Gambar halaman








187 4.



Quantity. nia politics. For a number of years he was Tonnage movement of Southern Pacific

President of the Northern Central Railroad of Railroad....

451,854,741 pounds. Deposits in savings-banks.

$72,500,000 Pennsylvania, in which position he was sucBanking capital.

$150,000,000 ceeded by Colonel Thomas A. Scott, when the Corporation dividends disbursed.. $28,000,000

Pennsylvania Railroad Company obtained a The total acreage of wheat in 1876 was controlling interest in the Northern Central. 2,169,000 acres, and the yield 24,776,000 cen- Mr. Cameron was prominent member of the tals; barley, 613,000 acres, 10,066,000 centals. Republican State Convention which met at The gold yield for 1876 was estimated in No- Harrisbnrg in March, 1876, and by it was vember at $20,000,000.

chosen as the head of the Pennsylvania deleThe census of school children, for the years gation to the National Convention which as1874 and 1875, was as follows:

sembled in Cincinnati in June. May 22, 1876, Mr. Cameron was nominated by President

Grant as Secretary of War, and was promptly Whites, five to seventeen years. 157,511 169,883 confirmed by the Senate. The new Secretary Increase over 1873.

139,596 Negroes, same age...

1,064 1,067

is regarded as a man having administrative Increase over 1873.

abilities of a high order. Indians, same age..


CAPERTON, ALLEN T., was born near Increase over 1873.

Union, Monroe County, Va. (now West Va), Totals.....

159,717 171,563 November 21, 1810; died in Washington, Increase over 1873.


July 26, 1876. He graduated at Yale College Total children under five years,

74,876 78,650 in 1832, and studied law at Staunton, Va. He Increase over 1873.

8,564 was for several years a member of the Virginia

Legislature, his last term in the Senate being in 1859-'60. He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1861, and opposed seces

sion until the beginning of hostilities. He Census children attending school at

was elected to the Confederate States Senate, any time of the year..

105,890 116,896 Average daily attendance of census

and served till the fall of the Confederacy. children.

63,651 69,658 He was chosen to represent West Virginia in Average census children belonging to public schools.

70,279 77,350

the Senate of the United States for the full At private schools at any time in the

term beginning March 4, 1875. He was a year-census children.

14,149 15,021 Percentage of census children who

member of the Committees on Claims, Railhave attended only public schools...

roads, and the Revision of the Laws of the Ditto who have attended only private

United States. schools in 1873.. At no school during the year-census

CAPPONI, Marquis Gino, the last reprechildren..

89,678 89,646 sentative of an illustrious Florentine family,

born September 14, 1792; died February 3,

1876. În 1847 he was created Senator of Of 224,633 children in 1874 and 252,301 in Tuscany, and after the proclamation of the 1875, the nativities were :

Constitution of 1848 he became Minister of

State and President of the Council. In the PUPILS.

following years he resolved to give up public Native born, both parents native born 109,742 125,119

life, but afterward accepted a position as a Native born, one parent foreign born 24,207 26,962 member of the commission governing Tuscany Native born, both parents foreign born 85,887 93,776 Foreign born, children....

4,797 6,444

in the absence of the grand-duke. His con

tributions to Italian literature are numerous. SCHOOL STATISTICS.

He wrote a number of articles for the “Italian

Anthology” on Florence, which were sup

1878. pressed in 1832. In addition to these various School-districts in California..

publications he dictated, after he became blind,

1,462 1,512 1,579 First-grade schools.

an important work under the title of "Frag

875 Second-grade schools.

ments on the Subject of Education." He was Third-grade schools..

also one of the principal editors of the “HisTotal schools...

