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grate seriously to consider the above statement and léans, Count d'Ea; Senators—Viscount d'to compare it with the expectation held out to them Abaeté; Marquis de São Vicente; Viscount by the promoters of the emigration. If they do so, do Rio Branco ; J. T. Nabuco d'Aranjo; Vis
. they cannot fail to see that it contradicts those expectations in several of the most important points. counts de Muritiba, de Bom Retiro, de JaThis is especially the case in regard to the promised guary, de Carvelhas, and de Nictheroy; and erection of a "reception-house" for the accommo- of the six members extraordinary: Senatorsdation of settlers on their first arrival, the provision Viscount de Araxá; Duke de Caxias (Presiit, the early construction of the tramway between dent); J. P. Dias de Carvacho; J. J. Teixeira; the settlement and Curitiba, and the estáblishment Vice-Admiral J. R. de Lamare; and Dr. P.J of stores at which settlers might both purchase what Loares de Souza. they require and sell their surplus produce at fair prices. "It, however, notwithstanding this caution, emigrants decide to proceed to the Kittoland settlement, the responsibility for any disappointment they may meet with will be their own.
(For the Constitution and Government of Brazil, reference may be made to the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1875.)
The Emperor, Dom Pedro II. de Alcántara, John Charles Léopold Salvador Bibiano Francis Xavier de Paule Leocadio Michael Gabriel Raphael Gonzague, born December 2, 1825, son of Dom Pedro I. de Alcántara (King of Portugal and Emperor of Brazil), is the present sovereign. He reigned under tutelage, by
ANACONDA. virtue of the act of abdication of his father, from April 7, 1831, until July 23, 1840, when
The President of the Senate, which is comhe was declared by law to have attained his posed of eight members elected for life, is Vismajority ; was crowned on July 18, 1841 ; and count de Jaguary; Vice-President, Viscount married on September 4, 1843, to Theresa de Camaragibe. Christina Maria, born March 14, 1822, daughter
The Chamber of Deputies, with 122 memof the late King Francis I. of the two Sicilies.bers elected for four years, has now for Presi
dent Councilor M. F. Corrêa; Councilor A. J. Henriques; J. P. M. Portella ; A. G. de Paula Fonseca.
The Archbishop of Bahia, J. G. de Azevedo (elevated in 1875), is Primate of all Brazil, and there are eleven bishops: those of Pará, São Luiz, Fortaleza, Olinda, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Porto Alegre, Marianna, Diamantina, Goyaz, and Cuyabá.
The regular army (peace footing) comprises a special corps (staff, 29 men; engineers, 56; states, 118; almoners, 79; sanitary corps, 145) of 427 men ; twenty-one battalions of infantry, 9,864 men; five regiments, two detachments, one squadron, and four garrison companies of horse, 2,484; and three regiments and four battalions of artillery, with one battalion of engineers, 3,280: total, 16,055 men.
The strength of the army in time of war is fixed at 32,000 men.
The police force consists of 9,662 men, of
whom 800 are in Rio de Janeiro. The new cabinet, formed June 25, 1875, is The National Guard has been disbanded, to composed as follows: Interior, Councilor J. be reorganized in accordance with the results B. da Cunha Figueiredo, Senator ; Justice, of a new census. Councilor Diogo Velho, Deputy ; Foreign Af The Brazilian Government still maintains, in fairs, Baron de Cotegipe, Senator ; War, Duke Paraguay, an occupation-brigade 1,500 strong de Caxias, Senator, and President of the Coun- --horse, foot, and artillery. cil of State; Navy, Councilor L. A. Pereira According to the terms of the law of FebFranco; Finance, Baron de Cotegipe (ad in- ruary 27, 1875, governing military conscripterim); and Public Works, Commerce, and tion, every Brazilian is in duty bound to take Agriculture, T. J. Coelho de Almeida, Deputy. up arms to maintain the independence and in
The Council of State is made up of the fol- tegrity of the empire. lowing members in ordinary: Princess Im No army or navy officer can be deprived of perial Donna Izabel; Prince Gaston d'Or- his rank without trial.
The navy of the empire consists of 19 iron Brazil has seven loans (all at Rothschild's) clad steamers, 1 steam-frigate, 8 steam-cor- in London, which amounted in January, 1876, vettes, 23 steam-gunboats, 7 steam-transports, to the following sums : and 3 sail-of-the-line; the total armament is 1852 41 per cents....... .£1,210,000, emitted at 95 230 guns, and the aggregate horse-power of 1859 5
270,000, the steamers 12,027. There were, besides, one
775,000, 1863 41
2,690,000, school-ship, and one brig for inidshipmen, both 1865 5
6,184,200, without armament; in process of construc
8,885,000, tion, 1 steam iron-clad, and 4 steam-corvettes.
