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CONTAINER, BREAKBULK, and BULK TRAFFIC:
SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO 1958 TO 1968
PUERTO RICO STEVEDORING TRENDS
from 5 percent of the total traffic in 1958 to 68 percent of the total in 1966, rising further to 72 percent of the total by 1968. In contrast, breakbulk traffic declined from 74 percent of the total in 1958 to 28 percent in 1968, particularly since Bull Lines and Waterman Steamship Corp. discontinued service in this trade.16 Bulk traffic moving over Puerto Rico Ports Authority piers also declined by a substantial amount.
During this period, the number of tons handled per man-hour rose dramatically, from 12 ton per man-hour in 1958 to 11/2 tons per man-hour in 1966. This rise demonstrates the inherent efficiencies of containeriza. tion which has cut the costs per ton handled despite the rising costs of labor in San Juan, which jumped 18 percent on containers between 1960 and 1966 (chart VI-2). Table VI-1 shows that stevedoring hourly wages
on containerized cargo rose 18 percent during the same period, from $2.91 per hour in 1960 to $3.46 per hour in 1966.17 (By 1968, stevedoring wages on containerized cargo had increased another 6 percent to $3.62 per hour.)
By 1968, approximately 72 percent of the total traffic (2,746,462 tons) was containerized, permitting ships to handle cargo more efficiently and to spend less time in port (chart VI-2). As a result, the 13 days in port time required in 1950 by the earlier carrier services to complete breakbulk operations at the Old San Juan piers had been reduced to less than 1 day in port by containership operations at Puerto Nuevo and Isla Grande in 1967. Table VI-2 contains the actual number of container, breakbulk, and bulk tons handled at San Juan between 1958 and 1967.
745,438 1,363,622 1,947,921 2,142,920 2,746,462
Containerized and bulk traffic figures were entirely derived from cargo moving between the U.S. mainland and San Juan, while breakbulk figures consist of shipments moving between San Juan on the one hand and U.S. mainland, and foreign ports on the other.
? These figures do not include traffic handled at private piers. In 1967, bulk carriage amounted to 367,197 tons.
Sources: (a) Carrier Manifests 1958-68; (b) Puerto Rico Chamber of Commerce 1958-67, (Traffic handled at Ports Authority terminals); and (c) Letter of Jose M. Echevarria, Director, Office of Economic Research, Puerto Rico Ports Authority, Nov. 12. 1969 to Paul Gonzalez, Chief, Branch of Trade Studies and Special Projects, FMC.
CHANNEL 32' DEPTH
PUERTO NUEVO SAN JUAN BERTHING, WAREHOUSING FACILITIES
adot EMT issoorino
SE RTM 4
BERTH F BER?HS
b. Berthing Space and Facilities
(1) Analysis of the Puerto Nuevo Facilities.-Puerto Nuevo, the principal marine terminal for handling containerized traffic, is San Juan's highest density facility. This terminal, built since 1964, is the first facility designed as a modern container terminal for the Port of San Juan. The Puerto Nuevo area also provides warehousing and storage space in the Central Market section as well as facilities for transshipment or reexport. The berths, marshalling yard area for spotting vans, Central Market, and transshipment facilities are distinct and separate, and will all be dealt with in this section. Chart VI-3 illustrates the location and size of berths, marshalling yard area, and warehousing facilities at Puerto Nuevo. The terminal consists of six active berths (i.e., berths, A, B, C, D, E, and F) and two berths under construction (berths G and H). In 1968, this terminal handled approximately 62 percent of the total dry cargo traffic moving through the port of San Juan. TTT leases berth C; Sea-Land rents berths D, E, and F; and Lykes uses berth A. Foreign ships use berths A, B, and C.
Table VI-3 shows that 1,679,897 tons moved across these facilities during 1967, some 90 percent of which was Sea-Land containerized traffic. In 1968, Puerto Nuevo handled 2,094,000 tons of dry cargo, representing a gain of 25 percent over the amount of traffic handled a year earlier.
(a) Berths and Marshalling Yard Area. The berths at Puerto Nuevo are modern and, with certain exceptions, are capable of accommodating large container movements with ease of movement and efficiency. Berth
A is a 550-foot marginal steel-pile wharf, capable of accommodating ships of 600 feet in length. It includes some 52,000 square feet of transit shed area located on the pier. In 1968, some 85,002 tons of freight moved across this facility. The berth is primarily used by Lykes fortnightly for general cargo (breakbulk traffic) from the west and east portion of the U.S. Gulf Coast, but not on a preferential basis. Lykes spends an average of 48 hours per visit at berth A. In contrast, Lykes' 1950 cargo handling operation at Old San Juan required 7 days per visit at piers 12 and 13. Foreign ships also use this berth for general cargo and sugar. Berth B, like berth A, is a 550-foot-long marginal steelpile wharf, and also capable of accommodating ships 600 feet in length. This berth handled some 94,171 tons in 1968. Its wharf space and 57,000 square foot transit shed is used to handle general cargo by Alcoa and other shipping companies operating primarily in foreign commerce. Lines using this berth include Atlantic Lines (Bahamian), Royal Mail Lines and Pacific Line (British), Lloyd Brasileiro (Brazilian), Federal Commerce Navigation Co. (Canadian), Indian Towing Co. from Gulf ports (American), Trans Ocean Shipping Co. (Canadian), and two shipping companies hauling lumber from British Columbia.18 Alcoa called fortnightly in 1967 while the other carriers called monthly.
Berth C, capable of accommodating one vessel, 700 feet long, is used by the world's largest and fastest trailership, TTT'S SS Ponce de Leon. This vessel com
18 They are McMillan Lumber Company, and Sea-Borne Steamship Lines. In addition, Weco Shipping (Danish with general cargo), and the New Zealand Shipping Co. (with meat) call at berth B.
TABLE VI-3 Dry Cargo Tons Handled at Puerto Nuevo Berths A Through F During 1967–68 (Weight short tons)
1,679,897 2,094,000 1,221,498 1,545,168
40,662 38,604 35,291 123,163 547,274 436,504
82,630 91,664 130,452 101,466 610,134 528,822
816 6,776 12,382 43,645 211,243 183,537
2,372 2,507 22,926 36,394 258,494 226,139
104.93 107.52 221.73 -17.35
I Ships operating primarily in the foreign commerce.
Source: Various ship manifests, 1967 and 1968.