overlooked.
“ Sackbut.”—The word in the original is dad and X2V, snbca ; whence evidently the Greek capsórn. We must look for it in the sambuca of the ancients. The classical writers mention this instrument as very ancient, and seem to ascribe its invention to the Syrians. Porphyry and Suidas describe it as a triangular instrument of music, furnished with cords of unequal length and thickness ; a description which suggests that it was an instrument of the harp kind, perhaps resembling the triangular lyre, of which we have spoken in the note on Psalm xcii. 3. Musonius describes the sumbuca as rendering a sharp sound; and we are also told that it was much employed to accompany the voice in singing iambic verses.
“ Psalıery.”—The Chaldee word, 770307 pesanterin, is different from that (523 nebel) rendered “ psaltery” in the earlier Scriptures. As however there seems good reason to believe that the respective Chaldee and Hebrew words denote the same instrument, we must refer to the statement already furnished under Psalm xcii. 3.
“ Dulcimer.”- The ord thus rendered is J12010 sumponjah, being just the same word as the suppwvice of the Greek. Although the Greek word certainly denotes, primarily, a concert or harmony of many instruments. yet it seems also, as in the text, to have been the name of a musical instrument. Servius (on Virgil. Æn. xi. 27) debcribes the symphonia as a sort of bagpipe ; which is in remarkable conformity with the Hebrew writers, who describe the present instrument also as a bagpipe, consisting of two pipes thrust through a leather bag, and affording a mournful sound. When we add to this, that the very same name was that which the bagpipe bore among the Moors of Spain, we seem to have a greater mass of probabilities in favour of the bagpipe than can
often be obtained in this class of subjects, or than can be produced for any other alternative which has been suggested. The knows antiquity of this instrument, together with its continued existence in the East, are also corroborative circumstances. The modern Oriental bagpipe is composed of a goat-skin, usually with the hair on, and in the natural form, but deprived of the head, the tail, and the feet; being thus just of the same shape as that used by the water-carriers. The pipes are usually of reeds, terminating in the tips of cows' horns, slightly curved; the whole instrument being most primitively simple in its materials and construction.
21. " Their coats, their hoser, and their hats."— It is exceedingly difficult to determine, what articles of dress are really denoted by the words thus translated. The sand sarbal, is considered by Gesenius to denote such wide drawers or trowsers as are still worn by the Persians and others, and thinks that the present Persian name for this article of dress (shalwar) is the same word in a transposed form. He adds, “the name has passed with the article of dress into the western languages, as in Greek capdeapa,
BAGPIPE. supabanne, capáraças; in Latin, sarabara, saraballa ; in Spanish, ceroulas, in Hungarian and Sclavonic, shalwary ; in Polish sharmvari.” To understand these analogies, it should be observed that b and v are convertible powers in the Hebrew, Chaldee, and other Oriental dialects, ancient and modern. As to the rest, the marginal readings, of " mantle” for “ coat,” and “ turban” for “hat,”—probably furnish as correct an interpretation as can now be obtained.
spirit of the holy gods: and before him 1
told the dream, saying, | Nebuchadnezzar confesseth God's kingdom, 4 moketh relation of his dreams, which the magi
9 O Belteshazzar, master of the magicians could not interpret
. 8 Daniel heareth ihe cians, because I know that the spirit of the dream. 19 He interpreteth it. 28 The story of holy gods is in thee, and no secret troubleth the event.
thee, tell me the visions of my dream that NEBUCHADNEZZAR the king, unto all peo- I have seen, and the interpretation thereple, nations, and languages, that dwell in of. all the earth; Peace be multiplied unto 10 Thus were the visions of mine head in you.
my bed ; 'I saw, and behold a tree in the 2 'I thought it good to shew the signs and midst of the earth, and the height thereof wonders that the high God hath wrought was great.
