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free time. With the increased traffic between the U.S. mainland and Puerto Rico, it is vital that cargo handling efficiencies be implemented and more public warehousing space be provided in Puerto Rico.
E. U.S. MAINLAND TERMINALS
The following discussion is focused on the selected U.S. North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Gulf, and West Coast terminals which are leased and operated by common carriers in the Puerto Rican trade. These terminals handle virtually all cargo moving between the U.S. mainland and Puerto Rico.
5. Free Time, Demurrage, and
Warehousing Under the provisions of resolution No. 809 inbound and outbound cargoes are granted a free time period of five working days. At the expiration of free time, cargo may, at the option of the Ports Authority, be placed in public storage at the expense of the goods, or be assessed demurrage at the following rates: $0.03 per 100 pounds, or $0.015 per cubic foot per day for the first 5 days, and $0.045 per 100 pounds or $0.0225 per cubic foot for each succeeding day. Empty containers are assessed $5 per day.
These charges are intended to discourage shippers and consignees from keeping cargo on the terminal facility beyond the free time. Prior to January 1, 1968, when lower demurrage rates were in effect, there was no incentive for the development of adequate public warehousing. At San Juan, in particular, the lack of public warehousing is critical. It was more economical to leave the cargo in the transit shed than to pay for warehousing. This practice is undesirable because it congests the transit area, and hinders cargo handling efficiencies and economies.
It is hoped that the new rate structure will discourage holding cargo and containers in the transit area beyond
1. North Atlantic Ports
a. New York Area
(1) General.-In 1969, the principal common carrier ports in the U.S. North Atlantic-Puerto Rican trade were New York and Baltimore. The trend toward con
60 According to Seatrain, the Ports Authority's wharfage charge is a "user charge" which does not provide for the actual movement of freight from ship's tackle to a place of rest or point of delivery in the terminal whereas the carriers' charge is for services provided from the end-of-ships tackle to place of rest or point of delivery in the terminal. Further, Seatrain believes that the carriers' cost of providing terminal service differs widely and is greater than the wharfage differential at issue.
tainerization, however, has prompted other ports to modernize their terminals. The Elizabeth Port Authority Marine Terminal is the world's largest container facility. When this facility is completed by the Authority in 1975, it will cover 919 acres and have 25 ship berths capable of accommodating the new large containerships moving cargoes to and from Puerto Rico and other overseas areas. The Authority has invested $72 million on this facility and plans to spend another $103 million.61 The terminal's 10 gantry cranes of 55,000 pound lifting capacity, valued at $700,000 each, can load and offload a container in approximately 2 minutes. This new facility will accommodate a fully efficient container system with trucks and railroads funneling traffic from points along the U.S. North Atlantic coast, through New York (and a few other major ports) for transport to Puerto Rico and other overseas points.
(2) Sea-Land Terminal.-Sea-Land's marine and trucking terminal at Elizabeth Port Authority Terminal is a highly efficient container terminal. This facility, which in 1967 handled about 1.5 million short tons of traffic moving between the U.S. mainland and Puerto Rico, is leased from the Port of New York Authority (until 1984) for an annual rental fee of about $2.4 million. The 100 acres of land area include six large containership berths, numbers 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, and 60 (each of about 600 feet in length with 32 draft feet alongside at MLW (3) located on the southside of the head of Elizabeth Channel. The facility also has a freight terminal over 1,000 feet long with an indoor railroad siding so that freight is handled under cover, and a marshalling yard area capable of accommodating about 2,500 transit trailers. The efficiency of this terminal is increased by four track-mounted dock-side cranes and additional ship-based gantry cranes. These cranes provide the connecting link in Sea-Land's “roadmarine highway" transportation concept and its movements from the U.S. mainland source of supply to plants in San Juan with a minimum of handling. These cranes are located at berths numbers 54, 56, 58, and 60. When a C4J lift-on/lift-off containership capable of transporting 609 containers docks at this terminal, it pro
ceeds through a lift-on/lift-off cycle in which 35 tons of containerized cargo are handled in 4 minutes, or better than 25,000 tons while in port (48 hours). Numerous tractor trailers are used to move containers between the wharf apron and open storage area. The truck, container, and vessel operations are computerized and continuously controlled. Four surface tracks connect berths 50 and 60 with the Central Railroad Co. of New Jersey, the Penn-Central Railroad, and the Lehigh Valley Railroad.
