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time, embracing 415 acts, 16 joint resolutions, In order to enable him to make the report and 19 memorials to Congress.

and return required of him by law, the act in The most important act of the session was section 3 enjoins “the president, or managing apparently that relating to railroad, express, officer, of each railroad corporation in the and telegraph companies in the State of Wis- State, to make to the Railroad Commissioner consin. The main purpose of this law is to annually, in the month of October, such recorrect or repeal former laws which sought to turns, and in the form he may prescribe, as regulate fares and freights of railroads. Such will afford the information required for his was the case in a special manner with the law report; " under penalty of one hundred dollars commonly known as the “Potter Law," the for every day's willful delay, or refusal of such enactment of which, two years previously, not return, after the 31st day of October. only aroused so much ill-will in the railway This law was enacted after a most vigorous companies operating in Wisconsin that they and long-continued struggle, in which almost took an attitude of defiance against the law every member of the Legislature took an active and openly violated its provisions as mani- part. It having been passed by the House of festly unjust, unconstitutional, and void, but Representatives, in which it was first introalarmed those companies also whose lines are duced, the Senate also, after repeated and located in other States of the Union.

excited debates, finally passed it on the 18th The new law, while it keeps the railway of February, by a vote of yeas 20, nays 7. companies under salutary restrictions to guard Among the sums of money appropriated for the interests of the State and her citizens different objects by the Legislature of 1876 against arbitrary and unjust exactions, does are the following: $25,000 for the publication also amend or repeal the objectionable provi- of the Geological Survey; $1,500 for the State sions of former laws. A prominent feature of Historical Society; $20,000 for the Centennial it is the abolition of the former board of three Exhibition; $126,000 for the Northern HosRailroad Commissioners, and the substitution pital for the Insane; $84,000 for the State of one such commissioner only, whom the Hospital for the Insane; $40,000 for the InstiGovernor, by and with the consent of the tute for the Deaf and Duinb; $18,000 for the Senate, is required to appoint within ten days Institute for the Blind; $90,000 for rebuilding from the passage and publication of this act, the Institute for the Blind; $31,000 for the " and who shall hold his office for the term of current expenses of the Industrial School for two years from the 15th day of February, and Boys; also $15,000 for a shoe-shop in the said until his successor is appointed and qualified." school; $27,870 for the current expenses of

the State-prison; and $4,000 for the soldiers' orphans' pensions.

The Republicans of Wisconsin met in convention at Madison on the 22d of February, "to nominate a presidential electoral ticket, and to select twenty delegates to the National Republican Convention to be held at Cincinnati."

After organization, the following nominations were reported by a committee appointed for the purpose and by the eight congressional district committees in their numerical order, and all of the reports were unanimously adopted by the convention :

Electors at large-W. H. Hiner, of Fond da Lac County, and Francis Campbell

, of Lafarette.

Delegates at large - Philetus Sawyer, of Winnebago; David Atwood, of Dane; Mark

Douglas, of Jackson ; and James H. Howe, of The duties of this officer are specified by the Kenosha. act as follows:

The following platform was reported and SECTION 2. The Railroad Commissioner shall in- unanimonsly adopted by the convention: quire into any neglect or violation of the laws of 1. The Republicans of Wisconsin, in State Conthis State by any railroad corporation doing busi- vention assembled, in response to the call of the ness therein, or by the officers, agents, or employés National Union Republican Committee for the Rethereof; and shall also, from time to time, carefully publicans of the several States of the Union to elect examine and inspect the condition of each railroad delegates for their National Convention, send fraterin the State, and of its equipment, and the manner pal greetings to the Republicans in all parts of our of its conduct and management with relation to the beloved land, with the cordial assurances to all papublic safety and convenience. He shall also ex- triotio citizens who honor the flag of our common amine and ascertain the pecuniary condition and country as the emblem of liberty, equality, and fra. the manner of financial management of each and ternity, of our earnest desire to see the republic eltevery railroad corporation doing business in this ter upon the second century of its prosperous career State.

free from sectional strife or injustice of any name or



nature; and that we will endeavor to promote friend 5. While endeavoring to reduce the national debt ly feeling and permanent harmony ihroughout the that was incurred in the presence of organized treaentire country, and will maintain and support all son and armed rebellion within a political party measures, acts, and laws, the enforcement of which which again aspires to the control of the Governshall secure to every citizen his constitutional rights, ment, we are opposed to impairing the credit of the including the full and free exercise of the riglīt of nation by depreciating any of its obligations, and in franchise without intimidation or fraud.