11 The tree grew, and was strong, and 3 How great are his signs! and how the height thereof reached unto heaven, mighty ure his wonders ! his kingdom is and the sight thereof to the end of all the 'an everlasting kingdom, and his dominion earth : is from generation to generation.
12 The leaves thereof were fair, and the 4 | I Nebuchadnezzar was at rest in fruit thereof much, and in it was meat for mine house, and flourishing in my palace: all: the beasts of the field had shadow un
5 I saw a dream which made me afraid, der it, and the fowls of the heaven dwelt and the thoughts upon my bed and the vi- in the boughs thereof, and all flesh was fed sions of my head troubled me.
upon all the wise men of Babylon before me, that my bed, and, behold, a watcher and an holy they might make known unto me the inter- one came down from heaven; pretation of the dream.
14 He cried 'aloud, and said thus, Hew 7 Then came in the magicians, the astro- down the tree, and cut off his branches, logers, the Chaldeans, and the soothsayers: shake off his leaves, and scatter his fruit: and I told the dream before them; but they let the beasts get away from under it, and did not make known unto me the interpre- the fowls from his branches : tation thereof.
15 Nevertheless leave the stump of his But at the last Daniel came in before roots in the earth, even with a band of iron me, whose name was Belteshazzar, according and brass, in the tender grass of the field; to the name of my god, and in whom is the l and let it be wet with the dew of heaven, | Chald. It was seemly before me * Chap 9. 44. * Chap. 9. 48. • Chald. I was seeing.
> Chald. with might.
and let his portion be with the beasts in the grass as oxen, and they shall wet thee with grass of the earth:
the dew of heaven, and seven times shall 16 Let his heart be changed from man's, pass over thee, till thou know that the most and let a beast's heart be given unto him; | High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and and let seven times pass over him.
giveth it to whomsoever he will. 17 This matter is by the decree of the 26 And whereas they commanded to leare watchers, and the demand by the word of the stump of the tree roots; thy kingdom the holy ones: to the intent that the living shall be sure unto thee, after that thou shalt may know that the most High ruleth in the have known that the heavens do rule. kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomso- 27 Wherefore, O king, let my counsel be ever he will, and setteth up over it the acceptable unto thee, and break off thy sins basest of men.
by righteousness, and thine iniquities by 18 This dream I king Nebuchadnezzar shewing mercy to the poor; if it may be 'a have seen. Now thou, Ở Belteshazzar, de- / lengthening of thy tranquillity. clare the interpretation thereof, forasmuch 28 | All this came upon the king Neas all the wise men of my kingdom are not buchadnezzar. able to make known unto me the interpre- 29 At the end of twelve months he walked tation : but thou art able; for the spirit of in the palace of the kingdom of Babylon. the holy gods is in thee.
30 The king spake, and said, Is not this 19 Then Daniel, whose name great Babylon, that I have built for the Belteshazzar, was astonied for one hour, house of the kingdom by the might of my and his thoughts troubled him. The king power, and for the honour of my majesty ? spake, and said, Belteshazzar, let not the 31 While the word was in the king's dream, or the interpretation thereof, trouble mouth, there fell a voice from heaven, saythee. Belteshazzar answered and said, My ing, O king Nebuchadnezzar, to thee it is lord, the dream be to them that hate thee, spoken; The kingdom is departed from and the interpretation thereof to thine thee. enemies.
32 And they shall drive thee from men, 20 The tree that thou sawest, which grew, and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of and was strong, whose height reached unto the field: they shall make thee to eat grass the heaven, and the sight thereof to all the as oxen, and seven times shall pass over earth;
thee, until thou know that the most High 21 Whose leaves were fair, and the fruit ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth thereof much, and in it was meat for all ; it to whomsoever he will. under which the beasts of the field dwelt, 33 The same hour was the thing fulfilled and upon whose branches the fowls of the upon Nebuchadnezzar: and he was driven heaven had their habitation :
from men, and did eat grass as oxen, and 22 It is thou, O king, that art grown and his body was wet with the dew of heaven, till become strong: for thy greatness is grown, his hairs were grown like eagles' feathers, and reacheth unto heaven, and thy dominion and his nails like birds' claws. to the end of the earth.
