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grate seriously to consider the above statement and to compare it with the expectation held out to them by the promoters of the emigration. If they do so, they cannot fail to see that it contradicts those exectations in several of the most important points. his is especially the case in regard to the promised erection of a “reception-house” for the accommodation of settlers on their first arrival, the provision of employment on public works for such as required it, the early construction of the tramway between the settlement and Curitiba, and the establishment of stores at which settlers might both purchase what they require and sell their surplus produce at fair prises. If, however, notwithstanding this caution, emigrants decide to proceed to the Kittoland settlement, the responsibility for any disappointment they may meet with will be their own.
(For the Constitution and Government of Brazil, reference may be made to the ANNUAL Cyclopædia for 1875.)
The Emperor, Dom Pedro II. de Alcántara, John Charles Leopold Salvador Bibiano Francis Xavier de Paule Leocadio Michael Gabriel Raphael Gonzague, born December 2, 1825, son of Dom Pedro I. de Alcántara (King of Portugal and Emperor of Brazil), is the present sovereign. He reigned under tutelage, by virtue of the act of abdication of his father, from April 7, 1831, until July 23, 1840, when he was declared by law to have attained his majority; was crowned on July 18, 1841; and married on September 4, 1848, to Theresa Christina Maria, born March 14, 1822, daughter of the late King Francis I. of the two Sicilies.
léans, Count d'Eu; Senators—Wiscount d". Abaeté; Marquis de São Vicente; Wiscount do Rio Branco; J. T. Nabuco d'Aranjo; Wis. counts de Muritiba, de Bom Retiro, de Ja. guary, de Carvelhas, and de Nictheroy; and of the six members extraordinary: Senators— Viscount de Araxá; Duke de Caxias (Presi. dent); J. P. Dias de Carvacho; J. J. Teixeira; Vice-Admiral J. R. de Lamare; and Dr. P. J Loares de Souza.
The President of the Senate, which is composed of eight members elected for life, is Wiscount de Jaguary; Vice-President, Wiscount de Camaragibe. The Chamber of Deputies, with 122 mem. bers elected for four years, has now for President Councilor M. F. Corrêa; Councilor A. J. Henriques; J. P. M. Portella; A. G. de Paula Fonseca. The Archbishop of Bahia, J. G. de Azevedo (elevated in 1875), is Primate of all Brazil, and there are eleven bishops: those of Pará, São Luiz, Fortaleza, Olinda, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Porto Alegre, Marianna, Diamantina, Goyaz, and Cuyabá. The regular army (peace footing) comprises a special corps (staff, 29 men; engineers, 56; states, 118; almoners, 79; sanitary corps, 145) of 427 men; twenty-one battalions of infantry, 9,864 men; five regiments, two detachments, one squadron, and four garrison companies of horse, 2,484; and three regiments and four battalions of artillery, with one battalion of engineers, 3,280: total, 16,055 men. The strength of the army in time of war is fixed at 32,000 men. The police force consists of 9,662 men, of whom 800 are in Rio de Janeiro. The National Guard has been disbanded, to be reorganized in accordance with the results of a new census. The Brazilian Government still maintains, in Paraguay, an occupation-brigade 1,500 strong —horse, foot, and artillery. According to the terms of the law of February 27, 1875, governing military conscription, every Brazilian is in duty bound to take up arms to maintain the independence and integrity of the empire. No army or navy officer can be deprived of his rank without trial.
The navy of the empire consists of 19 ironclad steamers, 1 steam-frigate, 8 steam-corvettes, 23 steam-gunboats, 7 steam-transports, and 3 sail-of-the-line; the total armament is 230 guns, and the aggregate horse-power of the steamers 12,027. There were, besides, one school-ship, and one brig for midshipmen, both without armament; in process of construction, 1 steam iron-clad, and 4 steam-corvettes. There were in the navy 15 general staff of. ficers, 338 first-class and 159 second-class officers, a sanitary corps 65 strong, 24 almoners, 215 accountants, 78 guardians, 33 engineers, 3,000 imperial marines, a naval battalion 913 strong, and 3,400 apprentices—total, 7,313.