favor of sustaining in every way the national faith 2. We are in favor of vigorous efforts to prosecute and financial honor. We believe in honest money; and punish those who have been guilty of official that the currency of the nation should, as soon as dishonesty, and to detect and bring to punishment consistent with business interests and safety, be all who have in any way or form conspired to de- made equal to gold, and, until that time, should confraud the Government of its just and legal revenues. tinue as a legal tender.

3. We believe in the unwritten law of the land, 6. We hold as of priceless value and of the greatwhich declares it unwise for a Chief Magistrate to est importance the common-school system of this hold his office beyond two terms; and we accept the country, which, supported by just and equal taxation declaration of President Grant in harmony with this of property for the benefit of all, and accessible to law as but another claim to our veneration and grati- the children of citizens of every nationality, color, tude.

condition, or creed, shonld be maintained absolutely 4. We believe in international arbitration in lieu free from sectarian control; and that popular educaof war; and we regard the scene of two nations tion is the right arm of the national safety under a strong enough to be above fear and wise enough to free and tolerant government, whose guarantee of be above passion, adjusting their claims before this liberty can only be perpetuated while knowledge tribunal, as among the proudest monuments of the pervades the masses. republic

7. While reiterating our firm devotion to the prin

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ciples that were cherished and established by the party of law, order, progress, and freedom, will American patriots of 1776, as incorporated in their achieve another glorious victory. Declaration of Independence, in the Constitution of the Union, and in the laws of Congress, we can

The Democrats met in State Convention at not ignore the fact, which is indelibly written in our Milwaukee ou June 7, 1876,

for the purpose rational history, that, for the privilege of celebrating of selecting delegates to the Democratic Conica are indebted not only to its founders but also to vention at St. Louis for the nomination of canits defenders ; and that if to-day we have a country didates for President and Vice-President of the or a government whose existence is worth celebrat- United States. ing, it is because, in the hour of its greatest peril, The following

were chosen as the four deleits interests and welfare were intrusted to a party gates at large : Theodor Rudolf, of La Crosse ; which gave no aid or comfort to the enemies of our James R. Doolittle, of Racine ; George B. security or means for present or future safety, pros- Smith, of Dane; and Alexander Mitchell

, of perity, and bonor, as a power for good among the Milwaukee. nations. 8. With a renewal of our pledges to the platform this convention. When the time arrived for

The platform was reported as adopted at vention in July last, we enter upon the campaign the Committee on Resolutions to report, a moof 1876 with assurances from all directions that the tion was made to adjourn sine die, which was

carried. This method seems to have been re 2. That the Government paper currency should sorted to as a means to prevent a disturbance be convertible into Government bonds of long time in the convention, and perhaps a split in the and low interest, at the will of the holder, and be

receivable for all public dues, including customs. party, owing to a disagreement among the 3. That the act of 1875, called the resumption act, members about the currency question. There should be immediately repealed. would have been two reports submitted from 4. That, as soon as practicable, Government paper it-namely, a majority report, wholly ignoring currency should supersede the circulation of the na

tional banks. that question, and a minority report urging the

5. That for the present there should be a widely emission and circulation of paper-money. discriminating tariff for revenue only.

A third political party, called the “Indepen 6. That our common schools should be free, non dent” or “Greenback" party, from its prefer- partisan, and non-sectarian. ence for that kind of money before all others

7. A genuine civil-service reform, and the bonest under certain conditions, held a State Conven

administration of the Government. tion at Madison, on May 10th, in order that The election of November 7th resulted in Wisconsin might be represented in the Inde- favor of the Republican candidates. The agpendent National Convention to be held at In- gregate votes polled in the State for President dianapolis on the 17th of that month. Only a numbered 256,038; of which the Republican few persons attended. Their number, which nominee received 130,067, the Democratic was about a dozen at the hour fixed for the 123,926, the Independent or Greenback, with opening of the convention, did not exceed some scattering votes included, 2,045. The twenty-five at any time till its final adjourn- votes for presidential electors in 1876 were

nearly 90,000 more than those for Governor in 1875, when they numbered 169,469, of which Mr. Ludington received 85,155, and Mr. Taylor 84,314.

