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menced using this berth weekly in June of 1968. The berth is designed to accommodate the ship's three special steel ramps used to handle the 40 foot trailers and heavy equipment rolling on and off the vessel. This berth together with about 12 acres of land was rented in 1968 by TTT from the Ports Authority. In 1968, 153,378 tons moved across this berth.19
Sea-Land handles large quantities of containerized traffic at berths D, E, and F which are leased from the Ports Authority (chart VI-3). The total tonnage han. dled across berths D, E, and F in 1968 was 137,860, 878,628, and 754,961 tons respectively. Sea-Land's trailerships call at these facilities about six times per week averaging about 10 to 20 hours cargo handling time per visit.20 These berths, each 600 feet long, are equipped with four gantry cranes of 55,000 pound lifting capacity and are located adjacent to the dockside facility. These four-legged tower-like cranes, which move sideways along rails laid parallel to the water's edge, are capable of lifting the largest container loads. Sea-Land estimates that it presently needs two more berths to handle containerized traffic more efficiently. Further, the carrier anticipates that its 1975 berth requirements, projected to accommodate a 100 percent increase in traffic, demand four more berths than are presently assigned. Sea-Land's terminal also includes transit shed D, which consists of only 100,000 square feet of useable space with an 18 foot loading platform. This shed and the carrier's Buchanan LTL Truck Terminal 21 is used to handle Sea-Land's less than trailerload (LTL) traffic which comprises about 30 percent of all container tonnage unloaded at these berths. This transit shed meets only 1/2 of Sea-Land's present storage requirements. Sea-Land estimates that it now needs an additional 100,000 square feet of transit shed area for handling LTL traffic.22 The increase in transit shed space (present and future) would not be necessary if all LTL cargo were to move under mandatory delivery service. (Mandatory delivery is discussed in pages following.) Trailerload (TL) shipments account for some 70 percent of all containers offloaded. The facility includes three transit sheds, two of which are owned by Sea-Land, and the other by the Ports
Authority. According to Sea-Land, its marshalling yard space allocation is insufficient to take care of traffic bo ing handled through Puerto Nuevo 23 In mid-1968, the marshalling yard area consisted of 1,214 spaces for parking trailers (chart VI-3). Sea-Land's offloading operations accumulated up to 1,600 loaded trailers, before pickup and delivery could be made, and about 400 trailers including empties, chassis, reefers, transshipments, and northbound trailers. Therefore, Sea-Land estimates that it currently necds about 800 to 1,200 additional spaces for parking trailers.24
(b) Berth Utilization.--Consideration of berth utilization is one of the factors of importance in evaluating a terminal's ability to serve present as well as future traffic conditions. Sea-Land's containerships called at berths D, E, and F in 1967 to discharge general cargo, largely TL shipments inbound from North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and West Coast ports. In 1967, Sea-Land brought some 220 voyages into Puerto Nuevo: (ch. III). Table VI-4 summarizes Sea-Land's use of berthing space at Puerto Nuevo, San Juan from 1964 to 1968.
In contrast to the earlier breakbulk operations in Puerto Rico, Sea-Land's containerships generally required approximately 1 day to handle from one to three times as much traffic as that handled in the 1950's. In terms of berthing time per vessel, Sea-Land allowed a vessel docking at berth F an average of only 0.84 days per visit on 82 calls; at berth E an average of 1.06 days per visit on 110 calls; and, at berth D an average of 1.32 days per visit on 28 calls. During the 1950's, breakbulk carriers spent up to 13 days at the pier for cargo handling purposes.25 Table VI-4 also shows that Sea. Land's berthing time per visit at berths D, E, and F has increased only slightly between 1964 and 1968 despite the tremendous increase in containerloads. Berth E was the most heavily used. Of the total time available for docking in 1967, there was, on the average, a Sea-Land containership at berth E, 32 percent of the time; at berth F, 19 percent of the time; and at berth D only 10 percent of the time.
Although utilization of berthing time relates only to the percent of total time Sea-Land docked at each berth, these figures serve to demonstrate the ease and probable efficiency with which the containerized cargo was actually handled. The figures also give a measure of the
19 In 1907, only 47,673 weight tons of dry cargo moved across this berth.
20 Berth D receives two calls per week; berths E and F receive four calls per week (Source: Puerto Rico Ports Authority).