5,301,200, There were in the navy 15 general staff of
.£19,815,400 ficers, 338 first-class and 159 second-class of
or $990,077,000 ficers, a sanitary corps 65 strong, 24 almoners, The original amount of the above seven 215 accountants, 78 guardians, 33 engineers, loans reached £23,222,000 ($116,110,000), 3,000 imperial marines, a naval battalion 913 showing that £3,406,600 ($17,033,000) has strong, and 3,400 apprentices-total, 7,313. already been redeemed.
Brazil is one of the few nations whose reve The home debt is made up as follows: nue persistently increases, it might be said,
Government stocks, fours, fives, and sixes. £26,000,000 spite of all circumstances. The subjoined ta Gold bonds, 6 per cent.
3,000,000 bles show the branches and amounts of the
Government notes and Treasury bills. 20,000,000
8,200,000 national revenue and expenditures for the fiscal year commencing July 1, 1873, and ending June Total .....
or $261,000,000 30, 1874:
The six per cents are always above par, and Custom-house...
$36,826,086 these include almost the whole funded debt; Shipping duties.
5 per cents only amount to. £220,000 ($1,Post-Office
448,878 100,000), and 4 per cents to £12,000 ($60,000). Telegraphs.
61,499 About 84 per cent. of the home debt is held in Stamp-duties. Mutation duties.
2304,818 Rio Janeiro, 3 per cent. in Bahia, and 12 per Taxes on industries, trade, etc..
1,585,819 cent. in foreign countries-say: Income-tax.
89,819 Real-estate tax. 1,204,864 In Brazil (Rio and Bahia)...
. £25,200,000 Licenses. 268,924 In England
2.100,000 Lottery-tax, . 826,080 In other countries..
21,652 Receipts extraordinary.
£29,000,000 Deposits... 1,178,702
or $145,000,000 Slave liberation fund
768,877 The credit of Brazil on the London market Total..
ranks almost on a level with that of France, From the provinces..
11,756,078 her 5 per cent. stock being usually near par. Manicipal receipts..
2,275,959 The home paper-money debt and Treasury bills Total revenue.
do not include quite $20,000,000 of bank-notes Estimated revenue for same year.
61,666,944 not guaranteed by the state.
The Government paper-money of Brazil was Surplus...
only $85,000,000 before the Paraguayan War; EXPENDITURE. Ministry of the Interior.
but it rose to $110,000,000 in 1869; since then Ministry of Justice..
2,436,568 it has been reduced every year, being, in June, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
1876, about $99,000,000, including Treasury Ministry of the Navy.
9,994,147 Ministry of War..
9,699,015 bills. Besides the Government paper-money, Ministry of Finance.
21,248,901 three banks have the right of emission, viz. : Ministry of Commerce.
the Bank of Brazil $16,500,000, including $3,Total.....
$60,742,912 350,000 at the branches of Pernambuco, Bahia, Estimated expenditure for same year.. 45,331,370 São Paulo, Minas, Maranhão, Pará, and Rio Deficit......
$15,411,542 Grande do Sul.
The Bank of Bahia emits $800,000, and that In the estimated budget for 1875–76, the revenue figures at....
$64,775,405 of Maranhão $135,000; which, added to the The expenditure at..
60,511,158 sum for the Bank of Brazil, make up a tota Surplus......
of $1,933,500 in bank emission. The budget for the year 1875–76 exhibits Brazil have been published than those given in
No more recent returns of the commerce of the estimated revenue at $64,775,405, and the the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1875; but, in the expenditure at $60,511,158, leaving a surplus absence of new general tables, it may not be of $4,264,247. The entire national debt amounted, in June, details relative to the chief articles of export
uninteresting to insert here a few statistical 1876, to $360,067,170, in the following manner: from the empire. Foreign debt
. £19,815,400 Horne fanded.
Coffee.-- This staple alone, which is cultivated Floating debt.
23.198,084 from the Amazon southward to the province
of São Paulo, and from the shores of the AtTotal..
£72,013,434 or $360,067,170 lantic westward to the most westerly limits of
the province of Matto Grosso, or throughout Fides—dry and salted-manifest in like man. an area of nearly 1,200,000 square miles, has ner a constant increase in quantity and value represented during the three quinquennial of exports. There were 61,451,372 lbs. of periods 1859–'74 almost one-half of the total these commodities sent out of the country in value of the exports. Much care and atten- the five years 1869–74, at a value of $5,829,tion are bestowed upon the culture and prep- 576, being more than double the quantity and aration for market of this article, the demand nearly four times the value of the exports of for which, in foreign countries, is constantly the same articles in the quinquennial period increasing, as may be seen in the subjoined 1839-44. tables for the five-year period of 1839-44 and It is calculated that there are at the present that of 1869–74:
time 20,000,000 head of bovine cattle in Brazil,
representing a value of $113,600,000. Quantities.
