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If we add to these figures the islands in the European waters—Samothrace, Imbros, Lemnos, and Hagiostrati, which in an administrative point of view belong to an Asiatic vilayet of 402 square miles, with 27,800 Christians and 1,874 Mohammedans: total, 29,674 inhabitants —we obtain for European Turkey an area of 140,368 square miles, with 4,820,243 Christians, 3,611,480 Mohammedans, and 75,165 Jews: total, 8,506,888 inhabitants.

According to W. Jakshitch, chief of the statistical bureau of Belgrade, Servia, the inhabitants of Turkey proper in Europe were divided in regard to nationality into 3,732,300 Slavi (1,871,800 Servians, 1,860,500 Bulgarians), 1,024,200 Greeks, 1,229,200 Albanians, 199,600 Roumanians, and 2,210,800 Turks. Comparing the number of Turks with the number of Mohammedans as given above, it appears that the Turkish race constitutes less than twothirds of the Mohammedan population of European Turkey. The remainder is made up of Mohammedans, Bosnians, Bulgarians, and Albanians. In Bosnia, in particular, the entire nobility has embraced Islamism, in order to retain its feudal privileges, and, while strictly adhering to its nationality and language, has repeatedly shown a fanatical opposition to all concessions which the Porte has made or intended to make to its Christian subjects. In three only of the thirty-three sanjaks—Rustchuk, Tultcha, and Varna (in the vilayet of the Danube)—the Turkish race constitutes the bulk of the population. The Turks are also numerous in the Rhodope Mountains, on the boundary between the Bulgarians and Greeks (the vilayets of Adrianople and Salonica). On the coast of the AEgean Sea and the Sea of Marmora, as well as on the southeastern coast of the Black Sea, they live in the midst of the more numerous Greeks, but they disappear more and more the nearer we approach Constantinople. On all the coasts mentioned the Greeks have a numerical preponderance. They inhabit in compact masses the sanjaks on the AEgean Sea and the Sea of Marmora, those on the Black Sea up to the river Kamtchyk, and the island of Crete. The Slavic Bulgarians live south of the Danube, and their territory is bounded by the Danube, the Timok, and a line passing through the cities Nissa, Prisrend, Ochrida, Kastoria, Niaghusta, Salonica, Adrianople, Burgas on the Black Sea, Slivno, and Rasgrad. Sporadically they are found among the Albanese, the Greeks, the Wallachians, and in the Dobrudja. The other of the large Slavic tribes of Turkey, the Servians, inhabiting the principality of Servia, Bosnia, the Herzegovina, and Montenegro, occupy the territory between the Bulgarian Morava, the Save, and the Dalmatian frontier as far as Albania. On the right bank of the Bulgarian Morava they are living intermixed with the Roumanians. The Albanians, whom the Turks call Arnauts, while they call themselves Skipetars, are of Graeco-Latin origin, and are regarded as descendants of the

ancient Illyrians. The northern boundary of the territory inhabited by them embraces the south and the east of Montenegro, and almost extends to the Bulgarian Morava, while the southern boundary-line separates it from Hellas. The Roumanians in the principality of Roumania also belong to the Graeco-Latin family. Some colonies of Roumanians are also found in the midst of the Bulgarians, the Servians, and in the Dobrudja. As the boundaries of the sanjaks are generally undisturbed by the changes made in the vilayets, the following table, giving the number of Christians and Mo* in each sanjak, is of permanent Value:

- Chris- 1 MohamSANJAK. | vilayet. tions. I medans. Constantinople 121,000 issoo 1. Serayevo... . 69,000 soooo 2. Zvornik .. ... low 1:...o. 8. Travnik.. ... 101,000 49,000 4. Novibazar - o 66,000 5. Banialuka 177,000, 44,000 6. Bihatch............. 105,000, 72,000 T. Herzegovina ........Herzegovina .... 142,000 43,000 8. Monastir (Bitolia).... 9. Ko ----10 #. 11. Ushkub 12. Dibra............... 18. Scutari.............. 14. Janina...... }: *:::: Argyro Kas 17. Berat....... 18, Trikala * 19. Salonica! 20. Seres................ 5, 21. Drama ..... ,00 ##. 6000, 20&000 - ppopolls 816, 24. Slivno ..... 000, 81,000 25. Rodosto ... --- 75,000 ,000 26. Gallipoli............ 77,000 61,000 27. Rustchuk........... 000 831,000 28. Tultcha... --- 83,000 186,000 29. Warna. 82,000 89,000 80. Ternova . 223,000, 150,000 81. Widin | 297,000 61.000 82. Sophia - § 53,000 83. Nissa 213,000 92,000

in the budget for the Turkish year 1291 (from March, 1875, to March, 1876) were as follows (value expressed in purses: 1 purse = 500 piasters; 1 piaster = $0.0432):

revenue. 1. Direct taxes: Capitation-tax...................... 635,000 Ground-tax, patents, revenue of Constantinople....................... 30,700 Military exemption ... 160,000 Total .................................... 825,706 2. Indirect taxes: Tithes.............................. 1,392,000 25 per cent. additional.......... 848,000 Tax on sheep.... 408,960 ** swine 6,480 ** silk. 11,000 “ spirits. 80,000 Customs .......... 415,000 Tax on tobacco. .................. 830,000 Tapou (transfer-duty). 193,000 Stamps.......... 60,000 Tax on contracts. 10,000 Judicial taxes.... 29,138 Miscellaneous taxes 95,800

Total indirect taxes............... ... 8813ses

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8. Divers receipts from salines, domains, forests,

mines, telegraphs, postal administration, etc.. 418,516 4. Tributes: - 150,000 8,000 4,600 - 800 Mount Athos......... 144 Total tributes........................ 168,544 Total ordinary revenue 4,776,588 ExPENditures. 1. Public debt................................. 2,978,849 2. Dotations: Civil list.............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267,551 Vakufs (religious establishments).... 7,000 Pensions and presents.............. 124,133 Total dotations 898,684 3. Restitutions.............. 1,400 4. Ministry of Foreign Affairs 35,000 5. “ " Justice. 95,794 6. -- * Finance... 888,771 7. “ “ the Interior. 586,755 8. “ “ War.... .................. 780,582 9. Direction of the Artillery............... 160,000 10. Ministry of the Navy.................. 160.000 11. -- * Commerce................. 5,348 Sanitary Administration................ 17,078 12. Ministry of Public Instruction.. 25,411 18. Public works................................ 157,147 Total expenditures 5,785,819 Deficit........... 1,009,281

If the floating debt, the expenses of war, and the payments due to the soldiers and others, are added to the deficit, it swells to twenty-two million Turkish pounds ($94,200,000).

During the year 1874 the floating debt very largely increased, but the promise was made that it would be entirely consolidated. A de

cree of September 20, 1874, authorized the
Minister of Finance to enter a new foreign
debt to the amount of 825,000,000 francs, with
five per cent. interest, into the Great Book.
Of this amount, 397,000,000 francs, at an issue-
price of 434 per cent., with back interest from
June 13, 1874 (therefore real issue-price =424
per cent.), were issued in September, 1874. A
financial report from Constantinople, dated
May 10, 1875, estimates the entire debt of the
Turkish Empire at 5,023,860,500 francs. In
October, 1875, the Sublime Porte decreed that
during five years, from January 1, 1876, the
interest of the public debt be paid half in cash
and half in five per cent. bonds. So much of
the principal as would fall due during the same
period should be paid in like manner. For
this purpose a law of October 20, 1875, anthor-
ized the Minister of Finance to issue, in the
course of the next five years, five per cent.
gold bonds to the total amount of £35,000,000,
or tow francs, in series of £7,000,000
cacil.
The public liabilities of Turkey are officially
divided into foreign or hypothecated debts,
secured on special sources of revenue, and in-
ternal debts, known under a variety of names,
issued at Constantinople alone, and therefore
dependent only on a compact between the
Porte and its subjects, and secured on the
general credit and resources of the empire.
The following table exhibits the foreign debts
contracted from 1854 to 1874 (value expressed
in francs: 1 franc = $0.193):

NoMINAL REAL, Rate Ione- CAPitAL. amount. annuities. Amount at the to No. Year. of Price - - - e ef isoa. |- per cent. Francs. Francs Interest. Amortization. 1 | 1854. ... 6 80 75,000,000 60,000,000 3.110,000 2,140,000 51.8-2.5o 2 ... 4 10.2% 125,000,000 128,800,000 4,000,000 2,250,000 100,0so 8 -- 6 76 125,000,000 95,000,000 5,755,000 2,995,000 95.907.50 4 .... 6 53% 50,900,000 27,400 000 2,616,000 1,000,000 42.5o 5 .... 6 6S 200,000.000 186,000,000 8,220,000 7,780,000 135,930,000 6 ---- g 72 150,000,000 108,000,000 7 ... 6 68 boooooooo 84,000,000 : 8,450,000 7.550,000 143,242.5o s ..] 5 50 909,100,000 454,500,000 44.100,000 ......... SS2000 to 9 ....! 6 66 150,000,000 99,000,000 6,707,500 5,962,500 113,187.5% 10 ... 6 83 150,000,000 124,600,000 | ......... . ......... . ........ -11 -- 6 54 555,600,000 800,000,000 81,775,000 7.887,500 too 12 3 45 792,000,000 856,400,000 28,694,000 9,140,000 789.8 alo 18 | 6 68 142,500,000 96.900,000 8,378,750 801,250 139,264.5o 14 9 98% 278,200,000 274,000,000 25,034,000 | ......... 278,155 o 15 6 58% 694,400,000 406,300,000 41,111,740 6,944,500 694,444.5o 9tal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,447,700,000 || 2:00.400,000 || 212,946,990 58,950,750 4000:::::: Floating debt on January 28, 1874................................................................. 8:465,441 Total.................................................... ---------------------------------- 4.325,237,191

On July 27, 1876, the Turkish Government published a decree for the issue of papermoney. The first issue in notes of five, ten, fifty, and one hundred piasters, was fixed at 3,000,000 Turkish pounds (1 Turkish pound = $4.39), but it was reported that more than twice the amount had been already issued at the end of November, 1876.

The Turkish Empire, exclusive of the vassal states and dependencies, has 429 post-offices. Besides, Germany, Austria, France, England,

Russia, Greece, and Egypt, support post-office”
in Constantinople.
The Turkish Army is composed of the regu
lar, irregular, and auxiliary troops. According
to a law of June 22, 1869, and later decrees.
the reorganization of the army is to be com:
pleted in 1878. It is to consist of 720,000 men.
divided into the active army (about 220,000
men), the first reserve (80,000 men), the second
reserve, and the sedentary army (correspond.
ing to the German Landsturm). In this case

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the yearly contingent would amount to about 37,500 men. The irregular troops consist of the gensdarmes, the Bashi-Bazouks, Spahis, Bedouins, and other volunteer corps, together about 50,000 men. The auxiliary troops are composed of contingents furnished by the provinces not yet subject to the nizam (active army) and the tributary states, and amount to about 80,000 men. In time of peace the army would number 157,667 men and 26,040 horses. The Turkish Navy consisted, in 1874, of 19 large iron-clads, carrying 120 guns; 17 screwsteamers, of 640 guns; and about 80 other steamers: total, 150 steamers, carrying about 1,600 guns. The navy was manned by 30,000 sailors and 4,000 marine troops. The crews are raised in the same manner as the landforces, partly by conscription and partly by voluntary enlistment. The time of service in the Navy is eight years. The total length of railroads in operation in 1875 was 1,530 kilometres (1 kilometre = 0.62 mile) in Europe, and 274 kilometres in Asia. The length of telegraph-lines, in 1874, was 28,038, and of the wires 46,730 kilometres. The number of offices was 393, and the number of dispatches sent and received 910,130. Roum ANLA.—The Turkish dependency of Roumania was, in 1875, governed by Prince Charles I., son of the late Prince Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Prince Charles was born April 20, 1839; elected Prince of Roumania, May 10, 1866; married, November 15, 1869, to Elizabeth, Princess of Neuwied. A new ministry was formed on July 24, 1876, which was composed as follows: Presidency of the Ministry and Finance, J. C. Bratiano; War, Colonel J. Staniceano; Foreign Affairs, N. Jonesco; Justice, E. Statesco; Public Instruction and Worship, J. Chitzu; Agriculture, Commerce, and Public Works, D. Sturdza. The area is 46,795 square miles. The population was, at the close of 1873, estimated at 5,073,000, of whom 2,618,136 were males and 2,454,864 females. The movement of population from 1870 to 1873 was as follows:

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vol. xvi.-48 A.

Italians, 2,700 Turks, Poles, Tartars, and others. A recent Roumanian writer, Cretzulesco, “La Roumanie considerée sous le Rapport, physique, administratif et économique,” in the Bulletin de la Société Geographique Roumaine (Nos. 1–5, Bucharest, 1876), estimates the population belonging to the Roumanian nationality in other countries as follows: Hungary, 1,171,000; Transylvania, 1,500,000; other countries of Austro-Hungary, 860,100; Servia and Turkey, 1,600,000; Russia, especially in Bessarabia, 1,000,000; but other writers give the number of Roumanians in Turkey proper at only 200,000, and in Servia at 127,000.

The population of the largest cities is given as follows: Bucharest, 221,805; Jassy, 90,000; Galatz, 80,000; Botoshani, 40,000; Plöesti, 33,000; Braila, 28,272; Byrlat, 26,568; Krayova, 22,764; Ismail, 21,000; Giurgevo, 20,866; Foktchany, 20,323; Piatra, 20,000. In the budget of the year 1876 the revenue and the expenditure were estimated each at 97,894,427 lei (1 lei = $0.193). The public debt on January 1, 1877, amounted to 620,710,213 lei. The aggregate strength of the permanent army and the “territorial” troops (which are localized in their respective districts) is 1,613 officers and 62,158 men, with 14,921 horses. The navy consists of 3 steamers and 6 gun-sloops. The imports, in 1874, were valued at 92,863,000 lei, the exports at 135,858,000 lei. The most important article of export is grain, especially wheat and maize. The movement of shipping in the most important ports, in 1875, was as follows:

rxtered. cleared. Ports. Wessels Tons. Wessels. Tons. Braila............. 3935 | bolos 3435 | 681.51 Galatz............. 8,266 469,594 8.264 459,856 Giurgevo.......... 876 || 158,421 872 156,941 Other ports........ 3,902 834,977 8,887 388,844 Total............|Ti977 Tocao Taos Tosolso

In 1875 the length of the railroads in operation was 1,231 kilometres, and that of the telegraph-lines 3,820; that of wires, 6,842 kilometres. There were 236 post-offices; the number of private letters mailed was 5,072,686; the number of official letters, 966,479. DANUBE CoMMIssion.—The European Danube Commission, which was established in pursuance of Article XVI. of the Treaty of Paris, and embraces the representatives of the seven treaty-powers (Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy, Austria, Russia, and Turkey), has its seat at Galatz. It is not subject to the Roumanian Government, but has sovereign power over the lower course of the Danube down from Isaktchi; it manages the police, ublishes regulations which have legal power, evies taxes, contracts loans, and disposes of its revenue for the furtherance of works of public usefulness. According to a new treaty, adopted by the Pontus. Conference on March

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SERVIA.—The present ruler of Servia, the other dependency of Turkey in Europe, Milan Obrenovitch IV., was born in 1854, and succeeded to the throne by the election of the Servian National Assembly, after the assassination of his uncle, Prince Michael Obrenovitch, June, 1868; was crowned at Belgrade, and assumed the government, August 22, 1872. He was married, on October 17, 1875, to Natalie de Kesho, the daughter of a Russian nobleman. Offspring of the union is a son, Prince Alexander, born August 14, 1876. The Servian ministry, in November, 1876, was composed as follows: Presidency and Foreign Affairs, Ristitch; Interior, Miloikovitch; Finance, Ivanovitch; War, General Nikolitch; Worship, Wassilyevitch; Justice, Gruitch; Public Works, Stevtcha. The legislative authority is exercised by the Skupshtina. The former Senate has been changed into a Council of State, which prepares the laws. The Skupshtina is composed of delegates chosen by the people, at .. rate of one deputy to every 2,000 electors, and consisted, in 1875, of 134 members, of whom 33 were appointed by the prince and 101 elected by the people. According to the budget for the years 1875–76, the revenue was 35,256,000 “tax-piasters” (1 piaster = 4 cents), and the expenditure 34,806,000 piasters. The area of Servia is 16,817 square miles; population, at the close of 1874, 1,352,522, of whom about 5,000 are Mohammedans, 1,500 Jews, 360 Protestants, 3,400 Roman Catholics, and the remainder members of the Orthodox Greek Church. The capital, Belgrade, had, in 1874, a population of 27,605, exclusive of the garrison. The army actually under arms consists of 4,720 men, all infantry with the exception of 200 cavalry and a small artillery corps. The strength of the reserves is 150,490 men. The imports were valued, in 1872, at 27,400,000 francs; the exports at 27,300,000 francs. There were, in 1875, not yet any railroads in Servia, but the construction of a road from Belgrade to Nissa was begun; the aggregate length of the tele

graph-lines was, in 1872, 1,376; that of the telegraph-wires, 2,051 kilometres. The number of private letters passing through the postoffice was 740,838; the number of official letters, 431,275. MonTENEGRO.—The principality of Montenegro, which was formerly a tributary state of Turkey, must now be regarded as an entirely independent state. It has an area of 1,701 square miles, and a population of about 190,000, nearly all of whom belong to the Greek Oriental Church, and the Servian nationality. All the men from seventeen to sixty, who are able to bear arms, constitute the national army, which numbers from 25,000 to 27,000 men. The country is divided into eight military districts, at the head of each of which is a sedar. The districts are subdivided into forty tribes, with a captain at the head of each. Subordinate to the captain are chiefs of one hundred and of ten men. In time of war every captain takes independently the necessary steps, until he can receive the orders of the sedar or the prince. The military organization is so complete that all the ablebodied men of the principality can be concentrated in one place within seventy-two hours. The note of Count Andrassy of December 30, 1875 (see ANNUAL CycloPAEDIA for 1875), was delivered to Reshid Pasha by Count Zichy, the Austrian embassador at Constantinople, on January 31, 1876; and on the same day the embassadors of England, Germany, France, Italy, and Russia, declared that they supported the Austrian propositions in all their points. On the 5th of February Reshid Pasha informed the embassadors verbally, that a new firman decreeing reforms would be issued immediately for Bosnia and the Herzegovina. On the 20th, Reshid Pasha delivered to Count Zichy, as an answer to the Andrassy note, a memorandum promising to carry out the measures supported by the powers in Bosnia and the Herzegovina, immediately as to four points, and as soon as possible as to the fifth point. . Previously, on the 11th of February, an iradé had been issued for the institution of certain reforms in these provinces. (The tenor of this iradé is given in another place in this article.) The Prince of Montenegro had, about the 1st of January, expressed a desire to the Czar of Russia to be allowed to begin active operations. The Czar advised him on no account to depart from the policy of neutrality, and the prince gave assurances that he would be governed by this counsel. Nevertheless, reports prevailed during the month that Montenegro had negotiated a loan, and had made purchases at one time of 10,000 rifles and 60 muskets, and at another time of 15,000 muskets. In consequence of the threatening attitude of Turkey, it was represented, January 9th, that 3,000 Montenegrin guards had been armed with breech-loaders and sent to the frontier. A few days later a war-council of senators and mili: tary officers, summoned by the prince, resolved

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