1,868 2,005 2,190

torical Archives," published in Florence. His

biography was written by Montazio (1872). The value of school property in 1875 was CARNE, Louis MaroEIN, Count De, an $5,068,678.30; receipts from all sources for eminent French publicist, born February 17, school purposes, $3,390,359.30; apportionment 1804; died February 13, 1876. He entered per child, $19.76.

the diplomatic service at an early age. In CAMERON, J. DONALD, Secretary of War, 1839 he was elected to the Chamber of Depis the eldest son of Senator Simon Cameron, uties, where he was a follower of Lamartine. of Pennsylvania, and was born in Harrisburg, He opposed many of the points of M. Guizot's about 1830. Until the present year, he has foreign policy, but in the year 1847 accepted never held public office, but for ten years the presidency of the Commercial Department past bas taken a prominent part in Pennsylva- of Foreign Affairs. From this he retired after











718 737 550


770 545

the Revolution of February 24, 1848. He was the Foreign Office, appealing against further elected a member of the Academy in 1863. delay. Appearing as a candidate for a seat in the CHAIX D'EST ANGE, Gustave Louis Legislature in 1869, he was defeated. He re- Victor ADOLPHE CHARLES, a French lawyer ceived the decoration of the Legion of Honor and politician, born April 11, 1800; died Dein 1837. He was the author of numerous cember 14, 1876. He took an active part in works, among which are “Vues sur l'Histoire the exciting events of 1830 and 1848, and was Contemporaine ” (1833), “Du Gouvernement engaged in numerous celebrated trials. At the Représentatif en France et en Angleterre” end of 1857 he was appointed procureur géné(1841), and “L'Europe et le Second Empire” ral at the Imperial Court in Paris. He was (1865). He also furnished numerous contribu- appointed shortly after Councilor of State, and tions to the Revue Européenne, the Encyclopé- in 1862 was created a Senator of the Empire. die du XIXme Siècle, the Dictionnaire de la In 1863 he was appointed Vice-President of Contersation, the Revue des Deux Mondes, and the Council of State, and in 1864 was assigned numerous journals. His son Louis accompa- to preside over the section of Public Works and nied the French Scientific Expedition to Indo- Fine Arts. He took an active part in the Corps China in 1866 to 1868, and gained consider. Législatif as commissioner of the Government, able reputation by his, contributions to the and in 1868 presented to the Senate a report Repue des Deux Mondes, on that country. on the celebrated petition of the Catholics

CENTRAL AMERICA (AMÉRICA CENTRAL), demanding free superior instruction. He was the isthmian territory comprised between created a Commander of the Legion of Honor Mexico and Colombia, and the Atlantic and in 1858, and a Grand Officer in 1861. Pacific Oceans, and serving to unite the north CHELIUS, MAXIMILIAN JOSEPH, an eminent ern and southern continents of America. German surgeon, born in 1794; died August 17,

It comprises the five independent states of 1876. He studied at Mannheim and Heidelberg, Gnatemala, Honduras, San Salvador, Nicara- receiving at the age of eighteen the diploma of gua, and Costa Rica, formerly united under a Doctor of Medicine. He practised medicine single Government, known as the Republic of in several cities, was physician to the hospital Central America.

at Ingolstadt, Bavaria, and accompanied the On February 22, 1876, the plenipotentiaries Baden troops in the invasion of France after for the reëstablishment of the Central Ameri- the overthrow of Napoleon I. He subsequentcan Confederation retired "to their respective ly increased his knowledge of surgery and homes," leaving the prospects of reconstruc- medicine by attending a course of lectures at tion as meagre as at the time of their assem- the hospitals and universities of Vienna, Götbling. The spirit of union, nevertheless, still tingen, Berlin, and Paris. In 1817 hé was exists in the breasts of the people, though it is appointed Extraordinary and in 1819 Ordinary manifested with greatest earnestness in Guate- Professor of Medicine at Heidelberg. In 1826 mala, by far the most progressive of the five he was created a ducal councilor of Baden. states.

