Gambar halaman
PDF
ePub

that, if the concentration of the Turkish forces gents into a valley, fought and defeated them. on the frontier was to take such proportions Raouf Pasha retired from the command of the as really to carry into effect a repeated plan of Turkish force at the end of 1875, and was sucblockading Montenegro on that side, it would ceeded by Mukhtar Pasha, & nephew of the be considered a casus belli, and the prince Sultan Abdul-Aziz. The new commander arshould summon all Montenegrins liable to duty rived at Klek on January 1, 1876, and proand march into the Herzegovina; and that, in ceeded directly to Trebigne, wliere he estabthe mean time, Montenegro should keep an lished his headquarters. The situation was attitude of caution, but not disturb the peace, not encouraging to the Turks. Since August, if Turkish operations developed nothing more at least 30,000 men had been sent to the Herserious than the present situation. An envoy zegovina, of whom not more than 15,000 was sent by Ali Pasha to Cettigne, requesting were fit for duty, and these were suffering for the prince to recall Pico Paulovitch, the in- the lack of money, transportation, and medisurgent commander, and to prevent the Mon- cal supplies. An engagement occurred on the tenegrins from joining the insurrectionists. 18th of January, between the insurgents and The prince received the envoy coldly, and de- the Turks, on the road from Ragusa to Trebig. clined to interfere.

ne, in which the insurgents claimed that they An article appeared in the Montenegrin had defeated the Turks and inflicted a severe official gazette during January, stating that loss upon them. The Turks claimed to have Turkey was determined to make war upon gained the advantage in another engagement. Montenegro, justifying the insurrection, and on the 11th of February the Porte issued the denouncing the cruelty of the Turks. It de- following iradé, promising reforms in the disclared that Montenegro had so far conformed affected districts: to the requirements of international law. If Turkey acted differently, Montenegro would

The Sultan, with the object of ending the evils prebe freed from all restraint, and forced to adopt cordance with the friendly advice of the great powers

,

vailing in the Herzegovina and Bosnia, and in aeany measures calculated to protect herself and confirms the provisions of his recento firman, and

orders the execution of the following special reforms in the insurgent districts:

1. Complete liberty of worship:

2. Reform in the system of taxation.

3. Sale of waste lands to needy inhabitants, with facilities for payment.

4. The institution of

mixed commissions in the 37

capitals of Herzegoving and Bosnia, to insure prompt execution of reforms.

5. Augmentation of the sums applied to works of public utility in a proportion to be fixed by the advice of the mixed commißsions.

These special reforms are granted for the welfare of those who, having been misled by perfidious counsels, desire to return to

obedience. For these per BELGRADE.

sons a general amnesty is

proclaimed. secure the future of the Servian race. The BOSNIA.—Haidir Effendi, formerly an emarticle concluded: "No regard for any one or bassador, was appointed president of the Bosany thing will fetter our action.” The atten- nian Mixed Commission, and Varsa Effendi, an tion of the northern powers was called to this Albanian, president of the Coinmission for article, and they again remonstrated with the Herzegovina. prince for countenancing the insurrection and In connection with this iradé, the Turkish allowing the article to appear.

Government addressed a circular note to its The close of the year 1875 was signalized representatives at the courts of the great by a brilliant operation on the part of Raouf powers, communicating to them the tenor of Pasha, the Turkish commander in the Herze- the Andrassy note. The circular also enumergovina, in the relief of Nicsic, whose garrison ated the reforms which the Sultan had ordered had been reduced to their last rations. Two by his last iradé, as a complement to the divisions were detailed to march into the Duga favors previously granted, corresponding with Pass from the north and south respectively; the proposals of Count Andrassy, and which while a third division, diverting the insur- were to take effect without exception through

[graphic]
[ocr errors]

out Bosnia and the Herzegovina. With regard leaders was held at Suttorina, February 26th, to the fifth point, relative to the application at whicli a manifesto was issued against the of the direct taxes to meet the requirements acceptance of the terms offered by the powers. of the provinces, the note explained that such It was signed by the Waywode

Lazar Sotchitza, the Archimandrite Melentii, Pico Paulovitch, and the Popes Bogdan and Stembkovitch. It pointed out the Porte's former failures to carry out promised reforms, and declared that the resistance of the Mohammedans would baffle every reform; the Mohammedans were even expected to revolt if an attempt were made to execute the reforms. The insurgents desired full freedom and independence—this, or nothing. The paper contained an expression of thanks to Austria for the care she had taken of the Herzegovinian refugees, to Garibaldi for his fatherly counsels, and to England that she had at last recovered from her partiality for Turkey. It compared the attitude of Servia and of Montenegro, to the disadvantage of the former state. “Diplomatic combinations,” it said, “are not our business; the European press may occupy itself with them: we must proceed to fight, to burn, to conquer. We cannot lay down our weapons so long as we are not granted an independence like that of Montenegro." The manifesto closed with an avowal that help was

expected from Russia. BOSNIANS. u arrangement could not be brought into harmony with the general system of administering the Turkish finances. Nevertheless, in his solicitude for the provinces devastated by the insurrection, the Sultan had ordered that, as an addition to the amounts already applied to public objects in the Herzegovina and Bosnia, à certain sum should be set apart, the amount of which would be fixed on the basis of local requirements, after the evidence of the administrative authorities had been received and the corporations interested had deliberated on the point. The note concluded by stating that there did not appear to be any perceptible discrepancy between the facts in the case and the formal standpoint taken up in Count Andrassy's proposals. These declarations were supplemented by an iradé granting a general amvesty to all insurgents who within four weeks of its promulgation throughout the country should return to their homes. It announced that the Government would have the homes

BULGARIAN COSTUMES. and churches of the returning refugees, where they had been destroyed, rebuilt at its own DALMATIA. - Baron Rodich, the Austrian cost, and would furnish those who returned Governor of Dalmatia, was authorized by the with the means of pursuing their usual em- Imperial Government to negotiate with the leadployments.

ers on either side, so as to bring about a susHERZEGOVINA. — The European consuls at pension of hostilities, in order that an opportuMostar were advised by their respective gor- nity might be given for carrying the proposed errements to negotiate with the insurgents, and reforms into effect. With this view he visited induce them to accept the propositions of the the Turkish commanders, Ali Pasha and MukhAndrassy note as a basis for the restoration of tar Pasha, at Ragusa, and the insurgents at peace. The insurgents refused to entertain any Castelnuovo in the Suttorina. Mukhtar Pasha propositions of the kind, as they had no faith insisted, as a necessary preliminary, that Nicin any salutary result following diplomatic sic should be reprovisioned from Montenegro. negotiations. A meeting of a number of their Baron Rodich endeavored to make an arrange

[graphic]
[graphic]

ment for furnishing the garrison from Monte- under Paulovitch, with the loss, it was said, negro, but could only get its wants supplied of 800 men killed, 675 rifles, and four rifled can from day to day. Early in March he met the pon. The Turks were pursued as far as Lipnik, chiefs of the insurrection at Cettigne. They four hours' march. The insurgents had in this declined to agree to a peace. Deputations of engagement 1,150 men, and claimed to have refugees communicated to him the general lost only ten killed and twenty-five wounded. determination of that class not to accept a Liubibratics, who had played an important pacification or return home. They declared part in the beginning of the insurrection, but that they would resist to the last, rather than had since lost much of his prominence as a submit to the Turks again; they preferred let- leader through the superior influence and enerting their families starve in a Christian coun- gy of Pico Paulovitch, had retired to Ragusa try to returning them to Turkish maltreat- and busied bimself in promoting the agitament. They had no confidence in the promises tion through the journals, and by the help of of the Porte. Baron Rodich informed them their correspondents. He collected a small that the allowances to them would be discon- corps, consisting of Serbs, Russians, and adventtinued in a few days, and that henceforward urers from Italy, Poland, and France, designno powder would be allowed to cross the ing to arouse to resistance the districts of frontier. Baron Rodich held another inter- Bosnia adjacent to the Herzegovina and to view with the insurgent leaders in the Sutto- Servia, which had as yet taken but little part rina, at Castelnuovo, on the 6th of April. On in the insurrection. The detachments of his the previous day the chiefs had had a confer- force embarked from different points along the ence with M. Vesselitzky Bogdanovitch, a Ser- coast toward the last of February, and landed vian gentleman, who visited them partly on his at Klek. With a command of between 500 own account and partly by the authority of the and 600 men thus obtained, he marched, keepRussian chancellor, Prince Gortchakoff. The ing close to the Austrian border, toward Linchiefs communicated to him, as the terms on bushka. Near this place he met a company which they would agree to a suspension of of Bashi-Bazouks, March 5th, who were out hostilities: 1. That all the Turkish troops in upon a reconnaissance, and repulsed them. the Herzegovina should be concentrated in six On the 11th of March he reached the neighfortified places, viz.: Nicsic, Trebigne, Stolatz, borhood of Imoschi, in Dalmatia, where he Mostar, Fotcha, and Plevalje, and that the and the members of his staff were arrested Christians and insurgents should keep their upon Austrian territory. Among those who arms until the Mohammedans were disarmed. accompanied his expedition and were arrested 2. That stores of provisions should be fur- with him was Mademoiselle Markus, a rich nished by the Porte to last the population till Dutch lady, who was an enthusiastic supporter the next harvest. 3. That the collection of of the insurgent cause, and had contributed taxes should be suspended for three years. 4. liberally of her means and personal services That the Christians should have a third of the to assist it. The prisoners were interned lands held by the rayahs, on lease awarded to within Austrian territory, but by the end of them. 5. That the reforms proposed in the March Mademoiselle Markus was again within Andrassy note should be immediately and the lines of the insurgents. The greater part fully carried out in those parts of Bosnia not of the command of Liubibraties, not having in insurrection, so that it might be seen how been on Austrian territory, escaped capture. the Mussulmans would behave in reference to Its members were dispersed, but eventually them, and especially whether they would tol- joined other bodies of the insurgents

. erate reforms in favor of the Christians. 6. In April the needs of the garrison at Niesie That a commission of the European powers became pressing. The understanding with should be established, to look after the execu- Montenegro, by which provisions were supplied tion of the Turkish promises. A reply pre- from day to day, though in quantities barely scribing similar conditions was given to Baron sufficient for the daily needs of the command, Rodich. Although both parties refused to continued in force till the 10th of April, when agree to a formal armistice, a suspension of the insurgents cut off the communications behostilities was effected from the 28th of March tween Nicsic and Montenegro. Mokhtar Pasha to the 10th of April.

marched from Gatehko, April 13th, with a force While the diplomatic agents were trying to of about 10,000 men and a convoy of provisions, bring about a peaceful understanding, mili- for the relief of the garrison. At the north tary movements were suspended by the win- end of the Duga Pass he met with a fierce reter weather, and only a few engagements took sistance from the insurgents, and it was only place. These generally consisted of attacks after four days' fighting that he succeeded, by the insurgents upon the Turkish convoys with his convoy considerably reduced, in reachconveying provisions to the garrisons. The ing Presyeka. His force was exhausted, and most important of these occurred at Murato- he was obliged to retreat to Gatchko for reënvizza, on the 6th of March. Five battalions of forcements. On his retreat he was attacked Turks, under the command of Selim Pasha, and lost his mules. He started again from going to provision the fortress of Goransko, Gatchko, April 26th, with 18,000 men. As the were attacked and defeated by the insurgents sole object of the new expedition was to take

to Nicsic the provisions which had been left counts of outrages which had been committed at Presyeka, the men took with them only the upon Christians by the Mussulman population. supplies they would need on the march. On In several villages the Turks had risen against the 28th the Turks encountered a force of the Christians, killed numbers of them, and 15,000 Herzegovinians, under Sotchitza, Paulo- driven others away or subjected them to abuse. vitch, and Pope Simonitch. A fierce engage- At the beginning of April the inhabitants of ment ensued, in which the Turks prevailed, the Bilhacs district were reported to be in reand succeeded in penetrating to Presyeka. A volt, and that they were joined by several hunpart of the garrison of Nicsic had opened a dred Mohammedans. Five thousand insurway around to this place, and by this way the gents were active in this district and in that of provisions were finally conveyed to that fort, Travnik, and in a few days the insurrection April 29th. On the 30th of April Mukhtar was said to be under full headway along the returned to Gatchko, harassed by the enemy, Drin and the North Bosnian frontier. The having in the four days of fighting lost 3,000 Turkish commander, Ali Pasha, bad here a men. The Herzegovinians claimed to have force of about 10,000 men. The Vali, Ibrahim lost only 120 men. The insurgents also at- Pasha, reported to his Government that the intempted to blockade Trebigne, the fort Drieno, surrectionary movement had already become west of Trebigne, and Govanitchka. The Turks, stronger than it had been at any time in the however, succeeded in introducing supplies course of the year 1875. During the month into these places without encountering serious of April there were twenty-seven bands of inobstacles. The fortress at Nicsic was again surgents, spread over a wide extent of counprovisioned in June without fighting. As the try, which were estimated to embrace not spring advanced, new reports were circulated less than 15,000 men. These bands acted of the spread of the insurrection through Bos- without any common plan, their most ordinary nia. The public mind had been excited by ac- method of operation being to fall upon the

[graphic][ocr errors][merged small]

isolated estates of the Mohammedan land- rushed weeping into one another's arms. The owners or upon the small towns, or to lie in cry was raised among the populace that the wait near the larger towns, watching their young woman was a Christian, who had been communications with the neighborhood, and compelled to abjure her religion and become occasionally seizing messengers or convoys of a Mohammedan. The Christians took the girl provisions. An important part in these move from the guards, and, seizing a vacant carriage ments was played at Orahiviza by the pretend- belonging to the American consul, which stood er to the Servian throne, Peter Karageorge- near by awaiting the arrival of its owner, put vitch. He kept himself close by the Austri- her into it and carried her to the house of a an boundary, so as to be able to cross over Greek merchant, where she was hid. The and put himself out of the way upon the sign next day the streets were filled with bands of of danger, while detachments from his camp excited Mussulmans demanding the return of scoured the country for several miles around. the girl, and threatening a massacre of the On the 7th of May occurred the massacre of the Christians. Hearing of the tumult, the French the consuls at Salonica. Emin Effendi, a Turk consul, and the German consul, who was his in high position, in whose family the office of brother-in-law, proceeded to the palace of the state procurator of Salonica was hereditary, governor to demand that he cause order to had abducted for his harem a handsome young be restored. The governor was found at the Bulgarian girl, who was brought by railway to mosque, where a large mob was gathered, filled Salonica on the 6th of May. In the same with rage at the affront that had been offered train was her mother, who had followed in to the Mohammedan religion. The consuls search of her. The two women did not know were set upon by the mob with clubs, knives, that they were upon the same train, but and yataghans, and were murdered and manrecognized each other at the station, and gled in the most horrible manner. This out

rage aroused an intense excitement throughout and increased her war-supplies at Gibraltar the Christian world. The great powers took and Malta. immediate steps to demand satisfaction for it, In the last days of May the Sultan Abduland guarantees against the repetition of similar Aziz was dethroned, by a revolution in the palace, scenes. France, Germany, Austria, and Italy, assisted by the softas. The leaders in the revolosent vessels-of-war to Salonica, and England tion were the ministers of the 12th of May, Middispatched a gun-boat to accompany the com- hat Pasha, the Grand-Vizier Mehemet Rushdi mission which the Turkish Government sent Pasha, the War-Minister Hussein Avni Pasha, to investigate the affair. The chief perpetra- and the Sheikh ul-Islam Karullah Effendi. The tors of the outrage were arrested and tried, other leaders propounded to the Sheikh Kaand sentenced in June to penalties which, how- rullah Effendi, as the authorized interpreter of ever, France and Germany declared were not the laws of Islam, the question : “If the comsatisfactory to them. In August the Porte mander of the Faithful becomes afflicted with paid to the families of the murdered consuls a disorder of his faculties so that he cannot an indemnity of £40,000. The event was fol- take cognizance of political affairs; if he, by lowed at Constantinople, May 12th, by a personal extravagance, increases the burdens change in the ministry. The Grand-Vizier, of the nation beyond endurance; if he, by Mahmoud Pasha, was overthrown, and Rushdi wrongs which he causes, threatens the ruin of Pasha was appointed in his place; while Mid- the empire and of the Mussulman community : hat Pasha, who had made himself the head of if his rule is destructive-must he be deposed?" a new party opposed to further concessions Karullah answered, " The law says, Yes!" and to the demands of Russia, took a place in the embodied the question and the answer into a cabinet without a portfolio.

fetna, officially signed, which had the force of a The warning of the Andrassy note had so law with the Faithful. Armed with this fetna, far produced no substantial result. The re- the conspirators, on May 30th, proceeded to forms promised by the Porte had not been effect the deposition of the Sultan Abdul Aziz, realized; the discontent in Bosnia and the They kept their design carefully concealed till Herzegovina had not been diminished. On the moment for action arrived. Guards, conthe 11th of May, Count Andrassy for Austria, sisting of soldiers on the land side and a vesand Prince Gortchakoff for Russia, met Prince sel on the water, were stationed around the Bismarck at Berlin, in a conference which con- Palace Dolma Bagtsheh. Hussein Ayni Pasha tinued till the 13th, to arrange what should be was dispatched to the Prince Murad Effendi, done next. The result was, that a new note the eldest son of the late Sultan Abdul-Medjid, was issued, more decisive in tone than the and notified him that he must come to the Andrassy note, in which allusion was made to palace to be made Sultan. The prince obeyed, more active proceedings that might be adopted and proceeded to the great hall of the Seraskiein case the condition

of affairs was not soon rat, where he was received with homage, and the improved. This note, which was dated May customary religious services were had for the 13th, and is known as the Berlin Memoran- authentication of the act of his accession. The dum, or the Gortchakoff note, declared, in proceedings of installation having been coneffect, that the Porte, by accepting the Andras- pleted, Redif Pasha was sent to inform Abdulsy note, had pledged itself to Europe, and that Aziz that," by the will of the people," he had the great powers had the moral right to ex- been deposed, and must be taken to the Serail pect the Porte to execute its pledges. The of Top Kapu, which had been assigned him as Sultan had done nothing to fulfill his promises, his residence. Abdul-Aziz was excited to a rioand the murders at Salonica must be regarded lent outburst of rage by this message ; but as a consequence of his weakness. An armis- when he was shown the guards posted around tice of two months must be arranged between the palace, he exclaimed, “Great is Allah!" the Porte and the insurgents, on the basis of and fell into a stolid desperation. Accompathe five points mentioned in the Andrassy nied by his mother, his sons, and eleven of his note, and of other points which had grown out wives, he was taken to Top Kapu. The new of the righteous demands of the insurgents. If Sultan was proclaimed as Murad V. An amthis armistice passed away without the object nesty was immediately declared for all politicontemplated by the powers being gained, it cal offenses; the money in the imperial chest would be necessary to consult concerning such and the treasure of the mother of the Sultan more effective measures as the interests of Abdul-Aziz were turned over to the Minister general peace would demand, to limit the of Finance. Abdul-Aziz was removed shortly spread and growth of the .prevailing disorder. afterward from Top Kapa to a pavilion of the The Berlin note was submitted to France, palace of Tcheragan, which was assigned to Italy, and England. France and Italy gave bim as his future residence. Here he was their adhesion to it; England declined to ap- found dead on the morning of the 4th of June. prove it, May 19th. Immediately afterward, His body was examined by a council of nineEngland sent to Besika Bay, at the southern teen physicians of various nationalities, who end of the Dardanelles, a fleet of twenty ves- all agreed that he had killed himself by cutting sels, mostly iron-clads, with about 5,000 men, his veins with a pair of scissors, and their rerunder the command of Admiral Drummond, dict was published as the official explanation

« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »