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South Atlantic ports, including Jacksonville and Charleston. Appendix C, table 2, contains a list of Sea. Land's principal moving commodities from Jacksonville to San Juan, and appendix E, table 5 presents its TL and LTL rates on these commodities for September 1, 1960 and June 1, 1968. The latter appendix, which examined 50 rates applicable on volume movements, shows that 70 percent of these rates remained steady or were reduced during this 7-year period; 18 rates remaining steady, and 17 rates declined. Examination of 47 Sea-Land LTL rates applicable on the same principal moving commodities shows that 53 percent remained steady or declined; seven rates experienced a decline. The specific commodity TL and LTL rates and their percentage of increase or decrease are shown in appendix E, table 5.
b. TMT's Ocean Rates from Jacksonville 38
Chart IV-6, which illustrates TMT's overall rate profile applicable on traffic moving from Jacksonville to San Juan for September 1, 1960 and June 1, 1968, shows that TMT's overall weight rate structure increased from 3 to 7 percent during the 8-year period while the overall measurement rate structure declined approximately 6 percent during the same period. 39 And, chart IV-7, which compares TMT's overall weight and measurement rate structures from South Atlantic ports to those of Sea-Land from North Atlantic ports for June 1, 1968, indicates that TMT's overall rate structure (2,135 rates) at the median point in some 10 percent lower than that of Sea-Land (1,745 rates). TMT's LTL and AQ rate structures are about 5 to 6 percent lower respectively than those of Sea-Land. 40 TMT's overall TL weight rate structure, however, exceeds that of Sea-Land by one-sixth.41
TMT's 2,135 weight and 2,097 measurement rates exceed the number of commodity rates offered by Sea-Land from Atlantic ports to Puerto Rico by about 22 percent. Its tariff includes 1,015 TL rates, 1,012
LTL rates, and only 108 AQ rates, indicating that this carrier provides the shipping public with a great variety of TL and LTL rate levels. TMT's tariff, therefore, seems to present an overall rate structure which has twice as many TL rates as Sea-Land's. (Sea-Land's rate structure includes 948 AQ rates compared to 108 AQ rates in TMT's tariff.)
Chart IV-8 shows TMT's, TL, and LTL ocean rates on principal moving commodities transported from Jacksonville to San Juan for September 1, 1960 and June 1, 1968.42 The 37 TL rates involved in chart IV-8 revealed that two-thirds of TMT's principal moving commodities received substantial rate reductions or remained unchanged during the 8-year period. Almost 30 percent of the rates decreased. Rates remained steady on about 30 percent of these commodities. Onethird of the 37 rates increased. The specific commodity rates and their percentage of increase or decrease are shown in appendix E, table 6. Chart IV-8 also illustrates TMT's LTL rates on 27 principal moving commodities affecting 22 percent of this carrier's traffic. This chart shows that one-half (14) of these rates remained unchanged or decreased during the 1960–68 period. Almost one-half of TMT's LTL rates on major moving commodities increased, but only four of these rate increases exceeded 4 percent (app. E, table 6). TMT's rates are compared to those of Sea-Land's in chapter IV, section C which deals with rate relationships.
Examination of TMT's rates on commodities, which the Commonwealth considers most essential to Puerto Rico's economic system (consumer and intermediate goods) for September 1, 1960 and June 1, 1968, revealed that half of the 45 TL rates reflected decreases or no change during this period while the other half experienced rate increases.
3. Gulf Region
GPRL is the principal common carrier connecting the eastern section of the U.S. Gulf region and Puerto Rico.43 In 1967, GPRL carried approximately one. eighth of all the weight traffic moving to and from Puerto Rico by common carrier (chart III-2). This
38 Ocean rate refers to TMT's charge for transport from place of rest at the Jacksonville terminal to the end of ship's tackle at San Juan. These rates are contained in TMT Trailer Ferry, Inc., Tariff FMC-F No. 3 and TMT Trailer Ferry, Inc. (C. Gordon Anderson, Trustee) FMC-F No. 5. TMT provides its own pickup and delivery services from San Juan to final destination.
39 TMT's overall measurement rate structure declined 12, 8.7, and 1.8 percent at the 25, 50, and 75 percentile points, respectively.