(3) Seatrain Terminal.Seatrain's New York terminal is located at Dock No. 599, River Road, Edgewater, N.J. The terminal, constructed of concrete deck and steel pile, is a 600 feet long and 90 feet wide feeder. type pier which juts into the Hudson River. There are no transit sheds on the pier, but the highway connections via River Road provide access to the trailer stor. age yard at the ADM pier.67 The pier is served by two 125-ton traveling bridge cranes for loading and unloading railcars, trailers and containers. Another bridge crane handles trailers and containers between roadways, platform, and rail cars. The pier itself has four railway tracks running the length of the pier with connection to the New York, Susquehanna, and Western Railroad. This terminal is used exclusively by Seatrain vessels in lift-on/lift-off operations to and from Puerto Rico. The pier provides one vessel berth under the overhanging trainway on each side of the pier. Each of the two bridge cranes operates independently, and the cargo of two vessels can be handled simultaneously.
(4) Transamerican Trailer Transport Terminal.68 TTT's roll-on/roll-off trailership, the Ponce de Leon, presently uses the south side of pier 13, Staten Island. The entire terminal area from pier 8 to pier 14 is operated by Transocean Gateway Corp. The terminal facilities are also shared by American Export and Isbrandtsen Lines. Currently under way is the land fill operation which will redevelop and greatly expand the area between pier 8 and pier 14. When complete, the permanent terminal will contain four marginal berths and one conventional berth at the south end of the facility. The berths will be 750' long with a depth of 32' at mean low water. Total marshalling area will comprise 75 acres. A 100,000 square foot LTL shed is presently serving the existing terminal.
el Most of the cargo shipping companies are investing in new container facilities. In 1969, 36 container berths were in use on U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. In addition, forty more are under construction or planned.
62 Oply four of these gantry cranes are located on Sea-Land's facilities and are available for use in the Puerto Rican service. The remaining cranes are used by carriers serving trades other than Puerto Rico.
63 MLW refers to mean low water in port produced by tide conditions.
64 Port of New York and New Jersey, Port Series No. 5, vol. II, part 2-1965 by the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army (Washington: GPO 1966),
66 The berth depth at MLW is 27 feet.
6s New York Journal of Commerce (and its Commercial Supplement A), Apr. 11, 1968; and, Letter of W. R. Crowell, Trans-American Trailer Trans. port, Inc., Nov. 22, 1968 to Paul Gonzalez, Chief, Branch of Trade Studies and Special Projects, FMC.
Gü Sea-Land Service, Inc.
(5) Motorships of Puerto Rico.-In 1967, Motorship’s vessels called at pier 9 on the north side of Newark Channel. This facility is operated by the Pittston Stevedoring Co. It is a marginal wharf approximately 580 feet in length with a 55-foot apron and an alongside depth of 32 feet at MLW. Two 5-ton cranes and six 2-ton cranes are available in the area for cargo handling purposes. In addition, there are two railway tracks on the apron which provide connection with the Central Railway of New Jersey, the Penn-Central Railroad and the Lehigh Valley Railroad. Highway connections are via access road to U.S. 1 and U.S. 9 and the New Jersey Turnpike. The open berth area behind pier 9 covers about 320,000 square feet.
The facility also includes two transit sheds with a total useable space of 86,000 square feet and a building which is used as a loading terminal. This building provides an additional 120,000 square feet of space.69
of Baltimore. The pier consists of a concrete retaining wall with a concrete platform on concrete piles 700 feet in length with an alongside depth of 32 feet at MLW. One rail-mounted 27.5 ton PACECO container crane is used for loading and unloading containers which are marshalled in a 595 foot wide backup area extending the full length of the pier. Railway connections are provided via the Canton Railroad tracks at the rear of the pier and highway connections are through Newkirk Street and Newgate Avenue.70
2. South Atlantic Ports
a. Jacksonville Area
(1) Sea-Land's Terminal. Sea-Land's terminal at Jacksonville is about 2 years old. The pier is 1,200 feet long (two berths) with a 500 feet wide apron and a depth alongside at MLW of 35 feet. The terminal area includes a marshalling yard with a capacity of approxi. mately 500 trailers, a 14,000 square foot transit shed ajoining the parking area, and one 55,000 pound rail mounted crane for loading and offloading vessels. The
b. Baltimore Area
(1) Sea-Land Terminal.—Sea-Land ships call at a pier owned by the Canton Marine Terminal Company
Co The Port of New York and New Jersey, Pori Series, op. cit., various pages.