34 And at the end of the days I Ne23 And whereas the king saw a watcher buchadnezzar lifted up
mine and an holy one coming down from heaven, ven, and mine understanding returned unto and saying, Hew the tree down, and destroy me, and I blessed the most High, and I it; yet leave the stump of the roots thereof praised and honoured him that liveth for in the earth, even with a band of iron and ever, whose dominion is 'an everlasting dobrass, in the tender grass of the field ; and minion, and his kingdom is from generation let it be wet with the dew of heaven, and let to generation : his portion be with the beasts of the field, 35 And all the inhabitants of the earth till seven times pass over him ;
are reputed as nothing: and he doeth ac24 This is the interpretation, O king, and cording to his will in the army of heaven, this is the decree of the most High, which and among the inhabitants of the earth: and is come upon my lord the king:
none can stay his hand, or say unto him, 25 That they shall ®drive thee from men, What doest thou ? and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of 36 At the same time my reason returned the field, and they shall make thee to eat unto me; and for the glory of my kingdom, – Chap. 5. 21, &c. 7 Or, an healing of thine error.
eyes unto hea.
9 Chap. 7. 14. Nicah 4. 7. Luke 1.33.
8 Or, upon
10 Job 9. 12 Isa, 15.9.
mine honour and brightness returned unto 37 Now I Nebuchadnezzar praise and me; and my counsellors and my lords sought extol and honour the King of heaven, all unto me; and I was established in my king. whose works are truth, and his ways judgdom, and excellent majesty was added unto ment: and those that walk in pride he is me,
able to abase.
Verse 30. “ le not this great Babylon, that I have built ?" — Nebuchadnezzar did not found Babylon, which existed as a eity from the earliest ages; but he did liberally employ his vast resources in its improvement, extension, and aggrandisement, until it became that great and magnificent city which the ancient world regarded with equal wonder and adıniration. The Greek writers do not indeed notice Nebuchadnezzar as the author of the great works at Babylon, but rather refer them to two queens-Semiramis who lived before him, and Nitocris who was after him. But, on the other hand, the native historian Berosus, together with Megasthenes and Abydenus, expressly attribute them to this great monarch; and moreover it would seem that Nitocris, whom some make the queen of Nebuchadnezzar, and others the wife of his son Evilmerodach. merely completed the great works which he had begun. Indeed. these could only have been accomplished after the fall of Nineveh, and when Babylon had become the seat of a great empire, neither of which events happened till the time of Nebuchadnezzar.
It would occupy far more room than we can spare to describe, after the ancient writers, the glories of “the golden city." We must therefore content ourselves with a very limited statement.
The Euphrates passed through the city, dividing it into two parts, of which that on the western side of the streain exceeded in magnificence and comprehended most of the new improvements. According to Herodotus, the city as a whole, was a perfect square, each side of which was equal to 120 stadia, and, consequently, its circuit to 450 stadia, which (Greek stadia being of course intended) would make not much less than fiity miles. This extent seems so enormoiis, that various attempts have been made to reduce it: but not, we think, on authority equal to those which furnished and have corroborated the statement: and when we see how our own metropolis is spreading around, and may be expected at no very remote period to reach the same dimensions ; and, still more, when we are told that the eity was very loosely built, and much of the ground enclosed by the walls was left vacant, or laid out in cultivated fields and gardens, it may very well be doubted whether it contained a population equal to that of the present London, or comprehended as large a number of buildings. However surprising, therefore, the account may seem in the first instance, it is much less incredible than has sometimes been supposed.