His best-known work is his "Handbuch der On September 15, 1876, the anniversary Chirurgie" (2 vols., seventh edition, 1851), of Central American independence was cele- which has been translated into several lanbrated in all of them with unabated patriotism, guages, and is considered a standard work on and in the midst of enthusiastic rejoicings. In surgery. He was also the author of "Ueber the national palace of Guatemala, Señor T. die Heilung der Blasenscheidenfisteln durch Martin Barrundia, of the War Department, Cauterisation " (1844), and “ Zur Lehre von delivered an oration, the concluding remarks den Staphylomen des Auges" (1858). of which reflect the prevailing policy at the CHEMISTRY. Chemistry of the Brain.present time in that country respecting Cen- Mr. Charles T. Kingsett, assistant of Dr. Thutral American reunification : “ It is on this day dichum, in his researches into the chemical that we ought all to strive to join in the prayer constitution of the brain, in a lecture before that these five sections of the same territory the Liverpool Chemists' Association, stated as may soon form one family, united under one follows the constituents of brain-substance: and the same flag, and so present to the world TABLE SHOWING CONSTITUENTS OF THE BRAIN. the grand spectacle of another republic founded by them, like that of Washington or William Albumen......

C,,H110N188029 Tell." Through the mediation of the British Gov

Sub-Group of Kephalins. ernment, the consent of the Government of Kephalin...

C, H, N PO13 San Salvador to a satisfactory settlement of Kephaloidin..

CHEN P03 the outstanding bonds for the Šalvadorian por


C4H7N PO4 Peroxy-kephalin.

C19H, N POIS tion of the original Central American debt Amido-kephalin

CHON, POIS was obtained. New difficulties, created by and salts.

Giving compounds with PtC1,; Cac1,; 'Pb; acids, bases, the minister of the republic in London, appear,

Sub-Group of Myelins. however, to offer an obstacle to the immediate Myelin...

C.Hg6N POR surrender of the bonds. A memorial has been


CH, N POLO Amido-myelin.

C40H92N,P010 sent to the San Salvador Government, through Compounds as with kephalln.



Sub-Group of Lecithins.

ally the effects upon human life of the vapors Lecithin ....

C4,33N PO,

and gases emanating from chemical works, Compounds as kepbalin.

a series of questions was sent to the memGROUP OF NITROGENIZED PRINCIPLES.

bers of the Northwestern (England) AssociCerebrin..

C34H28N,O, Stearoconote ..............


ation of Medical Officers of Health. Upon Phrenosin....

CAHON the basis of the facts brought out in the reKerasin .......

04H, IN Extractive and secretory acids.

plies, Dr. Francis Vacher has written a report, Uric acids and congeners.

the substance of which is here given. Fire New acids.

questions were submitted to the officers of Extractive alkaloids (several new ones). Urea and amido-acids.

health, the first being whether the gases and GROUP OF OXYGENATED PRINCIPLES.

vapors from chemical works are productive Cholesterin....


of any excessive mortality. To this question Inosite....

CH1208 twenty-six medical officers made reply. Of Lactic acid, etc. Hats and fatty acids.

these, six distinctly state that they do consider

noxious vapors a cause of the mortality in their GROUP OF INORGANIC PRINCIPLES. H,80n; HCI; P,0; c0g; 1,0; K; Na; NH3; Ca; respective districts, and one of these six gave Mg; Ou; Fe; Mn.

an opinion that the irritant as well as the poiThe albuminous matters from the brain, he ob- sonous gases increase the death-rate. Three served, do not differ specifically from similar mat- other medical officers refrain from answering ter derived from other parts of the body, and are positively, either in the affirmative or in the mainly insoluble in water. The kephalins possess negative of these, the officer for the city of derful power of combination. The first member of Glasgow is of the opinion that noxious vapors this group was discovered by Thudichum.

do affect the local death-rate, but asserts that Lecithin has been obtained mainly in combination the subject “cannot be studied in its purity," with platinio chloride as hydrochloride, but this salt as the larger factors of house over-crowding proves so unstable as to defy in great measure all and building, dirt, and poverty, obscure the ture. But it has proved at least to possess characters action of all other agencies." The other two different in some respects from those attributed to do not answer the question. But the remainthe lecithin described by Strecker and Gobley, al- ing seventeen medical officers answer the questhough it appears to yield similar products of de- tion, positively or indirectly, in the negative. composition.