40 TMT's 1968 median weight LTL and AQ weight rates were 128 and 143 cents per 100 pounds respectively compared to Sea-Land's corresponding rates of 134 and 151 cents per 100 pounds.
11 These rates apply from place of rest on the Mainland terminal to the end of ship's tackle at San Juan. Unlike Sea-Land, however, TMT's rate includes cargo insurance. Their rates on specific commodities are compared in chapter IV, section C.
42 TMT's rates applied on containerized, refrigerated, and breakbulk com. modities as indicated in chart IV-3. Total TL shipments generated about 45 percent of the revenues earned by that company in 1966; LTL shipments, 22 percent; and automobiles, 12 percent.
43 As previously indicated, carrier competition from Gulf ports is relatively limited. Lykes, which provides only breakbulk service, operates mainly from the western half of the U.S. Gulf coast and faces little competition in this area. It transported barely three percent of the total common carrier traffic in 1967. Alcoa discontinued its Gulf-Puerto Rico service in mid-1968.
section, therefore, focuses on GPRL's ocean rates from Eastern Gulf ports (New Orleans) to San Juan.“ Although GPRL's traffic is largely breakbulk cargo, moving predominantly under AQ rates, this carrier also
provides containership service.
Chart IV-9, shows GPRL's overall rate profile applicable from Gulf ports to San Juan for February 15, 1961 and June 1, 1968. Relatively little change in rate levels occurred between these dates. GPRL's 1961 median weight rate was 145 cents per 100 lbs. Its corresponding 1968 rate also was 145 cents per 100 lbs. Moreover, GPRL's 1968 median measurement rate of 58 cents per cubic foot was only slightly below (1.5 percent) of its 1961 median rate of 59.5 cents per cubic foot (app. D, table 7). Section C of this chapter compares GPRL's specific commodity rates to those of Sea-Land and TMT.
The history of GPRL's rate changes on 56 4 principal moving commodities is shown in chart IV-10 for February 15, 1961 and June 1, 1968. Of the 56 items, 48 are "containerizable" and eight are generally breakbulk-only-type commodities.46 This chart shows that 26, or 54 percent, of the containerizable commod. ities moving in TL volumes experienced no rate in. creases or were reduced during the 7-year period. Of the 26 rates,47 17 remained steady and nine decreased. Rate increases were instituted for one-half of GPRL's containerizable commodities. The specific commodity rates and their percentage of increase or decrease are shown in appendix E, table 7.
It is important to note that these rates are applicable on GPRL's container service as well as breakbulk service which means that the advantages of containerizable rates and service have not yet been fully realized in the Gulf-Puerto Rican trade (section C of this chapter). The majority of the cargo transported in this service is handled in this carrier's two breakbulk vessels, the SS Maiden Creek and Claiborne and the only trailership in this trade, the SS New Yorker, has only a limited
capacity (66 containers). But as indicated previously, as of June 1, 1968, approximately 90 percent of GPRL's total weight rates affecting TL volumes were AQ rates (chart IV-10). Of 1,327 weight rates shown in GPRL's tariff, only 43, or 3 percent, were TL and 56 or 4 per. cent were LTL. Most of the commodities moving by GPRL's container service (SS New Yorker) were assessed the same AQ rates which were charged for breakbulk service (SS Maiden Creek and Claiborne). Analysis of 55 LTL-type shipments for February 15, 1961 and June 1, 1968 revealed approximately the same rate situation described on the TL-type movements (chart IV-10).
GPRL's rates on the Commonwealth's list of commodities (app. B), including many articles of importance to EDA-sponsored factories, experienced a favorable rate history between 1961 and 1968. Appendix E, table 8 shows 63 commodities and applicable rates on TL quantities for February 15, 1961 and June 1, 1968. Of these 63 items, the rates on 75 percent either declined or remained steady during this 7-year period while 25 percent increased.18 It is important to men. tion, however, that some of these commodities move in very small quantities, or not at all, from Gulf ports.