70 The Port of Baltimore, Maryland Port Series No. 10, 1966, by Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army (Washington: GPO, 1967), p. 27.
terminal is a modern facility which can be expanded to accommodate a 100 percent increase in container traffic with only slight modification.
(2) TMT Terminal.—TMT's facility, located at 215 South Georgia Street, includes one marginal wharf which is approximately 400 feet in length with depth alongside at MLW of 20 feet. Since TMT customarily handles automobiles and general cargo in trailers in a roll-on/roll-off operation, there are no cranes or cargo handling equipment at this facility other than semi-tractors for moving trailers. When such equipment is necessary for handling heavy equipment or other commodities not in trailers, appropriate equipment is contracted for on a basis of need. There is no transit shed available in the facility and most of the area is utilized as a truck and automobile marshalling yard (capable of accommodating 60 vans or 300 cars).". Because of space inadequacies, this facility would be unable to accommodate efficiently the projected 100 percent increase in containerized traffic (ch. II).
(3) SACAL Terminal.-SACAL leases its Jackson. ville terminal and berth from Eagle, Inc. The facility includes a suitable bulkhead and berthing area with a depth alongside the berth at MLW of 20 feet or more. The berth is approximately 480 feet long and the dredged basin is about 290 feet wide. There is a sternloading facility at one end of this berth. The pier is joined by a concrete apron ranging in width from 25 to 50 feet. The entire property including buildings and marshalling area covers about 165,000 square feet. A warehouse on the grounds has approximately 9,600 square feet of floor space. The property is crossed by four railway tracks, two adjacent to the dock and two in the vicinity of the warehouse. The site abuts Bond Avenue.
the property is crowded and offers little room for expansion.72 The area is served by the Florida East Coast Railway and by South Biscayne Boulevard.
(2) SACAL Terminal.—SACAL's facility is part of the New Dodge Island container facility recently completed by the Port of Miami. The facility is constructed of a concrete top with a ramp loading facility base abutting the main pier. The berth space customarily utilized by SACAL (SACAL BORINCANO) 73 is about 300 feet long. The pier apron is 500 feet wide. Aside from the ramp loading arrangements, no special cargo handling equipment is kept at the site. Some equipment is available from outside sources. The marshalling yard area is at this time essentially unlimited as the Dodge Island facilities are both large and uncrowded. Although the port is large and designed to handle containerized freight expeditiously, it appears to have focused on small vessel containerized operations to serve the container needs of the local Florida area."
c. Charleston Area
The Port of Charleston is rapidly developing its facilities to accommodate containerized traffic. SeaLand docks at State pier No. 8, Columbia Street Termi. nal located at the end of Columbia Street. This facility includes a marginal type pier which is backed up by sheds and warehouses. The berth, which is approximately 600 feet long, is served by one 27.5 ton PACECO Crane.
3. Gulf Coast Ports
b. Miami Area
(1) TMT Terminal.—TMT leases its Miami termi. nal at 605 Biscayne Boulevard, Miami, Fla., from the Florida East Coast Railway. The pier, constructed of steel and concrete with timber fenders, is about 300 feet long with an alongside depth of 25 feet at MLW. There is room in the marshalling area for about 60 trailers or 300 automobiles. Since most cargo is car. ried by roll-on/roll-off operations, there is no special cargo handling or transit shed equipment. In general,
a. New Orleans Area (GPRL)
Except for GPRL's container facility, this port mainly provides breakbulk facilities. The narrow 100 mile channel is often fog bound and difficult to navigate. GPRL leases a facility at 6000 Jourdon Drive from the Port of New Orleans for handling container traffic with the MV New Yorker. This facility has relatively poor access and would be subject to congestion if there were a significant increase in traffic. The Jourdon Drive facility, constructed of wooden piling with a concrete deck, is parallel to the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal
79 TMT Ferry, Inc.
*3 When it is necessary for the MV Floridian to call at Miami, more berth space must be used.
74 The facility has rail connections with Florida East Coast Railway. including a pier side surface level track. Highway connections are provided via the Venetian Causeway to U.S. 1 and other arterial roads. The carrier's terminal appears to be capable of handling a 100 percent expansion in containerized traffic with little or no difficulty.
