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States, on the 10th inst., passed the following pre- to give as against conspiracy, because of any that he amble and resolutions :

may already have given. Whereas, The right of suffrage prescribed by the constitu The peace of the United States, therefore, which tions of the several states is subject to the fifteenth amend you are to preserve, and whose violation you are to ment to the Constitution of the United States, which is as suppress, protects, among others, the rights specified ARTICLE XV., SECTION 1. The right of citizens of the violates those rights breaks that peace and renders it

in the last paragraph; and any person who by force l'nited States, or by any State, on account of race, color, or your duty to arrest him, and to suppress any riots inprevious condition of servitude.

cident thereto, or that threaten the integrity of the **Seo. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this ar registration or election, to the end that the will of the tiele by appropriate legislation."

people in such election may be ascertained and take And whereas, The right of suffrage, so prescribed and regu- effect, and that offenders may be brought before the lated, should be faithfully maintained and observed by the courts for punishment. Notorious events in several United States and the several States and citizens thereof; States, which recently and in an unusual manner and Whereas, It is asserted that the exercise of the right of have been publicly reprobated, render it a grave

duty suffrage is in some of the States, notwithstanding the efforts of all marshals who have cause to apprehend a violaof all good citizens to the contrary, resisted and controlled by tion of the peace of the United States, connected as fraud, intimidation, and violence, so that in such cases the above with the elections to be held upon the Tuesday object of the amendment is defeated ; and Whereus, All citizens, without distinction of race, or class, pared

to preserve

or to restore such peace. As the after the first Monday in November

next, to be preor color, are entitled to the protection conferred by such article: therefore, be it

chief executive officer of the United States in your Resolved, by the House of Representatives, That all at- district, you will be held responsible for all breaches tempts by force, fraud, terror, intimidation, or otherwise, to of peace of the United States which diligence on your prevent the free exercise of the right of suffrage in any State, part might have prevented, and for the arrest and should meet certain, condign, and effectual punishment; and security of all persons who violate that peace in any that in any case which has heretofore occurred, or that may of the points above enumerated. occur, in which violence or murder has been or shall be committed by one race or class upon the other, the prompt prose

Diligence in these matters requires, of course, that cution and punishment of the criminal, or criminals, in any you be and continue present in person or by deputy court having jurisdiction, is imperatively demanded, whether at all places of registration or election at which you the crime be one punishable by fine or imprisonment, or one have reason to suspect that the peace is threatened, demanding the penalty of death.

and that, whenever an embodiment of the posse comiThe President directs that, in accordance with the tatus is required to enforce the laws, such embodispirit of the above, you are to hold all the available ment be effected. You will observe that the "speforce under your command, not engaged in subduing cial” deputies mentioned in section 2021 of the the savages of the Western frontier, in readiness to Revised Statutes have peculiar duties assigned to be used, upon call or requisition of the proper legal them-duties which otherwise do not belong to depauthorities, for protecting all citizens, without dis- uty-marshals. Such "special" deputies can be aptinction of race, color, or political opinion, in the pointed only in cities of 20,000 inhabitants or upward. exercise of the right to vote as guaranteed by the But the duties assigned to marshals and their depufifteenth amendment, and to assist in the enforce- ties by section 2022, or other like statutes, belong to ment of certain, condign, and effectual punishment all duly appointed deputies, whether they be general upon all persons who shall attempt, by force, fraud, or “ special,” within the meaning of that and the terror, intimidation, or otherwise, to prevent

the free preceding section. Deputies to discharge this latter exercise of the right of suffrage, as provided by the class of duties may be appointed to any number laws of the United States; and have such force so whatever, according to the discretion of the marshal distributed and stationed as to be able to render in all States in which sheriffs have a similar power. prompt assistance in the enforcement

of law. Such Section 2030 has no practical bearing upon this point additional orders as may be necessary to carry out in States where no limit is imposed upon the appointthe purpose of these instructions will be given you ment of deputies

by sheriffs, because in such States from time to time, after consultation with the officers the laws of the

United States " prior to the 10th of of the Government.

June, 1872," left marshals also unlimited as to the Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

number of their deputies. J. D. CAMERON, Secretary of War.