India-rubber.—This important commodity, 1839-44.
184,113,261 lbs. $10,877,928 extracted from the Siphonia elastica, which 1669-'74..
863,251,290 51,748,664 grows spontaneously in great abundance in the 179,138,029 lbs. $41,365, 786
provinces of Pará and Amazonas, from the
sea-shore to a distance of some 2,000 miles Here is observed a mean annual increase of westward, has become of late years the object 2.86 per cent. in the quantity and of 11.72 per of an immense trade, and is steadily advanccent. in the value of the coffee sent out of the ing in value. Here follows a table of the excountry during the periods mentioned. ports of India-rubber for the same periods
But the rate of increase grew sensibly larger given in the foregoing tabular statistics : in the second of the two periods just mentioned, as attested by the subjoined comparative table
Valur. of the quantities and values of the exports for 1839-144.
861,581 lbs. $119,980 the biennial periods of 1870-72 and 1872–74: 1869'74.
12,282,157 “ 5,861,760
11,420,626 lbs. $5,742,480 1870–72.
289,091,833 lbs. $43,405,992 Tobacco, in the periods hitherto referred to, 1872-74.
64,080,072 increased threefold in quantity exported, and Increase..... 124,682,111 lbs. $20,624,080
more than eightfold in value. The exports do
not, however, yet exceed 6,500,000 lbs. per The total quantity of coffee now produced annum, at a value of about $742,000. in the empire is estimated at 572,000,000 At the beginning of 1876 there were, in lbs. per annum, of which one-fifth, approxi- Brazil, twenty-two lines of railway, with an mately, is reserved for home consumption; aggregate length of 1,143 miles; sixteen lines and the total number of coffee-shrubs is stated, in course of building, with an aggregate length by competent authority, to be not under 600,- of 830 miles; and some twenty-eight pro000,000.
jected, to have a total length of 4,080 miles. Cotton.—This staple has been constantly BRONGNIART, ADOLPHE THÉODORE, & cultivated, from the early colonial times down French botanist, born January 14, 1801 ; died to the present.
February 18, 1876. He was the son of AleThe following comparative table serves to xandre Brongniart, an eminent French naturalexhibit the increase in the quantities and value ist. At an early age he devoted himself to of the cotton exported in the five-year periods the study of the natural sciences, particularly 1839–44 and 1869-'74:
to that of botany, making the history of the
cryptogams a special study. Before 1825 he pubQuantities.
lished his “Classification des Champignons," 1839-'44. 22,824,542 lbs. $2,070,928
and in 1828 he presented to the French Institute 1869-74.
119,758,889 * 18,751,884 the first two volumes of his "Histoire des VégéIncrease.......
taux Fossiles, ou Recherches Botaniques et 96,934,297 lbs. $116,680,456
Géologiques sur les Végétaux renfermés dans Sugar.-Sugar-culture, formerly very ex- les Diverses Couches du Globe.” The progress tensively carried on in Brazil, was somewhat of this last-named work was interrupted by his neglected after the introduction of the coffee- feeble health. He was appointed, in 1833, Proshrub; but the production of sugar has been fessor of Botany in the Museum of Natural once more extended, and that, too, in a con- History, and in 1852 Inspector-General of the siderable degree, as is shown in the following University for the Natural Sciences. In 1834 comparative tables of the exports in the quin- he was elected a member of the Academy of quennial periods 1839–’44 and 1869–74:
Sciences in the place of Desfontaines, and in
1866 he was created a member of the CounPERIODS. Quantities.
cil for Secondary Special Instruction, and a
member of the Imperial Council of Public In180,773,848 lbs. $5,866,424 337,228,172 " 13,692,208
struction. He was one of the founders of the
" Annales des Sciences Naturelles," and conIncrease. 156,454,824 lbs. $7,845,784
tributed to this, as well as to other scientific
works, a large number of articles on botanical corresponding to that which tradition holds in and physiological subjects. He also wrote the his religious system. The knowledge of God, botanical part of the Voyage de la Coquille” he maintained, is intuitive. The ideal element (1831), and “Énumération des Genres des of every intellectual act is God creating creatPlantes cultivées au Muséum d'Histoire Natu- ures, ens creat existentias. The later publirelle" (1843).