A deep ditch, lined with brickwork and full of water, went round the city; and as the soil dug out from it furnished the bricks with which the wall was built, some idea of its capacity may be formed from the alleged dimensions of the Fall. which was 210 royal cubits high by fifty in thickness. These bricks were baked in a furnace and cemented with hot bitumen. In the wall there were a hundred gates, twenty-five on each side, all these gates were of solid brass and of prodigious size and strength ; besides which there were, in the wall lining the river, smaller gates of the same metal, from which steps conducted down to the stream. Between every two of the great gates there were three watch-towers, ten feet higher than the walls, with four such towers at each of the four angles of the wall, and three more between each of these angles and the next adjoining gate on either side. There were, however, but 250 towers in all, as they pere omitted on that side where the morasses rendered unnecessary the protection which they offered. This grand square was divided into twenty-five grand streets, which intersected each other, dividing the city into 626 squares. Each of these streets went quite across the city in a straight line, extending from a principal gate on one side to another on the opposite side. The vast squares formed, in so extensive a plot. by the intersection of the streets, were pot built upon, but hollow, and laid out in fields. gardens, and pleasure-grounds; and, besides this, the houses which lined at the same time the streets and the squares stood much apart from each other, which suffices to show how loosely the city was built. The houses are described as being three or four stories high, and adorned with ail the splendour and 'magnificence of ancient Oriental taste.
The wonders at Babylon which seem most to have attracted the attention of ancient travellers were the temple of Betus. or rather the pile on which it stood, which pile, from the description given of it, may very possibly seem to have been the famous Tuwer of Confusion, which may have been repaired, and this temple or chapel built thereon, probably by Nebuchadnezzar. (See the note on Gen. xi. 4.) The tower was in the midst of a large enclosure, two stadia square, with gates of brass : and within which were other sacred buildings, as alluded to in the note on ch. ii. 1. The ba.. ks of the river, in that part which ran through the city, were faced with brick, like the enclosing trench, and a continued quay was formed, the whole length of the town. The river was crossed by a bridge said to have been rather more than a furlong in length, and constructed on some new and much admired principle, to supply a defect in the buttom of the river, which was all sandy. Another communication was afforded by a tunnel under the bed of the river. At the western end of the bridge. stood the palace, which Nebuchadnezzar is said to have built to supersede another, smaller and less magnificent, which stood on the other side of the stream. This palace may be taken as that so often mentioned in the present book. It was enclosed by a triple wall
, and with its parks and gardens was included in a circuit of little less than eight miles. Adjoining this palace, and within the general enclosure, were the hanging gardens, which were constructed by the king to gratify his wife, who was a native of the hilly and wooded Media, with a resemblance to her own country in the plain of Babylon. According to Diodorus, these gardens formed a square of 400 feet (about three acres and a half), and were raised on terraces supported by walls or piers eleven feet asunder, ascending one above another till the uppermost was brought to the level of the top of the city wall, commanding a most extensive prospect. The terraces were covered with a deep layer of mould in which were planted various plants, shrutis
, and trees, many of the latter being of considerable girth: and as some trees are found on this site no specimens of which exist elsewhere in the country, it is not impossible that some of these may have been perpetuated to this day, notwithstanding the sinking of the terraces, through the mouldering of the piers by which they were supported.
To the canals and lake we have incidentally referred on tormer occasions; and have no rcom to enumerate all the minor wonders of ancient Babylon. What we have stated will suffice to suggest a general notion of the works which raised the fatal pride of the Babylonian king of the scenes which were continually before the eyes of Daniel—aud of the city whose streets were so often traversed by the captives of Israel.
33. “ He was driven from men, and did eat grass as oren,” &c.—The malady by which the Divine judgment punished the pride of Nebuchadnezzar is a subject on which opinions have been very much divided. The principal explanations have been recapitulated in the interesting Dissertation sur
la Métamorphuse de Nebuchodonosor of Dom. Calmet, who himself gives the explanation which is now generally received and seems the most probable of any. The same