» Shed D is not used for LTL cargo moving in Sea-Land's North Atlantic. Puerto Rico service. It is used only for cargo carried to and from West Coast ports. The Buchanan LTL Truck Terminal, constructed for handling LTL cargo, has 131 platform doors.
22 By 1975, Sea-Land's total transit shed space requirement, projected to handle a 100 percent increase in traffic, should be approximately 400,000 square feet.
The relationship between marshalling yard space and berth utilization is discussed in the following pages.
24 To handle a 100 percent increase in traffic expected in the next decade, Sea-Land estimates it will need a total of 4,800 trailer spaces by 1975.
25 S. E. Eastman and D. Marx, op. cit., p. 77.
1 "Docking days" refers to the total number of days Sea-Land docked at berths D through F during This figure was computed by dividing the carrier's docking days at the berth by 365. Source: Puerto Rico Ports Authority.
availability of berthing space to accommodate present traffic conditions. These figures indicate that Puerto Nuevo can accommodate a high concentration of container traffic channeled through this port for distribution to points on the Island, 26 particularly when construction of berths G and H are completed.
(c) Warehousing Space and Storage.—As previously indicated in chapter V, the Central Market built in 1963, is San Juan's principal warehousing and storage area for food wholesalers and associated trucking services. The Market's location at Puerto Nuevo provides it with efficient trailership, trucking, and highway transportation connections. The area also provides facilities for transshipment or re-export. However, additional warehousing space is needed for the food marketing system and for Sea-Land's LTL traffic movements through the Puerto Nuevo facility. This lack of warehousing may be a limiting factor in the efficiency of Puerto Nuevo's berthing facilities, including the marshalling yard area, which are dependent upon the adequacy of transit and storage space. (Warehousing is discussed in more detail in ch. VI, C.)
(d) Port Development.—The Puerto Nuevo facility is among the most modern of its type. For the most part, it facilitates movement, allows shorter turn-around time and lower cost of handling. In addition, it will accommodate high concentrations of container traffic. The development and expansion program at Puerto Nuevo,
aimed for completion by 1980, will ultimately cost some $70 million, $18 million of which has already been invested in this program.27 Approximately 346 acres are involved in the new project, 112 acres of which have already been reclaimed and developed. The program calls for the gradual construction of 13 new berths in. cluding eight new cargo piers, berths G through N. Dredging has already started on berths G and H. The total investment expenditures of constructing berths G and H will be $4,800,000.
The Corps of Engineers has been dredging the Army Terminal Channel leading to Puerto Nuevo port facilities. And, the Ports Authority may appropriate or borrow funds for a comprehensive study by the Corps of Engineers toward further improvements in the San Juan Harbor including: (1) Widening of the harbor entrance at El Morro; (2) deepening of the inner channels; and (3) expansion of deep-draft anchorage areas.
(e) Transshipment Movements.-Sea-Land's transshipments of intercoastal traffic, and transshipments to Haiti, Santo Domingo, and other Caribbean points move through the Port of San Juan. In 1967, Sea-Land entered into an agreement with Isthmian Lines and American President Lines for transport of cargo from Puerto Rico to Vietnam with transshipment at New York and Baltimore. Table VI-5 shows Sea-Land's transshipments of intercoastal and Caribbean traffic. Most transshipments were destined for Haiti.
26 The mere fact that this berth utilization is low does not indicate that the berth utilization at a particular pier can be increased appreciably without en accompanying increase in marshalling yard area and transit shed space.
27 Puerto Rico Ports Authority, "Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Ports Authority, Annual Report-Fiscal Year 1967" (San Juan: Ports Authority, September 1967), p. 15.
(f) Sea-Land's Buchanan LTL Truck Terminal in San Juan.-Sea-Land's Buchanan LTL Terminal is an island-type LTL terminal covering 8.46 acres with a warehouse measuring 880 feet by 100 feet.28 This terminal contains 131 doors (bays) at which trailers can load and offload LTL cargo. The Buchanan LTL terminal is the largest terminal of its type outside the continental United States and was built to complement the modern berthing and transit facility at Puerto Nuevo. Without such a terminal, Sea-Land would have had considerable trouble in handling the growing traffic moving to and from Puerto Rico in recent years.