Brazil is one of the few nations whose revenue persistently increases, it might be said, spite of all circumstances. The subjoined tables show the branches and amounts of the national revenue and expenditures for the fiscal year commencing July 1, 1873, and ending June 30, 1874:
Total................................... $52,504, From the provinces................ ........... 11,756,078 Municipal receipts........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2,275,959 Total revenue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $66,586,676 Estimated revenue for same year. 51,666,944 Surplus... .......................... . . $14,869,782
rexpenditure. Ministry of the Interior... . $8,732.219 Ministry of Justice......... 2,486,568 Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 582,855, Ministry of the Navy................... 9,994,147 Ministry of War.... 9,699,015 Ministry of Finance............................ 21,248,901 Ministry of Commerce......................... 18,049,207 Total.................................... $60,742,912 Estimated expenditure for same year............ 45,331,370 Deficit................................... $15,411,542 In the estimated budget for 1875-'76, the revenue
t .... $64,775,405 ... 60,511,158 - - - - - - - - - ------------------------- $4,264,247
The budget for the year 1875–76 exhibits the estimated revenue at $64,775,405, and the expenditure at $60,511,158, leaving a surplus of $4,264,247.
The entire national debt amounted, in June, 1876, to $360,067,170, in the following manner:
Foreign debt........................... #219,815,400 Home funded.......................... 29,000,000 Floating debt.......................... 23.198,034
The credit of Brazil on the London market ranks almost on a level with that of France, her 5 per cent. stock being usually near par. The home paper-money debt and Treasury bills do not include quite $20,000,000 of bank-notes not guaranteed by the state. The Government paper-money of Brazil was only $85,000,000 before the Paraguayan War; but it rose to $110,000,000 in 1869; since then it has been reduced every year, being, in June, 1876, about $99,000,000, including Treasury bills. Besides the Government paper-money, three banks have the right of emission, viz.: the Bank of Brazil $16,500,000, including $3,350,000 at the branches of Pernambuco, Bahia, São Paulo, Minas, Maranhão, Pará, and Rio Grande do Sul. The Bank of Bahia emits $800,000, and that of Maranhão $135,000; which, added to the sum for the Bank of Brazil, make up a total of $1,933,500 in bank emission. No more recent returns of the commerce of Brazil have been published than those given in the ANNUAL CycloPAEDIA for 1875; but, in the absence of new general tables, it may not be uninteresting to insert here a few statistical details relative to the chief articles of export from the empire. Coffee.—This staple alone, which is cultivated from the Amazon southward to the province of São Paulo, and from the shores of the Atlantic westward to the most westerly limits of
Hides—dry and salted—manifest in likeman. ner a constant increase in quantity and value of exports. There were 61,451,372 lbs. of these commodities sent out of the country in the five years 1869–74, at a value of $5,829,576, being more than double the quantity and nearly four times the value of the exports of the same articles in the quinquennial period 1839–44.
It is calculated that there are at the present time 20,000,000 head of bovine cattle in Brazil, representing a value of $113,600,000.
India-rubber.—This important commodity, extracted from the Siphonia elastica, which grows spontaneously in great abundance in the provinces of Pará and Amazonas, from the sea-shore to a distance of some 2,000 miles westward, has become of late years the object of an immense trade, and is steadily advancing in value. Here follows a table of the exports of India-rubber for the same periods given in the foregoing tabular statistics:
periods. Quantities. Walus. 1839–44................. soloi Ibs. siloso 1869-'74................. 12,282,157. “ 5,861,760 Increase............. 11,420,626 lbs. $5,742,480
Tobacco, in the periods hitherto referred to, increased threefold in quantity exported, and more than eightfold in value. The exports do not, however, yet exceed 6,500,000 lbs. per annum, at a value of about $742,000.
At the beginning of 1876 there were, in Brazil, twenty-two lines of railway, with an aggregate length of 1,143 miles; sixteen lines in course of building, with an aggregate length of 830 miles; and some twenty-eight projected, to have a total length of 4,080 miles.
BRONGNIART, Adolph E THooDoRE, a French botanist, born January 14, 1801; died February 18, 1876. He was the son of Alexandre Brongniart, an eminent French naturalist. At an early age he devoted himself to the study of the natural sciences, particularly to that of botany, making the history of the cryptogams aspecial study. Before 1825 he published his “Classification des Champignons,” and in 1828 he presented to the French Institute the first two volumes of his “Histoire des Végétaux Fossiles, ou Recherches Botaniques et Géologiques sur les Végétaux renfermés dans les Diverses Couches du Globe.” The progress of this last-named work was interrupted by his feeble health. He was appointed, in 1833, Professor of Botany in the Museum of Natural History, and in 1852 Inspector-General of the University for the Natural Sciences. In 1834 he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences in the place of Desfontaines, and in 1866 he was created a member of the Council for Secondary Special Instruction, and a member of the Imperial Council of Public Instruction. He was one of the founders of the “Annales des Sciences Naturelles,” and contributed to this, as well as to other scientific works, a large number of articles on botanical and physiological subjects. He also wrote the botanical part of the “Voyage de la Coquille.” (1831), and “Enumération des Genres des Plantes cultivées au Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle” (1843). BROWNSON, OREstes Augustus, LL.D., an American author, born at Stockbridge, Vt., September 16, 1803; died in Detroit, Mich., April 17, 1876. In his nineteenth year he joined the Presbyterian Church at Ballston, N. Y., where he was at the time attending an academy; but he afterward changed his views, and he became in 1825 a Universalist minister. He preached in different villages in Vermont and New York, and wrote for various religious periodicals in support of his new belief. His ecclesiastical position had grown into disfavor with him, when, making the acquaintance of Robert Owen, he was fascinated by schemes of social reform, and in 1828 he was prominent in the formation of the Working-men's party in New York, the design of which was to relieve the poorer classes by political organization; but . presently despaired of the effectiveness of this movement. Afterward the writings of Dr. Channing drew his attention to the Unitarians, and in 1832 he became pastor of a congregation of that denomination. In 1836 he organized in Boston the “Society for Christian Union and Progress,” of which he retained the pastorate till he ceased preaching in 1843. Immediately after removing to Boston he published his “New Views of Christianity, Society, and the Church,” remarkable for its protest against Protestantism. In 1838 he established the Boston Quarterly Review, of which he was proprietor, and almost sole writer, during the five years of its separate existence, and to which he contributed largely during the first year after it was merged in the Democratic Review, of New York. It was designed not to support any definite doctrine, but to awaken thought on great subjects, with reference to y and radical changes. To this end also he published in 1840 “Charles Elwood, or the Infidel converted,” a philosophico-religious treatise, in the form of a novel. In 1844 he entered the Roman Catholic communion, to which he afterward remained attached. The method which he adopted in his philosophical system is the distinction between intuition (direct perception) and reflection (indirect or reflex knowledge). The mind is unconsciously intuitive; it does not, in intuition, know that it has intuition of this or that truth, because as soon as it knows or is conscious of the intuition it has reflex knowledge. Reflection can Contain nothing which is not first in intuition. In order to reflect on that which we know intuitively, we must have some sensible sign by which the mind may apprehend or take hold of it. Such a sign is language, both in the ordinary and figurative sense of the word, which thus holds in his metaphysics a place vol. xv.1.—6 A
corresponding to that which tradition holds in his religious system. The knowledge of God, he maintained, is intuitive. The ideal element of every intellectual act is God creating creatures, ens creat existentias. The later publications of Mr. Brownson are “The SpiritRapper” (1854), “The Convert, or Leaves from my Experience” (1857), and “The American Republic” (1865). From 1844 he conducted almost single-handed, in Boston and New York, Brownson's Quarterly Review, devoted especially to the defense of Roman Catholic doctrines, but also discussing politics and literature. This periodical was suspended in 1864, and revived in 1873, and continued to the close of 1875. He was invited by Dr. John H. Newman and others to accept a chair in the new university in Dublin, but he preferred to continue his labors in his native country. Translations of several of his works and essays have been published in Europe, where he is probably better known and appreciated than in this country.
BUCHHOLTZ, REINHold, a German naturalist, born in 1836; died April 17, 1876. He received his early education in the Gymnasium of Königsberg, and afterward in the Joachimsthal Gymnasium in Berlin. He then studied medicine as his profession, and natural history, in the Universities of Berlin and Greifswalde, but zoölogy was his favorite study. After graduating at Greifswalde, he settled there as practising physician, but soon went to Italy in order to make in Genoa and Naples thorough studies on the different animals inhabiting the sea. Although he had to struggle with great embarrassments, he was entirely successful, bringing home with him some valuable specimens of the animals of the Mediterranean. He then took part in the North Pole Expedition of the Hansa, sharing all the adventures and privations of that ill-fated vessel. The loss of his collections and instruments on board of the Hansa affected him so much that in a fit of insanity he left his companions on the coast of Greenland. He was found among the icebergs, almost frozen, and was brought home by the mate of the Hansa. He was placed in an asylum, where he was cured in a comparatively short time, so that he soon again resumed his studies. He now wrote several articles about the expedition of the Hansa, and was soon after appointed professor in the University of Greifswalde. In 1872, in company with two young physicians, he went to the west coast of Africa to explore the mouths of the Niger. One of his companions died of yellow fever, while Buchholtz returned to Greifswalde in 1875, after having passed through a shipwreck on the Madeira Islands, and various other dangers. In 1876 he was appointed ordinary professor at Greifswalde, in recognition of his services. But the dangers and privations of his travels had been too much for him, and had completely undermined his health.
BURRELL, Sir PERoy, Bart., M. P., was born in 1812; died July 20, 1876. He was educated at Westminster and at Christchurch, Oxford. He was a deputy-lieutenant and justice of the peace for the county of Sussex, and a captain in the Eighteenth Sussex Rifle Volunteers. In 1862 he was elected for the borough of Shoreham, and kept this seat up to his death. In politics he was a moderate Conservative, declaring himself in favor of “national education being based on religion.” The ancestors of the family were the Burrells of Brooke Park, near Alnwick, one of whom married a daughter of Sir Walter de Wodeland, equerry to the Black Prince.
BUSHNELL, HoRAoE. D. D., an American clergyman, born at New Preston, Conn., in 1802; died at Hartford, February 17, 1876. He graduated at Yale College in 1827, was teacher in an academy at Norwich, Conn., and in 1829 became tutor in Yale College, and at the same time studied law, and afterward theology. In 1833 he became pastor of the North Congregational Church in Hartford, where he continued with eminent ability until 1859, when ill health compelled him to resign. In 1837 he delivered at Yale College the Phi Beta Kappa oration on the “Principles of National Greatness,” and in 1847 published “Christian Nurture,” in which he discussed the subject of religious education, and treated of the family as a religious institution. In 1849 appeared “God in Christ,” three discourses previously delivered, with a preliminary “Dissertation on Language as related to Thought.” The views herein expressed respecting the doctrine of the Trinity were questioned, and the author was called upon to answer a charge of heresy before the Clerical Association, of which he was a member. The charge was not sustained. In
further explanation and defense of his views, he published in 1851 a work entitled “Christ in Theology,” in which he argued that systematic orthodoxy is not attainable, and that human language is incapable of expressing with any exactness theological science. His other principal works are: “Sermons for the New Life” (1858); “Nature and the Supernatural” (1858); “Work and Play” (1864); “Christ and His Salvation” (1864); “The Vicarious Sacrifice” (1865); “Moral Uses of Dark Things” (1868); and “Woman's Suffrage, the Reform against Nature” (1869). He also published many addresses, and was a frequent contributor to religious periodicals. BUTCHER, SAMUEL, Bishop of Meath, born
in 1811; died July 22, 1876. He was the second son of Vice-Admiral Butcher, R. N. He received his education in Trinity College, Dublin, of which he was elected a Fellow in 1837. In 1850 he was appointed Professor of Ecclesiastical History, in 1852 Regius Professor of Divinity, and in 1866 Bishop of Meath. He was a member of her Majesty's Privy Council in Ireland, a member of the Royal Irish Academy, and enjoyed precedence, in right of his see, as premier bishop in that kingdom. He was the ninetieth holder of the seein succession since its foundation in the sixth century. He wrote “An Introductory Lecture on the Study of Ecclesiastical Literature” (1851), “Sermons on the Crimean War” (1854), “On the Present State of the Romish Controversy in Ireland” (1855), “On the Relative Value of Human and Divine Knowledge” (1857), “On the Conservative Character of the English Reformation” (1862), “Some Thoughts on the Supreme Authority of the Scriptures” (1864), and “Two Sermons on Dr. Pusey's ‘Eirenicon’” (1866).
CABALLERO, FERNAN, the nom de plume of the Spanish novelist Cecilia de Arrom, born in 1797; died in July, 1876. She was born in Switzerland, and was the daughter of Böhl von Faber, a German merchant. Having been educated in Germany, she went to Spain with her father in 1813, where the latter had a large business. Having become a widow after a short period of married life, she married the Marquis de Arco-Hermeso, and, when the latter had died in 1835, the lawyer Arrom. As his widow she has lived in Seville since 1863. In 1849 she published her first novel, “La Gaviota,” which was followed by a number of others, among which may be particularly mentioned “La Familia de Alvareda,” “Clemencia,” “Lágrimas,” and “Ella.” She also published several collections of smaller tales. Her works from the beginning attracted general attention in Spain, which soon spread to France, Ger
many, and other European countries. She was the founder of modern realistic romance in Spain, whose people she described with wonderful truth and accuracy. But in all her works she showed herself an ardent Spaniard, and her writings are of a national character, like those of few other writers of fiction. Her object was to encourage the Spaniards to hold on to their old customs, their old faith, and to return to the old monarchy. In this way she expected to see a regeneration of Spain brought about. Her “Cuentas Poesias Populares Andaluces” (1859) were the first collection of Spanish popular tales and songs. Her principal works were translated into English, German, French, and Italian. CABRERA, Don RAMoN, Count of Morella. a Carlist general, born August 31, 1810; died August 29, 1876. He studied theology in his youth, but, as the life of a priest did not soit