71 Letter of Fernando Cobo, TMT Trailer Ferry, Inc., Aug. 16, 1968, to Paul Gonzalez, Chief, Branch of Trade Studies and Special Projects, FMC, Form IV.
at Morrison Boulevard. There is a ramp loading structure for the stern loading MV New Yorker, and the pier is located at a turning basin which requires the New Yorker to be positioned properly for ramp loading. The portion of the pier utilized by GPRL's vessel consists of approximately 300 feet of a marginal type wharf with a 50 foot dirt and pebble apron strip adjacent to the pier.75 The access road is in poor condition.
There are two railway spurs at the pier connecting the terminal with the New Orleans Public Belt Railroad and ultimately with the Southern, Illinois Central and other railways. The marshalling yard is three-fourths of a mile from the pier. This yard is paved with concrete and can accommodate approximately 148 trailers. Adjoining the yard is a small transit shed. GPRL uses the Perry Street Wharf on the Mississippi for loading and discharging its two breakbulk vessels. The facility includes a pier of about 1,000 feet in length, with a 40 foot apron and depth at MLW of 50 feet, and a transit shed of 160,000 square feet. 76 Access is via Perry Street to U.S. Highway 90 and via rail to the M-KT and Missouri Pacific tracks.
4. West Coast Ports (Oakland and Long
The Port of Oakland provides Sea-Land with a 600foot long marginal-type wharf (two berths) with two PACECO 27.5 ton rail-mounted cranes. (A third crane is to be added shortly.) The berths are served by a 32acre backup area primarily used for marshalling trailers and also as a truck terminal. The marshalling yard has a capacity of 700 trailers. Highway access is provided via Maritime Street to the Bay Bridge, the Eastshore Freeway and the Nimitz Freeway.78
Long Beach provides Sea-Land with a 700-foot long berth located at pier“J” in the Southeast Basin of Long Beach Harbor. This facility has two rail-mounted 27.5. ton PACECO cranes. The facility is served by a backup area of about 33 acres. Highway access is provided via Harbor Scenic Drive to Pico Avenue and thence to Ocean Boulevard or the Long Beach Freeway or across the Los Angeles River via the Magnolia Bridge to downtown Long Beach.
F. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
b. Lake Charles, Houston and Galveston Areas
(Lykes) Lykes operates three terminals in the U.S. Gulf area: Lake Charles, Houston, and Galveston. Lykes calls at Lake Charles Harbor Terminal berth No. 1 which lies at the end of Shell Beach Drive. This terminal includes a 600-foot-long marginal wharf, constructed of wooden pilings covered with steel sheet, with a 40-foot depth at MLW; and a 120,000-square-foot transit shed. The working apron contains 30,000 square feet, and there is no special cargo handling equipment. Access is via paved road; no rail connections are available.
Lykes calls in Houston at berth No. 2 of the Gulf Atlantic Warehouse Co.'s Long Reach Dock located at the end of 75th Street. The facility includes a 500-foot. long marginal wharf, built of brick and concrete, with a depth alongside at MLW of 30 feet; a 14,000-squarefoot cargo assembly area, paved with concrete; and an 88,200-square-foot transit shed. The facility is served by one 75-ton stationary crane, five 30-ton steam cranes and one 25-ton diesel crane. Access is provided via both rail and paved road.
Large scale terminal improvements at Puerto Nuevo and harbor facilities at San Juan are needed to accom. modate the large containerships being introduced in this trade and expansion of trade with principal ports of the Mainland (ch. VI, sec, B.2.b. (5)).
Because Puerto Rico imports so much of its food, durable consumer items, and semimanufactured goods, adequate warehouse facilities are an important factor in Puerto Rico's transportation system. At the present
75 The depth at MLW is 35 feet.
18 The Port of New Orleans; Louisiana Port Series No. 20–1958, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and Maritime Administration, (Washington: GPO, 1959), pp. 99–165; and interview with D. G. Massingale, GPRL Traffic Manager, New Orleans, La. of Oct. 21, 1968.
77 Letter of L. J. Fitzpatrick, Comptroller, Lykes Bros. Steamship Co., lac, Aug. 9, 1968 to FMC, Form III.
18 Official Statement of Port of Oakland, Dec. 26, 1967, and associated brochures.