Of the eight Congressmen from Wisconsin, five Republicans were elected, namely: in the first, second, third, seventh, and eighth districts; and three Democrats, in the fourth, fifth, and sixth.

The State Legislature was divided as follows: In the Senate - Republicans, 23; Democrats, 10; doubtful, 1. In the House of Representatives - Republicans, 58; Democrats, 42.

The whole amount of public revenue from all sources during the fiscal year ending September 30, 1876, including $277,681. 44, balance in the State Treasury on October 1, 1875, was $1,976,074.09. The aggregate disburse

ments for all public expenment. The convention, however, was both ditures during the same year were $1,660,temporarily and permanently organized, and, 207.48 ; leaving an available surplus in the on appropriate motions, a committee of three Treasury, on October 1, 1876, of $315,866.61. was appointed to frame and report resolutions, The estimated receipts for 1877 are set down and to nominate delegates to Indianapolis; an at $1,300,696.64; the expenditures at $975,electoral ticket was nominated, and a Central 727.98. Committee of nine reorganized.

The entire amount of the State debt on SepThe following platform was adopted : tember 30, 1876, was $2,252,057, and consists

of the following items: State bonds outstandResolved, That we are in favor of the following ing, $14,000 ; certificates of indebtedness to

1. An exclusivo Government currency, to be issued trust-fund, $2,238,000; and currency certifiin such volume as will meet the average demands of cates, $57. the country.

The amount belonging to each of the pro

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ductive trust-funds of the State, at the same gate, of whom there were 318 remaining in date, was as follows: School-fund, $2,625,798.- the school on September 30th. 06 ; university fund, $222,735.56 ; Normal The number of convicts in the State peniSchool fund, $963,917.34; and Agricultural tentiary on September 30, 1876, was 266, their College fund, $238,479.40; making a total of average number during the year having been $4,050,930.36. There was in these funds a to- 261. tal decrease during the year of $8,063.32. The geological survey of the State has been

A State Board of Assessment, consisting of prosecuted during the year in six different the Secretary of State, the State Treasurer, fields. and the Attorney-General, was appointed by The Board of Fish Commissioners, which law to make an equalized valuation of the was partly reorganized by the Legislature of property in the State, as a guide to assessment 1876, has purchased a suitable site for a for taxation; many complaints of too high val- hatching-house near Madison, and provided uation of their property in previous assess- the necessary buildings and appliances. In ments having been made by parties from dif- this place, and at Milwaukee, great numbers ferent sections in the State. The board com- of fish of different varieties have been hatched pleted their work at the beginning of June, during the year. They are to be introduced 1876, and the total results were as follows: into Lake Michigan and the interior waters of The aggregate value of the taxable property in Wisconsin. Wisconsin, as assessed in the preceding year, The aggregate length of railroads operating amounted to $353,021,413, composed of $271,- within the State is 2,427 miles, of which 141 820,329 of real estate, and $81,201,204 of per- miles were built in 1876. The law concerning sonal property. In the tables of equalized these railroads, which was passed in February, valuations, compiled by the said Board of As- 1876, and went into force from its passage and sessment, the whole amount of the taxable publication, appears to have been in practical property in Wisconsin is set down at $423,- working for the rest of the year to the satis596,290, of which sum $337,073,148 represents faction of both the railway companies and the real estate, and $86,523,142 personal prop- people of the State. erty; making a total increase of more than The application of a Miss Goodell for ad$70,500,000 over the preceding assessment. mission to the bar of Wisconsin was rejected

In 1876 returns have been made to the Sec- by the Supreme Court of the State. The main retary of State from all the counties in Wis- reason of the refusal is rested by Chief-Justice consin, exhibiting the description and value Ryan, in his decree for that purpose, on the of real and personal property within their plain ground of Nature, saying : limits not liable to taxation. The aggregate We cannot but think the common law wise in exvalue of such property in the State is $18,524,- cluding women from the profession of the law. The 196. Of this sum, $4,516,459 represents church profession enters largely into the well-being of soproperty, and $7,487,627 railroad property.