(2) Analysis of Isla Grande Facilities.—Isla Grande, the second largest marine terminal for handling containerized traffic, is used by Seatrain, TMT, and Berwind. Chart VI-4 illustrates the location and size of their berths at Isla Grande. The area also accommodates an airport for general aviation, a navy area, a berth for handling lumber, the Coast Guard, the Weather Bureau, and the administrative offices of the Ports Authority. The terminal at Isla Grande, which handled only 18 percent of the total dry cargo moving through the Port of San Juan in 1967, is a relatively low density terminal compared to Puerto Nuevo. This traffic nevertheless amounted to more than twice the total number of tons handled through Mayagüez in that year. The facilities of Isla Grande handled a total of 584,781 tons, a gain of 87 percent over the 311,911 tons of 1960.29 Of this, Seatrain's 1967 lift-on lift-off operations accounted for 386,449 tons; and, TMT's rollon/roll-off barges handled 92,815 tons. The remainder,
or 105,517 tons, were handled at the Pan American Dock by foreign and contract carriers. Isla Grande traffic increased to 852,698 tons in 1968 compared to 817,821 tons handled at Old San Juan piers during the same period. 30
(a) Berthing and Marshalling Yard Area.—The bulkhead wharfs facilitate some of the newest and most efficient lift-on/lift-off operations and roll-on/roll-off operations but expansion and development is needed to accommodate containerized traffic which has in. creased considerably over the past 4 years. Seatrain's berth, located on the northeastern side of the area, is leased from the Ports Authority on a preferential rights basis. This 523 foot long berth, including a 125 ton capacity gantry crane and a 25 ton Seamobile crane for offloading rail cars, adequately accommodates the car. rier's three containerships; the SS Seatrain Delaware, SS Seatrain San Juan, and, SS Seatrain New York. These vessels arrive on Mondays and Thursdays and sail the following day.
Seatrain's berthing time in port compares favorably with that of Sea-Land at Puerto Nuevo. In 1967, the SS Seatrain Delaware, which carries 199 containers aver. aged 0.53 days berthing time per visit; the SS Seatrain San Juan, which carries 277 containers, averaged about 0.95 days berthing time per visit; and, the SS Seatrain New York, which hauled 170 containers and several rail cars and vehicles, averaged about 0.95 days berthing time per visit.31 The facility appears to handle Seatrain's lift-on/lift-off traffic efficiently and its pier circulation is relatively good. The marshalling yard area, however, is unable to handle container traffic
» Sea-Land's San Juan LTL facilities also include another truck terminal occupying 7.48 acres, having a warehouse measuring 620 feet by 110 feet and having 62 loading/ offloading bays.
29 Berwind entered the trade in 1964. Its traffic is not included in these figures.
30 Letter of Jose Echevarria, op. cit., p. 2.
31 The SS Seatrain Delaware, handles up to 27 containers per hour; the SS Seatrain San Juan, up to 25 containers per hour; and the SS Seatrais New York, up to 14 containers per hour. (The latter also handles railcars and heavy lift gear.)
adequately, according to Seatrain. The terminal area consists of some 580,000 square feet of usable space for van parking, spotting railcars, warehousing, and other operating purposes. Approximately 155,000 square feet of the area is used primarily for handling railcars, 90,000 square feet is used for stationing vans, and a small warehouse occupies 5,000 square feet.
Table VI-6 below shows the number of Seatrain containers which accumulate over peak periods for spotting in the marshalling yard area.
TABLE VI-6 Sea-Train is Peakload Container Requirements-1967
trailers at TMT's terminal.32 In 1968, Seatrain estimated that 25 percent more space was needed to handle its container traffic efficiently. As indicated previously in chapter III, Seatrain's traffic is expected to double by 1975. In this event, the marshalling yard space to handle the increase in container traffic would be substantially greater than in 1968. Some capital improvements and investment, therefore, will be needed to accommodate future increases expected in containerized traffic. Transit shed space for stripping and stuffing containers presents no problem because Seatrain carries few LTL shipments and those it does move are adequately handled by the United Terminal Co. under contractual arrangements at Fort Buchanan, San Juan.
TMT's roll-on/roll-off barges call twice a week at the TMT Dock on the southern end of Isla Grande. TMT spends, on the average, 48 hours at dock where it offloads the 40-foot trailers inbound from Miami and Jacksonville. No cranes are available nor required due to the roll-on/roll-off type operation. The dock, an undeveloped dirt ramp with dirt road clearance, is in extremely poor condition. An old airship hangar pro
39 On Feb. 22, 1968, 40 empty Seatrain trailers were parked at TMT's terminal on Isla Grande.