4. West Coast Region (Intercoastal)
Sea-Land is the only common carrier currently operating between the United States West Coast and Puerto Rico.49 Its 1968 West Coast-Puerto Rican eastbound tariff 50 contains a relatively limited number of commodity rates which are not as diverse as those in its North Atlantic rate structure. The West Coast tariff contains only 194 weight rates and 123 measurement rates. This tariff offers only 29 TL weight rates (chart IV-11). In contrast, Sea-Land's Atlantic-Puerto Rican tariff contains 439 TL weight rates (TMT's tariff contains 1,015 TL weight rates from the South Atlantic).
Appendix D, table 1 shows Sea-Land's West Coast overall rate structure for April 20, 1964 and June 1, 1968. This appendix shows that Sea-Land's overall measurement rate structure decreased while its overall weight rate structure increased during this period. Sea
44 These ocean rates involve a charge for transport from ship's tackle at the New Orleans terminal to the end of ship's tackle at the interim Puerto Rican terminal covered by iis tariff (i.e., San Juan, Ponce, and Mayagüez). GPRL's ocean rates are contained in U.S. Atlantic and Gulf.Puerto Rico Tariff FMC-F No. 1 and U.S. Atlantic and Gulf-Puerto Rico Conference Series Tariff, FMC-F No. 13.
45 Seventy-three percent of these, or 41 rates, are AQ rates. Thus, approxi. mately 70 percent of the rates listed in chart IV-10 as rates affecting TL volumes actually are AQ rates (app. E, table 7).
46 The eight breakbulk commodities are: structural iron and steel, vehicles, tractors, iron and steel pipe (under 8 inches I.D.), iron and steel pipe (8 to 20 inches I.D.), rough lumber (bundled), rough lumber (unbundled). The rate on canned milk applies for shipments moving on pallets.
47 The rates on the bulk of these 48 containerizable articles or 35 rates are AQ rates while only 13 are TL rates.
48 Examination of GPRL's LTL rates on the same list of commodities indi. cates the same favorable rate trend on these items (app. E, table 7).
49 As previously indicated, Seatrain expects to enter this trade following its conversion of C4-type vessels in fiscal year
1970, 50 Sea. Land Service, Inc., FMC-F No. 10 and FMC-F No. 13. The rates contained in the tariff (e.g., Oakland to San Juan) generally involve a charge for transport from ship's tackle at the Oakland terminal to the end of ship's tackle at the interim Puerto Rican terminal.
68 3/4 cu. ft.
86 1/4 cu. ft.
107 1/2 cu. ft.
7 8 9 10
49 ou. ft. 77 cu. ft. 30 ou. ft. 65 cu. ft.
168 cu. ft. 168 ou. ft. 116 cu. ft. 230 cu. ft.
21.2.9 118.2 286.7 253.8
178 3/1 ou. it.
237 1/2 ou ft.
177 1/2 cu. ft.
35 ou. ft. 65. cu. ft.
168 cu. ft.
177 1/2 cu. ft. 96 1/4 cu. ft.
237 1/2 cu. ft. 108 74 cu. ft.
172 1/2 cu. ft. 120 cu. ft.
Gotton Place Goods (Fabrics)
Out or Etched
$462 per Freight Ton
and value 8462 Freight Ton
Toilets, & Urinals
$300 Freight Ton.
152 cu. ft.
86 1/4 ou. ft.
138 3/4 cu. ft.
127 1/2 cu. ft.
Feeds, Vis: Animal or Poultry, In Bags or
Barrels Consist of Crain Producto
100 cu. ft. or less. Petrol.
Exc. 8" ID 150 Tons
2.1 75.0 27.3
1433 192 110 V 115 115 115 115 170 104 161 103
47 48 49 50 51
222 1/2 263 167 1/2
215 255 345 180
SOURCES: (a) The U. S. Atlantic and Culr-Haiti Conference (Freight Tariff FMC No. 1); U. S. Atlantic and Gulf Jamaica Conference (Freight Tariff FMC No. 1); and U. 3 Atlantio and Gulf-Santo Domingo Conference (Freight Tarife PC No. 1).
(b) Sea-Land Service Inc., FMC-No. 3 (Pan-Atlantio Series)
FREIGHT RATE STRUCTURE: TOTAL RATES