cations of Mr. Brownson are “The SpiritBROWNSON, ORESTES AUGUSTUS, LL. D., Rapper"_(1854), “The Convert, or Leaves an American author, born at Stockbridge, Vt., from my Experience" (1857), and “The AmerSeptember 16, 1803; died in Detroit, Mich., ican Republic" (1865). From 1844 he conApril 17, 1876. In his nineteenth year hé ducted almost single-handed, in Boston and joined the Presbyterian Church at Ballston, New York, Brounson's Quarterly Recieu, deN. Y., where he was at the time attending voted especially to the defense of Roman an academy; but he afterward changed his Catholic doctrines, but also discussing politics views, and he became in 1825 a Universalist and literature. This periodical was suspended minister. He preached in different villages in in 1864, and revived in 1873, and continued to Vermont and New York, and wrote for various the close of 1875. He was invited by Dr. John religious periodicals in support of his new H. Newman and others to accept a chair in belief. His ecclesiastical position had grown the new university in Dublin, but he preferred into disfavor with him, when, making the to continue his labors in his native country. acquaintance of Robert Owen, he was fasci- Translations of several of his works and essays nated by schemes of social reform, and in 1828 have been published in Europe, where he is he was prominent in the formation of the probably better known and appreciated than in Working-men's party in New York, the design this country. of which was to relieve the poorer classes by BUCHHOLTZ, REINHOLD, a German natupolitical organization; but he presently de- ralist, born in 1836 ; died April 17, 1876. He spaired of the effectiveness of this movement. received his early education in the Gymnasium Afterward the writings of Dr. Channing drew of Königsberg, and afterward in the Joachimshis attention to the Unitarians, and in 1832 he thal Gymnasium in Berlin. He then studied became pastor of a congregation of that de- medicine as his profession, and natural history, nomination. In 1836 he organized in Boston in the Universities of Berlin and Greifswalde, the "Society for Christian Union and Prog- but zoology was his favorite study. After ress," of which he retained the pastorate tiil graduating at Greifswalde, he settled there as he ceased preaching in 1843. "Immediately practising physician, but soon went to Italy in after removing to Boston he published his order to make in Genoa and Naples thorough "New Views of Christianity, Society, and the studies on the different animals inhabiting the Church," remarkable for its protest against sea. Although he had to struggle with great Protestantism. In 1838 he established the embarrassments, he was entirely successful, Boston Quarterly Review, of which he was bringing home with him some valuable speciproprietor, and almost sose writer, during the mens of the animals of the Mediterranean. five years of its separate existence, and to He then took part in the North Pole Expewhich he contributed largely during the first dition of the Hansa, sharing all the adventures year after it was merged in the Democratic and privations of that ill-fated vessel. The loss Rerier, of New York. It was designed not of his collections and instruments on board of to support any definite doctrine, but to awaken the Hansa affected him so much that in a fit thought on great subjects, with reference to of insanity he left his companions on the coast speedy and radical changes. To this end also of Greenland. He was found among the icebe published in 1840 Charles Elwood, or the bergs, almost frozen, and was brought home by Infidel converted," a philosophico-religious the mate of the Hansa. He was placed in an treatise, in the form of a novel. In 1844 he asylum, where he was cured in a comparativeentered the Roman Catholic communion, to ly short time, so that he soon again resumed which he afterward remained attached. The his studies. He now wrote several articles method which he adopted in his philosophical about the expedition of the Hansa, and was system is the distinction between intuition soon after appointed professor in the Univer(direct perception) and reflection (indirect or sity of Greifswalde. In 1872, in company with reflex knowledge). The mind is unconsciously two young physicians, he went to the west intuitive; it does not, in intuition, know that coast of Africa to explore the mouths of the it has intuition of this or that truth, because as Niger, One of his companions died of yellow soon as it knows or is conscious of the intui- fever, while Buchholtz returned to Greifstion it has reflex knowledge. Reflection can walde in 1875, after having passed through a contain nothing which is not first in intuition. shipwreck on the Madeira Islands, and various In order to reflect on that which we know in- other dangers
. In 1876 he was appointed tuitively, we must have some sensible sign by ordinary professor at Greifswalde, in recogwhich the mind may apprehend or take hold nition of his services. But the dangers and of it. Such a sign is language, both in the privations of his travels had been too much ordinary and figurative sense of the word, for him, and had completely undermined his which thus holds in his metaphysics a place health.