In discharging the duties above mentioned, you

will doubtless receive the countenance and support On September 4th Attorney-General Taft of all good citizens of the United States in your reissued the following circular of instruction to spective districts. It is not necessary to say that the United States marshals in the election dis- United States mainly rely in their endeavor to en

it is upon such countenance and support that the tricts:

force the right to vote which they have given or Sir: The laws of the United States having made have secured. The present instructions are intended it my duty to exercise general direction over the mar- only to counteract that partial malice, wrong-headshals as to the

manner of discharging their offices, I edness, or inconsideration, which sometimes triumphs have prepared for their use this circular letter of in- at critical moments over the conservative and in structions as to the coming elections, intending the general prevailing forces of society, and to which the same also as a reply, once for all, to numerous appli- present and passing condition of the country gives cations in like connection from private citizens in va- more than ordinary strength, and therefore requires rious States.

the Government to particularly observe and provide In the present condition of legislation the United against. In this connection l'advise that you and States occupy a position toward voters and voting each of your deputies, general and “special,” havo which varies according as the election is for State a right to summon to your assistance, in preventing and other local officers only, or for members of Con- and quelling disorder," every person in the district gress and presidential electors. In elections at which above fifteen years of age, whatever may be their members of the House of Representatives are chosen, occupation, whether civilians or not, and including which by law include elections at which the electors the military of all denominations---militia, soldiers, for. President and Vice-President are appointed, the marines-all of whom are alike bound to obey you. United States secure voters against whatever in gen- The

fact that they are organized as military bodies, eral hinders or prevents them from a free exercise of whether of State or of the United

States, under the the elective franchise, extending that care alike to immediate command of their own officers, does not the registration

lists, the act of voting, and the per- in any wise affect their legal character. They are sonal freedom and security of the voter,

as well as still

the posse comitatus." I prefer to quote the above against violence on account of any vote he may intend statement of the laws upon this point from an opinion

by my predecessor, ex-Attorney-General Cushing, sity for their use, and by their passive interposition because it thus appears to have been well

settled between hostile parties, danger of collision inay be for many years. 16 Upinions, 466, May 27, 1854.). averted.

I need hardly add that there can be no State law or State official in this country who has jurisdiction

He further called attention to the proclamato oppose you in discharging your official duties tion of the President of the United States of under laws of the United States. If such interfer- May 3, 1871, in regard to the enforcement act, ence shall take place-a thing not anticipated-you in which the President enjoins upon all good States are supreme, and so, consequently, is the citizens, and especially upon all public officers

, action of officials of the United States in enforcing to be zealous in the enforcement thereof, and them. There is, as virtually you have already been warns all persons to abstain from committing told, no officer of a State whom you may not, by any of the acts thereby prohibited. The fol summons, embody into your own posse ; and any State lowing paragraphs of the general order pubsheriff, be obliged, upon your summons,' to become lishing that proclamation for the guidance of part of a United States posse, and obey you, or your the Army were published in this order of Sepdeputy acting virtute officia. The responsibility tember 7th: which devolves upon an officer clothed with such

The President directs that, whenever occasion shall powers, and required to guard the highest

rights of arise, regular forces

of the United States stationed in citizens, corresponds in degree with those powers and the vicinity of any locality where offenses described rights, and exacts of such officer consideration, in- by the aforesaid act, approved April 30, 1871, may telligence, and courage. It is proper to advise you be committed, shall, in strict accordance with the that, in preparing

this circular, 1' have considered provisions of said act, be employed by their courecent important judgments given by the Supreme manding officers in assisting the authorized civil 20 Court of the United States upon acts of Congress thorities of the United States in making arrests of which regulate this general topic. I have founded the above instructions upon such ing the rescue of persons arrested for such cause

the persons accused under the said act; in prevent acts as are affected by those judgments. I need in this in breaking up and dispersing bands of disguise place add no more than that these judgments do not marauders, and of armed organizations against the full or by reference, such statutory provisions as it peace and quiet or lawful pursuits of citizens in any seems important that you and your deputies shall in indicated in this order, the commanding officer will

State. Whenever troops are employed in the manner this connection read and consider. 'In matters of doubt, you are of course entitled to the advice of the at the earliest opportunity make a full report of his United States Attorney for your district. These ine operations to the proper superior authority. structions have been submitted to the President, and The election took place on the 7th of Nohave his approval. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

vember, and the following are the official reALPHONSO TAFT, Attorney-General.

turns of the popular vote: On September 7th, General Sherman, under


Hayes the direction of the preceding letter of the

Tilden Cooper Seite

(Rep.). (Dem.). (Greenb.) (Pročia) Secretary of War, issued a general order for


68,230 102,002 the guidance of the Army. It embraced the Arkansas.