ciety, and, to be honorably filled and safely to society,

exacts the devotion of life. The law of Nature desNo reports were made in 1876 by the Re- tines and qualifies the female sex for the bearing gents of the State University, or by the Super- and nurture of the children of our race, and for the intendents of the normal schools, concerning custody of the homes of the world and their maintheir respective condition and management.

tenance in love and honor. And all life-long callIn the Wisconsin Hospital for the Insane, social duties of their sex, as is the profession of the

ings of women inconsistent with these radical and the number of patients under treatment dur- law, are departures from the order of Nature, and, ing the year was 557. The number remaining when voluntary, trenson against it. in the Hospital on September 30, 1876, was An artesian well of great depth (960 feet) 355. The cost of their maintenance for the has recently been bored with success at Praiyear was $97,279.27, including payments for rie du Chien, Wis. The flow is 603 gallons per repairs and minor improvements.

minute. In the Northern Hospital for the Insane, at WISE, HENRY ALEXANDER, died at RichOshkosh, the whole number of patients under mond, Va., September 12, 1876. He was born treatment during the same year was 604; and at Drummondtown, Accomack County, Va., those remaining in the institution on Septem- December 3, 1806. He graduated at Washber 30th were 503. The sum expended for ington College, Pa., in 1825, studied law, the support of this institution was $97,857.26. and settled in Nashville, Tenn., but in 1830

In the Institute for the Deaf and Dumb, the returned to Accomack. In 1833 he was electwhole number of pupils during the year wased to Congress by the Jackson party, and after 191. Its expenses amounted to $42,624.14. the election fought a duel with his competitor

In the Institution for the Education of the for the office. He was twice reëlected. In Blind, the entire number of persons receiving Congress he went over to the opposition on instruction during the year was 86. The cost the development of Jackson's bank policy, and of maintaining this institution for that time took strong ground in favor of slavery. In was $22,710. The sum of $47,610 was also 1837 he was second to Mr. Graves, of Kenexpended on its new building.

tucky, in his duel with Mr. Cilley, of Maine, The Industrial or Reform School for Boys in which the latter was killed. În 1842 the during the year had 415 inmates in the aggre- Senate rejected the nomination of Mr. Wise as

minister to France, but he was subsequently RAYMOND, a French senator, born at Warsav, appointed minister to Brazil, and resided at August 31, 1810; died August 4, 1876. He Rio de Janeiro from May, 1844, till October, took an active part in the Polish Revolution of 1847. · In 1848 and 1852 he supported the 1830, was a staff-captain during the first strugDemocratic candidates for President. He was gle, and subsequently a Councilor of State. He elected Governor of Virginia in 1855, after went to Paris as secretary of legation, where a very vigorous canvass, directed especially the disasters of Poland forced him to remain. against the “Know-Nothings.” Toward the In 1834 he was naturalized, was elected to the close of his term occurred the seizure of Har- Legislative and Constituent Assenıblies in 1848, per's Ferry by John Brown, whose execution and after the coup-d'état returned to private (December 2, 1859) was one of the last acts of life. He founded the first company of the his administration. In February, 1861, he was Crédit Foncier of Paris, which afterward bea member of the State Convention, in which, came the Crédit Foncier of France. He was from the Committee on Federal Relations, he nominated to the Legion of Honor in 1857. In made a report which aimed at compromise and 1871 he was elected to the National Assembly a peaceable adjustment with the seceded States. from Paris, and in 1875 was chosen life-senator, After the secession of Virginia he was ap- the fifteenth, by 249 votes, acting in both bodies pointed brigadier-general in the Confederate with the Left Centre. He was the author of army. His force was driven out of the Kana- several valuable works on political economy, wha Valley by the national troops under Gen- of which we mention “De l'Organisation du eral J. D. Cox, and at Gauley Bridge lost a Travail ” (1845); "Études d'Economie politique large quantity of arms and stores. Subse- et de Statistique" (1848); “De l'Organisation quently he commanded at Roanoke Island, N. du Crédit foncier" (1849); "Les Finances de la O., where his forces were defeated by Burn- Russie" (1864); "La Banque d'Angleterre et side's expedition, his son, O. J. Wise, being les Banques d'Ecosse ” (1867); “La Liberté among the killed.

commerciale" (1868); and “ L'Or et l'Argent" WOLOWSKI, Louis François MICHEL (1870).

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