Cerebrin, stearoconote, phrenosin, and kerasin, Thus, the officer for Bristol finds "the populaare all well-characterized substances': the first two tion exposed to these gases as healthy as that are isomeric, stearoconote being formed from cere- of any part of the city.” The medical officer brin, when the latter is heated in alcohol, more of Blaydon-on-Tyne, where there are considrapidly than it can be dissolved, when it fuses and erable chemical works, states that the average ble in benzine, while cerebrin is absolutely insoluble health condition of the place is singularly good, in cold benzine; from the benzine solution the stea- and has been for the last thirty years. The roconote is precipitated by alcohol.

medical officer for Liverpool is " acquainted Cerebrin seems to be the di-amidated form of a with no facts which would support a belief fatty acid, while phrenosin appears to constitute that the excessive mortality of the district is the mono-amidated form.

Kerasin has a microscopical character extremely due to the vapors of chemical works.” easy to recognize, and of such form as to readily In thirteen of the twenty-six returns no reenable one to discover the presence of foreign mat- ply is made to the second question, in which ters. Inosite is a sort of sugar; it is probably present

information is sought as to the forms of disin human brain-matter,

while in the brain of the ox ease, if any, produced or aggravated by noxious it exists in very decided amount.

vapors. The medical officers of the remaining In certain cases of softening of the brain, Dr. thirteen towns and districts are of opinion that Thudichum has observed the presence of glycero- diseases are produced or aggravated by gases phosphoric and fatty acids in the free state. As and vapors from chemical works, and many,

of they constitute the decomposition products of some them instance specific diseases, which they beof the phosphorized principles, it is probable that lieve to be traceable to this cause. In one resoftening of the brain may be expressed chemically turn it is stated that “every disease of the as the decomposition of one or more of the phos- respiratory organs seems to be aggravated, and phorized principles into proximate nuclei. All the principles of which brain-matter is com

vomiting sometimes produced," by the noxious posed are, en masse (with the exception of the al vapors. Other returns note injurious effects buminous framework), soluble in warm alcohol, produced on patients suffering from bronalthough the individual principles are not all soluble chitis, asthma, pneumonia, and, in some in; under these conditions. The question occurs

here: stances, these and allied complaints are said Can a man consume so much alcohol in the form of to be primarily caused by the vapors from upoxidized condition, to dissolve traces of matter chemical works. Lastly, the medical officers from his brain? Actual experiments made by Mr. for three districts charge gases and vapors Kingsett appear to favor the hypothesis of a solvent from chemical works with the production of action exerted by alcohol on the brain of the living phthisis. There is also some evidence that individual.

these gases and vapors, in some districts, cause Influence of Chemical Works on Public loss of appetite, sick headache, diarrhea, nauHealth.-With a view to determine statistic- sea, and indigestion.

Question number three is in this form : 3. Emitting the vapors, for the most part, Have you noticed any signs of general ill- when the wind will carry them in a safe dihealth or weakness that could properly be at- rection. tributed to this pollution of the air? In seven 4. The more stringent application by saniof the twenty-six returns tabulated, the ques. tary authorities of the legislative provisions tion is not specifically answered. The medical already existing. officers for ten districts say they have not no 5. The adoption by manufacturers of the ticed any signs of general ill-health or weak, most approved scientific processes. ness attributable to this cause; the medical 6. Requiring the removal of all sulphur from officer for Bristol adding, “ Although St. Phil. alkali waste before deposit. ip's, Bristol, stinks from one end to the other Bartlett's Ozone-Generator.-Dr. F. W. Bartof gases from different manufactories, the peo- lett's ozone - generator, which was exhibited ple are very healthy—the children remarkably at the Buffalo meeting of the American plump and healthy." The answers from the Association for the Advancement of Science, remaining nine districts are all in the affirma- consists of three parts, each having a share tive. Thus, one medical officer reports " cases in the process. The base, or generator, is a of temporary uneasiness of the respiratory or- glass vessel eight inches high, with a progans," which he ascribes to this cause; and jecting rim at either end; the interior space, another says: "I could not fairly attribute the four and a half inches in diameter, being digeneral signs of ill-health I observe to this vided into eight compartments by projections pollution of the air alone, but it appears to from the inner wall, extending one and a quarme, in some cases, to be the chief cause of ill- ter inch toward the centre. This unoccupied health.” The medical officer for St. Helens centre has a movable cylinder which, when in remarks: “The aspect of the people, especial. position, completes the walls of the separate ly those who dwell in the immediate neighbor- cavities. In each of these a tablet of phoshood of the works, is sallow and anæmic, pre- phorus, one by two inches, and one-eighth of senting a marked contrast to those who live in an inch thick, is suspended in water by a fusihealthy towns." Thus, we have the evidence ble wire--the fusible wire being used so that, of several medical officers in charge of polluted in cases of ignition, which sometimes occurs, districts that the vapors and gases emitted by the phosphorus may be completely submerged chemical works are a cause of general ill-health and the flame extinguished. "Resting upon the and weakness, sometimes producing specifio base is a conical cylinder, eight inches high, diseases of an asthenic type, or even prema- and with a diameter at the top of five inches, ture old age.

composed of double walls of wire-cloth, beQuestion number four refers to a matter on tween which lies some porous material satuwhich it is particularly difficult to obtain posi- rated with a strong alkaline solution. This pretive information; it is as follows:

sents an effectual bar to the passage of phosHave you observed whether the atmosphere phoric acids, while it permits the free transit is especially injurious to those newly settled of the ozone. Above this eliminating-chamber in the district, and whether a prolonged stay is a second glass cylinder about eight inches in seems to secure comparative immunity from height, with an aperture at the top through suffering?

which passes a glass rod carrying a plunger The evidence under this head may be briefly for displacing the water in the base, and by summed up. It is not very strong either way, means of which the tablets of phosphorus may but what there is appears to amount to this: be raised or lowered. The space thus provided The medical officers who have had experience above the phosphorus is about eighteen inches, of the more serious effects of noxious vapors and is considered by the inventor indispendo not find that immunity from these is se- sable to the full utilization of the phosphoric cured by a prolonged stay in a polluted dis- vapor in the production of ozone. trict, and those medical officers who can charge În its present form the machine is employed the vapors with producing nothing graver than chiefly for disinfecting purposes, and performs headache, chest constriction, and indigestion, such work not only thoroughly but very cheapfind the sufferers from such complaints become ly. For ozonizing the atmosphere of a house, acclimatized. There is also some evidence sup- the slow oxidation of 100 to 150 grains of porting the belief that, except in the case of phosphorus daily will suffice. It is entirely those actually employed in the works, the new- manageable and without any disagreeable odor. Iş settled in a polluted district suffer most. Dr. Bartlett claims that ozone possesses

The fifth question, which asks for practical very important curative properties, has emor legislative suggestions toward amending the ployed it successfully in numerous cases of evils observed, has elicited suggestions from asthma, hay-fever, typhoid fever, scarlatina, six medical officers.

diphtheria, puerperal fever, erysipelas, etc. These suggestions are briefly as follows: He predicts that its introduction will work

1. The removal of the works from the vicin- great changes in the medical treatment of zyity of inhabited houses.

motic or malarial diseases. 2. The reduction of the legal maximum of An Improved Gas-Jet.—The flame from a noxious vapors allowed to be discharged. Bunsen burner is not solid, but, like the flame of

a candle, has a central hollow space about half fluence of atmospheric electricity, free nitroits own length, the “zone of no combustion.” gen is absorbed at the ordinary temperatures Nr. J. Wallace, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, has dis- by the proximate principles of plants. The covered a method of obliterating this hollow apparatus used in these experiments consists space, and of producing a solid fame. While of a system of tubes in which the organic subexperimenting with a view to ascertain the stances come into contact either with pure conditions of safety in the mixture of air with nitrogen or with atmospheric air, the whole coal-gas, Mr. Wallace observed that as the pro- communicating with a source of electricity at portion of air was increased the hollow space a tension precisely the same as that of atmosbecame smaller, the whole flame contracted, pherio electricity. Under these conditions and the heat became more intense. The surface pure nitrogen, or the nitrogen of the atmosof the space changed from a leaden color to a phere, is invariably fixed by different organic brilliant emerald green, and finally, as the pro- matters, as moist cellulose and dextrin. The portion of air was increased, the “zone of no amount of nitrogen that is thus fixed is concombustion ” disappeared altogether and the gas siderable. These experiments demonstrate the and air exploded in the Bunsen burner. The influence of a natural cause, hitherto scarcely form of the burner was such as to allow of an suspected, and nevertheless of great impor. intimate mixture of the air and gas. It was tance for vegetation. Hitherto, when the effects thus apparent that the hollow space or “zone of atmospheric electricity have been studied, of no combustion " depended entirely on the its luminous and violent manifestations, such amount of air which was mixed with the gas as thunder and lightning, have been chiefly reprevious to combustion, and it only remained garded. Upon whatsoever hypothesis, the forto construct a burner in which the gas-jet mation of nitric and nitrous acids or of nitrate should be able to induce the extra quantity of of ammonia has been exclusively taken into air, and the burner itself be so arranged that account. But the author's experiments show the tendency to explode or light within should a new and hitherto unknown action, which be prevented. It may here be noted that a works unceasingly under the most serene sky, much greater proportion of air must be pre- and which determines a direct fixation of niadmixed to obtain a good flame from a large trogen in the principles of the tissues of plants. burner than from a small one, because the area Nero Oxide of Manganese.-Frémy has obof the flame increases at a much greater rate tained a new oxide of manganese, Mn,Os, aristhan its circumference. The remainder of the ing from the reaction of the sulphate of the air, which makes up the total combining quan- sesquioxide of manganese on the sulphate of tity, is combined with the gas during combus- the protoxide. It is obtained by decomposing tion, and appears only to unite at the lower permanganate of potassium with an excess of part of the flame; the upper part being en- trihydrated sulphuric acid. On mixing the two veloped and cut off, so to speak, by its own sulphates of manganese, the liquor takes on 8 products.

wine-red color, and deposits hexagonal tablets The following account of some of Mr. Wal- formed by the combination of sulphuric acid lace's experiments is from the Engineering and with the oxide Mn,O... This salt is very unMining Journal:

stable, water decomposing it with a precipitate A cylindrical cap of finely perforated iron plate of hydrated sesquioxide of manganese. The was fitted on to a burner tube 1 inch in diameter, and liquor retains in solution a mixture of sulphumade adjustable to various heights. When raised ric acid and sulphate of protoxide of manga. to # inch, gas was burned above it at the rate of 20 nese. The rose-colored liquid known to chemfeet per hour, with a flame which was solid to the ists, obtained in the preparation of oxygen by bright-green bead showing where coinbustion began treating the peroxide of manganese with conA 2-inch tube was next fitted up with 3 jets at the centrated sulphuric acid, owes its coloration bottom, capable of passing 40 feet per hour at 1t to the presence of the new compound discorinch pressure. When lighted and adjusted the flame ered by M. Frémy. The new oxide, Mn,Os proved to be as complete as the previous ones, and takes its place in the following series of oxthe from a test-holder, was 41% volumes. A platinum ides, sometimes called manganites, true saline wire stretched across the flame * inch above the oxides : Sesquioxide, Mn,O, = Mń0. MnO; cap became instantly white-hot for a distance of 4 red oxide, Mn30,=M002, 2Mn0; new oxide, inches, and the color gave no indication of any dif- Mn,O.=MnO2, 3MnO. The newly-discovered erence of temperature in any part enveloped in the salt is decomposed by potash, and gives a black of the burn or a large hollow space immediately ap- precipitate, which easily dissolves in sulphuric peared above the cip, and the wire cooled to black- acid, and which reproduces the primitive salt. ness. On again admitting the air the wire was once Certain specimens of peroxide of manganese, it more incandescent. The green beads when exam- is thought, contain a certain qnantity of the bonio oxide, and they only appear in a flame which oxide Mn,Os; those, probably, which give a burns in the most complete manner.

rose-colored liquor under the action of concen

trated sulphuric acid. Absorption of Nitrogen by Plants.-Berthe The Oxides of Manganese Sources of Ozone.lot has published the results of a series of ex- Experiments made by Valmagini indicate that periments which prove that, under the in- ozone is not only abundantly present in bi

« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »