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2. Zvornik

5. Banialuka

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If we add to these figures the islands in the ancient Illyrians. The northern boundary of European waters—Samothrace, Imbros, Lem- the territory inhabited by them embraces the nos, and Hagiostrati, which in an administra- south and the east of Montenegro, and almost tive point of view belong to an Asiatic vilayet extends to the Bulgarian Morava, while the of 402 square miles, with 27,800 Christians and southern boundary-line separates it from Hel1,874 Mohammedans: total, 29,674 inhabitants las. The Roumanians in the principality of -We obtain for European Turkey an area of Roumania also belong to the Græco-Latin fam140,368 square miles, with 4,820,243 Chris- ily. Some colonies of Roumanians are also tians, 3,611,480 Mohammedans, and 75,165 found in the midst of the Bulgarians, the SerJews: total, 8,506,888 inhabitants.

vians, and in the Dobrudja. As the boundaries According to W. Jakshitch, chief of the sta- of the sanjaks are generally undisturbed by the tistical bureau of Belgrade, Servia, the inhabi- changes made in the vilayets, the following tants of Turkey proper in Europe were divided table, giving the number of Christians and Moin regard to nationality into 3,732,300 Slavi hammedans in each sanjak, is of permanent (1,871,800 Servians, 1,860,500 Bulgarians), value: 1,024,200 Greeks, 1,229,200 Albanians, 199,600 Roumanians, and 2,210,800 Turks. Compar

Vilayets. ing the number of Turks with the number of Mohammedans as given above, it appears that Constantinople.

121,000 183,000 the Turkish race constitutes less than two

1. Serayevo...

69,000 $3,000

168,000 123,000 thirds of the Mohammedan population of Eu 8. 'Travnik.

101,000 49,000 ropean Turkey. The remainder is made up of

4. Novibazar

90,000 66,000 Mohammedans, Bosnians, Bulgarians, and Al

177,000 44,000 6. Bihatch.

105,000 72,000 banians. In Bosnia, in particular, the entire 7. Herzegovina. Herzegovina 142,000 43,000 nobility has embraced Islamism, in order to re

8. Monastir (Bitolia).... Monastir (or Bi


250,000 126,000 tain its fendal privileges, and, while strictly ad 9. Korytza..

98,000 53,000 hering to its nationality and language, has re

10. Prisrend

105,000 281,000 11. Ushkub.

119,000 110,000 peatedly shown a fanatical opposition to all 12. Dibra.

19,000 225,000 concessions which the Porte has made or in- 18. Scutari.

89,000 82,000 tended to make to its Christian subjects. In 14 Janina.

144,000 18,000

43,00026,000 three only of the thirty-three sanjaks-Rust- 16. Argyro Kastro

88,000 75 000 chuk, Tultcha, and Varna (in the vilayet of 17. Berat

82,000 109,000

148,000 the Danube)—the Turkish race constitutes the 19. Salonica:


87,000 70,000 balk of the population. The Turks are also 20. Seres...

183,000 86,000 numerous in the Rhodope Mountains, on the

18,000 94,000

22. Adrianople Adrianople 230,000 117.000 boundary between the Bulgarians and Greeks 28. Philippopolis.

816,000 208,000 (the vilayets of Adrianople and Salonica). On 24. Slivno

90,000 81,000

75,000 40,000 the coast of the Ægean Sea and the Sea of Mar- 26. Gallipoli

77,000 61,000 mora, as well as on the southeastern coast of 27. Rustchuk.

284,000 331,000

28. Tultcha. the Black Sea, they live in the midst of the

83,000 186.000 29. Varna

89,000 more numerous Greeks, but they disappear 80. Ternova..

223,000 150,000 more and more the nearer we approach Con- 31. Widin

297,000 Sophia

297.100 53,000 stantinople. On all the coasts mentioned the 83. Nissa.

218,000! 9:2,000 Greeks have a numerical preponderance. They inhabit in compact masses the sanjaks on the

The estimates of revenue and expenditure Ægean Sea and the Sea of Marmora, those on in the budget for the Turkish year 1291 (from the Black Sea up to the river Kamtchyk, and March, 1876, to March, 1876) were as follows the island of Crete. The Slavic Bulgarians (value expressed in purses: 1 purse = 500 live south of the Danube, and their territory is piasters; 1 piaster = $0.0432): bounded by the Danube, the Timok, and a line


1. Direct taxes: passing through the cities Nissa, Prisrend, Och


635,000 rida, Kastoria, Niaghusta, Salonica, Adrianople, Ground-tax, patents, revenue of ConBurgas on the Black Sea, Slivno, and Rasgrad.


30,700 Military exemption

160,000 Sporadically they are found among the Albanese, the Greeks, the Wallachians, and in the



2. Indirect taxes: Dobrudja. The other of the large Slavic tribes


1,892,000 of Turkey, the Servians, inhabiting the princi 25 per cent. additional,

848,000 pality of Servia, Bosnia, the Herzegovina, and

Tax on sheep..


6,430 Montenegro, occupy the territory between the

11,000 Bulgarian Morava, the Save, and the Dalmatian

spirits... Customs

415,000 frontier as far as Albania. On the right bank Tax on tobacco

830,000 of the Bulgarian Morava they are living inter Tapou (transfer-duty)..

198,000 mixed with the Roumanians. The Albanians,



10,000 whom the Turks call Arnauts, while they Judicial taxes...

29,188 call themselves Skipetars, are of Græco-Latin

Miscellaneous taxes..

95,800 origin, and are regarded as descendants of the Total indirect taxes.



21. Drama


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8. Divers receipts from salines, domains, forests,

cree of September 20, 1874, authorized the mines, telegraphs, postal administration, etc.. 418,516 4. Tributes :

Minister of Finance to enter a new foreign Egypt...


debt to the amount of 825,000,000 francs, with Roumania,

8,000 Servia..


five per cent. interest, into the Great Book. Samos...


Of this amount, 397,000,000 francs, at an issueMount Athos..


price of 431 per cent., with back interest from Total tributes....

163,544 June 13, 1874 (therefore real issue-price = 424

per cent.), were issued in September, 1874. Å Total ordinary revenue...

4,776,588 financial report from Constantinople, dated

May 10, 1875, estimates the entire debt of the 1. Public debt..

2,973,849 Turkish Empire at 5,023,860,500 francs. In 2. Dotations : Civil list...


October, 1875, the Sublime Porte decreed that Vakufs (religious establishments). 7,000

during five years, from January 1, 1876, the Pensions and presents.


interest of the public debt be paid half in cash Total dotations...

898,684 and half in five per cent. bonds. So much of 3. Restitutions

35,000 the principal as would fall due during the same 4. Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

95,794 period should be paid in like manner. For

388 771 this purpose a law of October 20, 1875, anthor* the Interior.


ized the Minister of Finance to issue, in the 9. Direction of the Artillery,

160,000 course of the next five years, five per cent. 10. Ministry of the Navy.

gold bonds to the total amount of £35,000,000, Commerce.

5,348 Sanitary Administration..

17,078 or 875,000,000 francs, in series of £7,000,000 12. Ministry of Public Instruction.

25,411 each. 18. Public works....


The public liabilities of Turkey are officially Total expenditures....

5,785,819 divided into foreign or hypothecated debts, Deficit...

1,009,281 secured on special sources of revenue, and inIf the floating debt, the expenses of war, ternal debts, known under a variety of names, and the payments due to the soldiers and issued at Constantinople alone, and therefore others, are added to the deficit, it swells to dependent only on a compact between the twenty-two million Turkish pounds ($94,200,- Porte and its subjects, and secured on the 000).

general credit and resources of the empire. During the year 1874 the floating debt very The following table exhibits the foreign debts largely increased, but the promise tvas made contracted from 1854 to 1874 (value expressed that it would be entirely consolidated. A de- in francs: 1 franc = $0.193):

* Justice
& Finance.


6 War..



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On July 27, 1876, the Turkish Government Russia, Greece, and Egypt, support post-officer published decree for the issue of paper- in Constantinople. money. The first issue in notes of five, ten, The Turkish Army is composed of the regu fifty, and one hundred piasters, was fixed at lar, irregular, and auxiliary troops. According 3,000,000 Turkish pounds (1 Turkish pound to a law of June 22, 1869, and later decrees, = $4.39), but it was reported that more than the reorganization of the army is to be comtwice the amount had been already issued at pleted in 1878. It is to consist of 720,000 men, the end of November, 1876.

divided into the active army (about 220,000 The Turkish Empire, exclusive of the vassal men), the first reserve (80,000 men), the second states and dependencies, has 429 post-offices. reserve, and the sedentary army (correspondBesides, Germany, Austria, France, England, ing to the German Landsturm). In this case

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the yearly contingent would amount to about Italians, 2,700 Turks, Poles, Tartars, and 37,500 men. The irregular troops consist of others. A recent Roumanian writer, Cretzuthe gensdarmes, the Bashi-Bazouks, Spahis, lesco, "La Roumanie considerée sous le RapBedouins, and other volunteer corps, together port physique, administratif et économique,” about 50,000 men. The auxiliary troops are in the Bulletin de la Société Geographique composed of contingents furnished by the prov- Roumaine (Nos. 1-5, Bucharest, 1876), estiinces not yet subject to the nizam (active mates the population belonging to the Rouarmy) and the tributary states, and amount to manian nationality in other countries as folabout 80,000 men. In time of peace the army lows: Hungary, 1,171,000; Transylvania, would number 157,667 men and 26,040 horses. 1,500,000; other countries of Austro-Hungary,

The Turkish Navy consisted, in 1874, of 19 360,100; Servia and Turkey, 1,600,000; Ruslarge iron-clads, carrying 120 guns; 17 screw. sia, especially in Bessarabia, 1,000,000"; but steamers, of 640 guns; and about 80 other other writers give the number of Roumanians steamers: total, 150 steamers, carrying about in Turkey proper at only 200,000, and in Ser1,600 guns. The navy was manned by 30,000 via at 127,000. sailors and 4,000 marine troops. The crews The population of the largest cities is given are raised in the same manner as the land- as follows: Bucharest, 221,805; Jassy, 90,000; forces, partly by conscription and partly by Galatz, 80,000; Botoshani, 40,000; Plőesti, voluntary enlistment. The time of service in 33,000; Braila, 28,272 ; Byrlat, 26,568; Krathe Navy is eight years.

yova, 22,764; Ismail, 21,000; Giurgevo, 20,866; The total length of railroads in operation in Foktchany, 20,323 ; Piatra, 20,000. In the 1875 was 1,530 kilometres (1 kilometre = 0.62 budget of the year 1876 the revenue and the mile) in Europe, and 274 kilometres in Asia. expenditure were estimated each at 97,894,The length of telegraph-lines, in 1874, was 28,- 427 lei (1 lei = $0.193). The public debt on 038, and of the wires 46,730 kilometres. The January 1, 1877, amounted to 620,710,213 lei. number of offices was 393, and the number of The aggregate strength of the permanent army dispatches sent and received 910,130.

and the “ territorial” troops (which are localROUMANIA.—The Turkish dependency of ized in their respective districts) is 1,613 offiRoumania was, isi 1875, governed by Prince cers and 62,158 men, with 14,921 horses. The Charles I., son of the late Prince Charles of navy consists of 3 steamers and 6 gun-sloops. Hohenzollern - Sigmaringen. Prince Charles The imports, in 1874, were valued at 92,363,was born April 20, 1839; elected Prince of 000 lei, the exports at 135,858,000 lei. The Roumania, May 10, 1866; married, November most important article of export is grain, es15, 1869, to Elizabeth, Princess of Neuwied. pecially wheat and maize. The movement of A new ministry was formed on July 24, 1876, shipping in the most important ports, in 1875, which was composed as follows: Presidency of was as follows: the Ministry and Finance, J. O. Bratiano; War, Colonel J. Staniceano; Foreign Affairs,

N. Jonesco; Justice, E. Statesco; Public In-
struction and Worship, J. Chitzu; Agriculture,

8,988 501,964

681,541 Commerce, and Public Works, D. Sturdza. Galatz.

8,266 469,594 8,264 459,856 The area is 46,795 square miles. The popula- Giurgevo..


8,902 884,977 8,887 338,844 tion was, at the close of 1873, estimated at Other ports.. 5,073,000, of whom 2,618,136 were males and Total......... 11,977 | 1,464,946 11,458 ' 1,582,182 2,454,864 females. The movement of population from 1870 to 1873 was as follows:

In 1875 the length of the railroads in opera

tion was 1,231 kilometres, and that of the teleMar

Surplus (+) graph-lines 3,820; that of wires, 6,842 kilo

Stillborn. or Deficit (-) metres. riages.

There were 236 post-offices; the

number of private letters mailed was 5,072,1870. 80,819 147,552 111,963

+ 35,589 686; the number of official letters, 966,479. 1871... 28,010 143,419 | 117,983

+ 80,484 DANUBE COMMISSION.—The European Dan35,872 144,172 137,596 5,098 + 6,576 29,257 ( 145,304 145,031 4,049

ube Commission, which was established in pur

suance of Article XVI. of the Treaty of Paris, The great majority of the people (4,529,000) and embraces the representatives of the seven belong to the Greek Oriental Church. The treaty-powers (Germany, France, Great BritRoman Catholics number about 114,200 ; the ain, Italy, Austria, Russia, and Turkey), has Protestants, 13,800; the Armenians, 8,000; its seat at Galatz. It is not subject to the the Lipowans, 6,000; the Israelites, 400,000; Roumanian Government, but has sovereign the Mohammedans, 2,000.

power over the lower course of the Danube About 85 per cent. of the population belong down from Isaktchi; it manages the police, to the Roumanian nationality. Of non-Rou- publishes regulations which have legal power, manians, there are about 400,000 Israelites, levies taxes, contracts loans, and disposes of 200,000 Gypsies, 85,000 Slavi, 39,000 Germans, its revenue for the furtherance of works of 29,500 Hungarians, 8,000 Armenians, 5,000 public usefulness. According to a new treaty, Greeks, 2,000 French, 1,000 Englishmen, 500 adopted by the Pontus. Conference on March

VOL. XVI.-48 A












Births, in

cluding Stillhorn.


of Births.

? 3,409

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840 426

57 117 589 88 77 70



13, 1871, the Danube Commission is to be graph-lines was, in 1872, 1,376 ; that of the continued for twelve years, and the works telegraph-wires, 2,051 kilometres. The numexecuted by it shall remain neutral. Its in- ber of private letters passing through the postcome for the year 1875 amounted to 1,567,145 office was 740,838; the number of official letfrancs, and its expenditures to 1,216,890. The ters, 431,275. following exhibits the movement of shipping MONTENEGRO.—The principality of Monteat the Sulina mouth of the Danube, during negro, which was formerly a tributary state of the year 1875:

Turkey, must now be regarded as an entirely independent state. It has an area of 1,701

square miles, and a population of about 190,Tonnage. 000, nearly all of whom belong to the Greek

Oriental Church, and the Servian nationality, English

259,750 Greek.


All the men from seventeen to sixty, who are Italian.

16,051 able to bear arms, constitute the national Austro-Hungarian


army, which numbers from 25,000 to 27,000 French.

25,965 men. The country is divided into eight mili16,949

tary districts, at the head of each of which is Others....


a sedar. The districts are subdivided into Total.....

1,714 521,735 forty tribes, with a captain at the head of

each. Subordinate to the captain are chiefs SERVIA.—The present ruler of Servia, the of one hundred and of ten men. In time of other dependency of Turkey in Europe, Milan war every captain takes independently the Obrenovitch IV., was born in 1854, and suc- necessary steps, until he can receive the orders ceeded to the throne by the election of the of the sedar or the prince. The military orServian National Assembly, after the assassi- ganization is so complete that all the ablenation of his uncle, Prince Michael Obreno- bodied men of the principality can be concenvitch, June, 1868; was crowned at Belgrade, trated in one place within seventy-two hours. and assumed the government, August 22, The note of Count Andrassy of December 1872. He was married, on October 17, 1875, 30, 1875 (see ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1875), to Natalie de Kesho, the daughter of a Rus- was delivered to Reshid Pasha by Count Zichy, bian nobleman. Offspring of the union is a the Austrian embassador at Constantinople, on son, Prince Alexander, born August 14, 1876. January 31, 1876; and on the same day the Thé Servian ministry, in November, 1876, was embassadors of England, Germany, France, composed as follows: Presidency and Foreign Italy, and Russia, declared that they supported Affairs, Ristitch; Interior, Miloikovitch; Fi- the Austrian propositions in all their points. nance, Ivanovitch; War, General Nikolitch; On the 5th of February Reshid Pasha informed Worship, Wassilyevitch'; Justice, Gruitch ; the embassadors verbally, that a new firman Public Works, Stevtcha.' The legislative au- decreeing reforms would be issued immediately thority is exercised by the Skupshtina. The for Bosnia and the Herzegovina. On the 20th, former Senate has been changed into a Council Reshid Pasha delivered to Count Zichy, as an of State, which prepares the laws. The Skup- answer to the Andrassy note, a memorandum shtina is composed of delegates chosen by the promising to carry out the measures supported people, at the rate of one deputy to every by the powers in Bosnia and the Herzegovina, 2,000 electors, and consisted, in 1875, of 134 immediately as to four points, and as soon as members, of whom 33 were appointed by the possible as to the fifth point. Previously, on prince and 101 elected by the people. Ac- the 11th of February, an iradé had been issued cording to the budget for the years 1875–76, for the institution of certain reforms in these the revenue was 35,256,000"tax-piasters" provinces. (The tenor of this iradé is given (1 piaster = 4 cents), and the expenditure in another place in this article.) 34,806,000 piasters. The area of Servia is The Prince of Montenegro had, about the 16,817 square miles; population, at the close 1st of January, expressed a desire to the Czar of 1874, 1,352,522, of whom about 5,000 are of Russia to be allowed to begin active operMohammedans, 1,500 Jews, 360 Protestants, ations. The Czar advised him on no account 3,400 Roman Catholics, and the remainder to depart from the policy of neutrality, and members of the Orthodox Greek Church. The the prince gave assurances that he would be capital, Belgrade, had, in 1874, a population of governed by this counsel. Nevertheless, reports 27,605, exclusive of the garrison." The army prevailed during the month that Montenegro actually under arms consists of 4,720 men, had negotiated a loan, and had made purchases all infantry with the exception of 200 cavalry at one time of 10,000 rifles and 60 muskets, and a small artillery corps. The strength of and at another time of 15,000 muskets. In the reserves is 150,490 men. The imports consequence of the threatening attitude of were valued, in 1872, at 27,400,000 francs; the Turkey, it was represented, January 9th, that exports at 27,300,000 francs. There were, in 3,000 Montenegrin guards had been armed with 1875, not yet any railroads in Servia, but the breech-loaders and sent to the frontier. A few construction of a road from Belgrade to Nissa days later a war-council of senators and miliwas begun ; the aggregate length of the tele- tary officers, summoned by the prince, resolved

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