38,669 58,071 above instructions of the Attorney-General to California

78,614 75,845 the marshals, and then called the attention of Colorado (by Legislature).

59,034 61,984 all officers of the Army to section 5522 of the Delaware.

10,752 18,881 Revised Statutes in regard to interfering with Florida*

23,849 22,928

50,446 180,088 supervisors of election, marshals or deputies, Illinois

278,232 258,601 17,233 and also to an extract of a letter of the Secre- Indiana

208.011 213,526 9,638 tary of War to General Meade, dated August Kansas.:

171,327 112,099 9,001

78,822 87,902 7,776 25, 1868, heretofore issued as the instructions Kentucky.

97,156 159,690 1,944 of the department, which extract is as follows:


75,185 70,686 Maine..

66,300 49.823 The obligation of military individuals, officers, Maryland..

71,981 91,780 and soldiers, in common with all citizens, to obey Massachusetts

150,063 108,777 779 the summons of a marshal or sheriff, must be held Michigan

166,584 141,095 9.000 Minnesota

72,962 48.799 subordinate to their paramount duty as members of

2,311 Mississippi.

52,605 112,173 a permanent body. Hence troops can act only in


145,029 203,077 8,499 their proper organized capacity under their own offi- Nebraska

81,916 17,504 2,820 1,529 cers, and in obedience to the immediate orders of Nevada......

10,888 9,808 those officers. The officer commanding, troops sum

New Hampshire.. 41,539 88,509 moned to the aid of a marshal or sheriff must also

New Jersey.

103,517 115,962 712 judge for himself, and upon his official responsibility,

New York..

489,207 521,949 1,987 | 2850 whether the service required of him is lawful and

North Carolina.

108,417 125,427

380,698 828,182 8057 necessary, and compatible with the proper discharge Oregon...

15,206 14,149 of his ordinary military duties, and must limit his Pennsylvania

884,122 866,158 7,167 action absolutely to proper aid 'in the execution of a Rhode Island

15,787 10,712 68 lawful precept exhibited to him by the marshal or South Carolina

91,870 90,906 sheriff. If time will permit, every demand from a


89,566 188,166 civil officer for military aid, whether it be for the

44,800 104.750 Vermont


20,254 execution of civil process or to suppress insurrection, Virginia..

95,558 189,670 should be forwarded to the President, with all ma West Virginia..

42 698 56,455 1,378 terial facts in the case, for his orders; and in all cases Wisconsin..

130,668 123,927

1,509 the highest commander whose orders can be given in time to meet the emergency will alone assume


4,033,295 4,284.265 81,737 9,522 the responsibility of action. By a timely disposition

Majority over all...!

157,894 of troops where there is reason to apprehend neces

* Returning-Board count.



110 Sis

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The votes of Florida, Louisiana, and South Number of State conventions, 22; of assoCarolina, giving Hayes a majority, were dis- ciations, 69; of Church organizations, 656; of puted by the friends of Tilden, and the reader Sunday-schools, 640; of teachers and pupils is referred to those States respectively. in the same, 59,463; of church-edifices, 756;

The Constitution of the United States makes total valuation of church property above it the duty of Congress to canvass the electoral indebtedness, $7,465,495. The fourteen Univotes and to declare the name of the person versalist theological schools, colleges, and elected. But as the Lower House of Congress seminaries, reported for 1876 a total of ninetywas Democratic by a large majority and the nine professors and teachers, 1,036 students, Senate Republican, and as the Democrats of and $2,385,000 of assets. The total net assets the House denied the correctness of the re- of the Universalist Publishing House at Bosturns from the three States above mentioned, ton were $30,000. It also published six periodit became probable that the two Houses would icals. The entire list of Universalist periodicals not agree in declaring the result ; therefore includes five general weekly papers, one bineither candidate could hold the office of Presi- weekly paper, four Sunday-school papers, one dent as a result of the election.

monthly magazine, the Unicersalist Quarterly, To avoid the uncertainties and excitement and the annual Register. of the country in prospect, an arrangement The General Convention of Universalists in was made, under the legislation of Congress, the United States met at Rochester, N. Y., which resulted in uniting the two Houses in October 18th. The Rev. Henry W. Rugg, of declaring Rutherford B. Hayes as the successful Rhode Island, was chosen president. The candidate. But the history of all these proceed- treasurer reported that the present value of ings forms a part of the record of 1877, which the Murray Centenary fund was $12,742.54. will be found in the next volume of this series. Defaults in interest had occurred on two loans,

(For the commerce of the United States, see of $6,678.75 and $9,000 respectively. The COMMERCE; for the condition of the military principal of the John G. Gunn Memorial fund and naval forces, see ARMY_and Nayy; for remained at the amount of $8,000. Gifts to the foreign relations of the United States, see the amount of $600 had been granted during DIPLOMATIO CORRESPONDENCE ; for the finan- the year from this fund. The debt of the concial affairs of the Government and the people, vention bad þeen reduced $4,300 during the see FINANCES; for civil and internal affairs, see year, and was reported to be now $25,200. the States respectively.)

The total amount of moneys passing through UNIVERSĀLISTS. The following is a sum- the hands of the treasurer on general account mary of the statistics of the Universalists in during the year had been $42,884.33. The the United States and Canada, as given in the Board of Trustees reported that the actual inUniversalist Register for 1877:

come of the general fund for the year had

been $20,655.88, and the actual expenditures, STATES, ETC.

$19,639.34. Forty scholarships had been in force during the year, and ten beneficiaries of

the convention had been graduated. The Alabama.

amount of the aid rendered by the convention Canada.

i to students had been $7,200, and $1,092 had Colorado. Connecticut.


been received in repayment of former loans on

764 District of Columbia..

this account. There had been expended in Florida. Georgia..


this department, since the establishment of 2,000

theological scholarships by the convention, 2,585 27 $50,280, of wbich sum $5,520 appeared as a 1,200

26 free gift, and $540 had been remitted or canKansas... Kentucky..

celed by the Board of Trustees, leaving $44,Louisiana.

1 220 as the amount of loans which had been Maine....


1,488 Maryland..

made in accordance with the existing rules. Massachusetts...

10,595 5,841 The General Convention called the attention Michigan....

of the State conventions to the desirableness Minnesota. Missouri

14 of electing a class of officers called State superNebraska.. New Hampshire..

2 intendents, and advised the trustees to define

1,698 511 New Jersey...

for these officers their relations to the General New York..

189 6,500 5,442 112 Convention, and their duties in connection with 102


it. It recommended the appointment of a Oregon...

5 committee of six persons in Western missionPennsylvania

1,800 1,866

ary work, to be made by the convention on Rhode Island South Carolina..

i nominations by the united delegates to the Texas...

iio Vermont *62

convention each year from west of the Alle

2,606 1,282 Virginia..

ghany Mountains; the committee to report to Washington Territory


6 the Trustees of the General Convention, and West Virginia... Wisconsin..


work in harmony with them, and with the

General Secretary, and to be the agents of the Total.....

41,029 | 82.947 \ 706 trustees in disbursing such sums as may be ap









100 325 500

252 190 403



2 18 8 2 12 45

204 2,619




51 40 12 10


862 146 419



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propriated for missionary work in the West. afflicted; but there was no interruption in the A resolution was adopted recommending the service of the international debt. In the abchurches to organize and sustain conference sence of official data, it is impossible to give and prayer meetings. A motion was adopted here a statement of the floating debt. to endeavor to complete the Murray Centenary Owing to the rescission of the contract made fund during the year.

in 1875 with the bank of Maná & Co., the URUGUAY (ŘEPÚBLICA ORIENTAL DEL URU- Government, by decree of April 26, 1876, asGUAY), sometimes also called La Banda Orien- sumed the charge of the emission of that bank, tal, an independent republic of South Ameri- engaging, however, not to emit any unconca, extending from 300 to 33° 55' south lati- vertible paper-money, and setting apart for the tude, and from 52° 40' to 58° west longitude. sinking-fund of the notes the yield of various It is bounded on the north by the Brazilian imposts, estimated to amount to $1,200,000. province of Rio Grande do Sul, on the east T'he proceeds of direct taxation in the deby the South Atlantic, on the south by the partment of Montevideo alone, for the seven Rio de la Plata, and on the west by the Ar years 1869–75, were as follows: gentine Republic.


Amount In an official statistical table for the year 1869..

$169,000 1878..

$350,000 1875, the area of the republic is set down at 1870.


400.000 72,170 square miles; and the population for

825,000 1875..


830,000 1874 at 450,000, against 221,248 for 1860. In the department of Montevideo, the most im The interests of public instruction are seduportant of the thirteen which constitute the lously attended to in Uruguay. In the year territorial division of the country, there were 1875 there were in the republic 227 primary 127,496 inhabitants, comprising 70,609 Uru- municipal schools, with an attendance of 15,guayans, 16,761 Italians, 16,352 Spaniards, 564, including both sexes ; and 142 private 7,829 French, and 15,945 of other nationalities. schools

, with an aggregate of 7,114 scholarsThe President of the Republic is Colonel L. that is to say, a total of 22,678 (12,001 males Latorre, invested with dictatorial powers from and 10,677 females) attending school throughMarch 11, 1876, to March, 1877.

out the country—or one out of every nineteen The cabinet is composed of the following inhabitants. ministers: Interior, J. M. Montero; Foreign The value of the foreign commerce for the Affairs, A. Velazco; Finance, A. Vasquez; years 1872, 1873, and 1874, was as follows: and War and the Navy, E. Vasquez. The consul - general of Uruguay for the

1878. 1874 whole United States is Señor E. C. B. Garsía, Imports.. $19,467,182 $21,075,446 $16,600,004) resident in New York.


15,499,056 16,301,772 16,002,000 In the budget for 1875 the expenditure was


$34,966,188 $97,877,218 $82,602,000 estimated at $5,902,350, exclusive of the national-debt service; and in that for 1876 at It should be remarked that the figures for $4,562,571. The national revenue yielded, in 1874 are only approximate, the commercial 1873, the sum of $9,904,617.49; and in 1874 statistics not having been completed before the that of $8,739,131.

time of the publication of the report already It was estimated that for the fiscal year referred to. 1876–77 the revenue, including the yield of The shipping movement at the port of Monthe new imposts decreed in 1875–76, will not tevideo for the year 1875 comprised 3,385 vesfall short of $9,000,000. In this case there sels, with an aggregate of 1,927,887 tons; and would be a considerable surplus to apply upon the coasting-trade at all the ports for the year the payment of the national debt, which pay- 1874 was carried on by 13,208 vessels, including ment the Government proposes to resume as all craft. soon as circumstances permit.

In 1875 the total number of miles of railThe following table shows the amount of way completed was 235. The branch of the the debt at the beginning of the year 1875: Central Railway from Santa Lucia to San José

Twelve per cent, home debt.. $15,750,498 42 was opened to traffic on May 20, 1876.

2.652,408 18 Six

7,293,647 80

The city of Montevideo has six lines of

horse-cars. Total home debt.

$25,696,554 40

The following table recapitulates the reports Foreign debt....

14,874,560 00 International debt.

3,121,150 00 of the Emigration Board for the years therein Total national debt...... $43,692,264 40

expressed : The foregoing figures include the titles for

Applied for Received Osceinterest corresponding to the year 1875—say,

Oecupation. patiat, $1,814,097.60.

1,805 1,210 The interest and sinking-fund services of the 1871



ST7 home first, and afterward of the foreign debt, were suspended in 1875, owing to the political 1874


2,708 2,640 and financial crises by which the country was

5,298 1,498





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1872 1978


743 916 1.450







V VENEZUELA (Estados UNIDOS DE), UNITED making considerable progress. The country STATES OF, a republic of South America, ex- has several universities, that of Carácas being tending from 10*8' to 12° 16' north latitude, the most important, with about twenty proand from 60° to 73° 17' west longitude. Its fessors and over two hundred students, à liboundaries are: the Caribbean Sea on the brary of more than 25,000 volumes, a physnorth, the Atlantic Ocean and British Guiana ical cabinet, a laboratory of chemistry, and on the east, Brazil on the south, from which a museum of natural history. It occupies empire it is separated by the Pacaraima a very handsome, well-built" edifice, in the Mountains, and the United States of Colombia centre of the city. Colleges and preparatory on the west. Its maximum length from east schools exist in all the towns of the repubto west is about 900 miles, and its maximum lic, and the number of elementary schools breadth from north to south, 770. The area has increased very much through the care of is variously estimated at from 403,000 to 431,- President Guzman Blanco, since the issue of 000 square miles, including the islands. The the decree of June 27, 1870, which gave a new republic is divided into twenty States, one organization to public instruction. In 1855 Federal District, and one Territory, which, there were in the whole republic but 211 with their capitals and the populations of both schools, with 5,433 pupils; now there are 1,131 in 1873, are as follows:

schools, and 48,140 pupils; 691 are called fed

eral schools, 209 are municipal schools, and 231 STATES, ETC. Population.


private establishments. The federal schools

are maintained at the expense of the GovernApure....

18,635 San Fernando..... 8,053 ment, and in the last year the expenditure was Barcelona.. 101,396 Barcelona.

7,674 Barquisimeto.. 143,818 Barquisimeto. 25,664

$264,877.80, part of which ($93,138.86) was Bolivar... 129.143 Petare..

5,621 supplied by a small tax on bills and receipts Carabobo.... 117,605 Valencia

28,894 Cojédes.... 85,678 San Carlos.


for sums of over ten dollars, and collected Cumaná. 62,181 Cumaná.

9,427 under the form of stamps (estampillas de escue99,920 Coro..


las). A number of young men have of late Guárico.. 191,000 Calabozo.

6,618 Guayana. 84,059 Ciudad Bolivar.

8,468 been sent to the United States for the purpose 67,849 Mérida.

9,727 of acquiring, at the expense of the GovernGuzman Blanco.. 94,151 La Victoria.

6,528 Maturin.. 47,868

12,944 ment of Venezuela, a perfect theoretical and Nueva Esparta.. 80,988 Asuncion...

2,758 practical knowledge of the best modern methPortuguesa.. 79,984

4,674 Táchira.

ods of teaching. 68,619 San Cristóbal.. 8,845 Trujillo. 108,672 Trujillo..

2,048 The destination and value of exports for the 71,689 San Felipe.


year 1874–75 are given in the following table: 69,449

8,950 88,498 Maracaybo.. 21,954

Value. Federal District.. 60,010 Caracas 48,897 Germany.

$5,449,752 86 Amazonas (Terry).. 28,048


896,314 44 Colombia.

605,007 22 Total.... 1,784,194

United States

8,799,170 81 France.

2,598,083 19 The President of the Republic is General England..

290,975 60 Guzman Blanco, elected February 20, 1873.


48,618 70 Danish colonies.

19.512 64 The Minister of the Interior and Justice is Spanish colonies

9,868 08 Dr. D. B. Urbaneja; of Foreign Affairs, Gen

French colonies..

87,667 21 Dutch colonies..

2,642,960 67 eral J. Gutierrez; of Finance, Señor S. Goiti British colonies

1,455,959 48 coa; of Public Worship, Public Instruction, and Public Works, Colonel J. Muñoz Tebar;


$17,308,840 90 of War and Marine, General M. Gil; and of The sources and approximate* value of the Public Credit, General J. G. Ochoa.

imports for the same year were as follows: The national revenue for the fiscal year

Value. 1874–75 amounted to $5,324,676.16, and the Germany (Hamburg)..

$1,841,281 94 expenditure to $5,100,560.79.' About 60 per England

2,518,847 76 cent. of the revenue is appropriated to defray. United States, New York..... 82,079,814 88

Philadelphia ...

577,171 35 ing the expenses of the Government, and the re

2,656,985 73 mainder is applied upon the national debt. On France..

1,817,378 77

846.554 00 June 30, 1875, the national debt was as follows: Italy.

29.878 75 Home debt.. $12,585,779 81 Trinidad....

772.740 89 Foreign debt. 49,241,165 22 Curaçoa..

1,016,882 27

Porto Rico..
$61,826,944 58 Canary Islands.

3,682 00 St. Thomas.

179,229 07 The regular army is composed of about 10,000 men.


$10,877,608 67 Public education and intellectual culture are • The total value may be set down at about $12,000,000.



Yaracui. Zamora. Zulia.




408 00

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