VOL. XVI.-6 A
BURRELL, Sir Peroy, Bart., M. P., was further explanation and defense of his views, born in 1812'; died July 20, 1876. He was he published in 1851 a work entitled “ Christ educated at Westminster and at Christchurch, in Theology,” in which he argued that sysOxford. He was a deputy-lieutenant and jus- tematic orthodoxy is not attainable, and that tice of the peace for the county of Sussex, and human language is incapable of expressing a captain in the Eighteenth Sussex Rifle Vol- with any exactness theological science. His unteers. In 1862 he was elected for the other principal works are: "Sermons for the borough of Shoreham, and kept this seat up to New Life" (1858); “Nature and the Superhis death. In politics he was a moderate Con- natural" (1858); “Work and Play” (1864); servative, declaring himself in favor of "nation. “Christ and His Salvation " (1864), “The al education being based on religion.” The Vicarious Sacrifice" (1865); “Moral Uses of ancestors of the family were the Burrells of Dark Things" (1868); and “Woman's SufBrooke Park, near Alnwick, one of whom frage, the Reform against Nature" (1869). He married a daughter of Sir Walter de Wodeland, also published many addresses, and was a freequerry to the Black Prince.
quent contributor to religious periodicals. BUSHNELL, HORAoE, D. D., an American BUTCHER, SAMUEL, Bishop of Meath, born clergyman, born at New Preston, Conn., in in 1811; died July 22, 1876. He was the sec1802; died at Hartford, February 17, 1876. He ond son of Vice-Admiral Butcher, R. N. He graduated at Yale-College in 1827, was teacher received his education in Trinity College, Dubin an academy at Norwich, Conn., and in 1829 lin, of which he was elected a Fellow in 1837. became tutor in Yale College, and at the same In 1850 he was appointed Professor of Eccletime studied law, and afterward theology. In siastical History, in 1852 Regius Professor of 1833 he became pastor of the North Congre- Divinity, and in 1866 Bishop of Meath. He gational Church in Hartford, where he con- was a member of her Majesty's Privy Council tinued with eminent ability until 1859, when in Ireland, a member of the Royal Irish Acadill health compelled him to resign. In 1837 he emy, and enjoyed precedence, in right of his delivered at Yale College the Phi Beta Kappa see, as premier bishop in that kingdom. He oration on the “Principles of National Great was the ninetieth holder of the see in succession ness," and in 1847 published " Christian Nurt- since its foundation in the sixth century. He ure,” in which he discussed the subject of wrote “An Introductory Lecture on the Study religious education, and treated of the family of Ecclesiastical Literature ” (1851), “Sermons as a religious institution. In 1849 appeared on the Crimean War" (1854), “On the Present “God in Christ,” three discourses previously State of the Romish Controversy in Ireland” delivered, with a preliminary “Dissertation on (1855), “On the Relative Value of Human Language as related to Thought." The views and Divine Knowledge" (1857), “On the Conherein expressed respecting the doctrine of the servative Character of the English ReforTrinity were questioned, and the author was mation” (1862), “Some Thoughts on the Sucalled upon to answer a charge of heresy be- preme Authority of the Scriptures" (1864), fore the Clerical Association, of which he was and “Two Sermons on Dr. Pusey's “Eirenia member. The charge was not sustained. In con'" (1866).
CABALLERO, Fernan, the nom de plume of many, and other European countries. She the Spanish novelist Cecilia de Arrom, born in was the founder of modern realistic romance 1797, died in July, 1876. She was born in in Spain, whose people she described with Switzerland, and was the daughter of Böhl von wonderful truth and accuracy. But in all her Faber, a German merchant. Having been works she showed herself an ardent Spaniard, educated in Germany, she went to Spain with and her writings are of a national character, her father in 1813, where the latter had a large like those of few other writers of fiction. Her business. Having become a widow after a short object was to encourage the Spaniards to hold period of married life, she married the Marquis on to their old customs, their old faith, and to de Arco-Hermeso, and, when the latter had return to the old monarchy. In this way she died in 1835, the lawyer Arrom. As his widow expected to see a regeneration of Spain brought she has lived in Seville since 1863. In 1849 about. Her “Cuentas Poesias Populares Andashe published her first novel, “ La Gaviota," Inces” (1859) were the first collection of Spanwhich was followed by a number of others, ish popular tales and songs. Her principal among which may be particularly mentioned works were translated into English, German, “ La Familia de Alvareda," "Clemencia," French, and Italian. “Lágrimas,” and “Ella.” She also published CABRERA, Don Ramon, Count of Morella, several collections of smaller tales. Her works a Carlist general, born August 31, 1810; died from the beginning attracted general attention August 29, 1876. He studied theology in his in Spain, which soon spread to France, Ger- youth, but, as the life of a priest did not suit