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80th were devoted to a consideration of the position of a density of twelve inhabitants to question of the safety of the emigrants, the es- the square mile, and an area of 165,800 square tablishment of the cause of death and proper miles, at about 2,000,000. At an area of 106,modes of interment. In its last three sessions 750 square miles the same density would givo the Health Congress considered the question a population of only 1,250,000. Major-General of the best manner to check the excessive use obrutches, however, estimates the total popuof liquor by the laboring classes, the measures lation in 1868 at only 1,000,000, which gives a to be employed for the organization of aid so- density of about nine to the square mile.* cieties for sick and wounded in war, and the The Bolan Pass, a defile in the mountains of best system of cleaning large cities.
Northwestern Beloochistan, on the route beA Geographical Congress was opened in tween the Lower Indus and the table-land of Brussels on September 12th by the King in per- Afghanistan, is not only one of the most reson. In his opening address he pointed to the markable mountain-passes of the world, but growing interest taken in the civilization and has of late gained a considerable political imexploration of Africa. He stated that for some portance for the British rule in India. time past the persons engaged in this task had recognized the necessity of a closer union between all explorers for the furtherance of their common efforts, and that for this reason the Congress had been called. He then emphasized the necessity of organizing stations for scientific purposes at the boundaries of the unexplored parts of Africa, and for the execution of this work proposed the establishment of an international committee. The Congress then elected the King its president, who thereupon took the chair, this being the first time that a king presided at another than a political congress. The Congress was addressed by the African explorers Nachtigal, Schweinfurth, Rohlfs, Lieutenant Lux, Commander Cameron, and Colonel Grant, on the results of their explorations. Commander Negri, of Italy, reported on the misfortunes of the Italian expedition to Central Africa, and Minister Baron Hofmann, of Austria, on Gessi's and Piaggla's latest journeys in the territory between the Albert Nyanza and the Victoria Nyanza. The question of establishing stations for scientific purposes in the interior of Africa was then discussed. Sir H. Rawlinson made particular
BOLAN PASS. reference to the military stations of Colonel Gordon on the Upper Nile, and Sir Fowell A rebellion against the Khan of Kelat, which Buxton to the stations of the English Mission- had broken out in 1875, and continued during ary Society, which penetrated farther into the a part of the year 1876, led to a British diplointerior every year. Sir Rutherford Alcock matic mission to Kelat. Emil Schlagintweit in particularly proposed the erection of a strong the Augsburg Gazette, No. 58, 1876) gives the station on the east coast opposite Zanzibar. following report on the disturbances: “AcAfter resolving to advocate the erection of cording to the British scouts, the sovereign is such stations, the Congress adjourned on Sep- the sole cause of the civil war now raging in tember 14th. On October 5th the permanent Kelat, on the western border of India. His opcommission for the measurement of a degree pressions had caused the high dignitaries of the assembled in the Royal Academy. The con- country to forget their old feuds, and to unite ference was opened by the Minister of the In- against the Khan. Nasr'ed-din and Tadsh Moterior, and adjourned to meet in Stuttgart in hammed, Princes of Las, the southern province September, 1877.
of Beloochistan, became the leaders of the BELOOCHISTAN, a country of Asia, bound- rebels. As the Khan did not succeed in coned north by Afghanistan, east by British India, quering his enemies in the open field, he presouth by the Indian Ocean, and west by Persia. tended friendship, enticed them to his capital The government is under several rulers, of in the fall of 1875, and there had them murwhom the Khan of Kelat is the most impor- dered. But the cause of order was but little tant. After deducting the territory in the aided by this deed, and the Khan and his Test, which has been ceded to Persia, the area chiefs were much farther from an understandamounts, according to the latest calculations, ing than before. Disorders increased, as the to 106,750 square miles. The population was
For a more detailed amount of the population of Beloo. estimated by Dieterici in 1859, under the sup- chistan, see ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1875.
trade with Inilia was completely at a standstill. A second expedition set out in October for The Indian Government now resolved to send Kelat from Simla, the residence of the Viceroy, off a commissioner to establish peace, and se- bearing dispatches for the Khan. The object cure safe escorts for caravans. The commis- of this mission was to prepare the Khan for sioner, Major Sandeman, left British territory the visit of the Viceroy, who expected to make in December, and was received with great at- a trip through Sinde, and wished to have a tentions by the Khan. The latter also promised meeting with the Khan. safe escorts for the caravans from India, and BERTRAND, Félix, a Senator of France, showed himself inclined to treat with the reb- born in 1808; died May 27, 1876. After holdels. But the murder of his chief opponents ing different offices in the tribunals of Sainthad irritated the people against him to such a Flour, and Ambert, and in the courts of appeal degree that the British commissioner saw but of Riom, Grenoble, and Bastia, he succeeded, little prospect of bringing about the desired in 1858, his uncle, as president of the Tribunal result. In the mean while the commissioner of Saint-Flour, his native town. He resigned of Sinde, Sir William Merewether, was ordered this position a short time before the senatorial to pro eed to the border, that he might be elections of 1876, in order to be eligible as nearer to the scene of action. He accord- senator, and was elected conjointly with M. ingly made his headquarters in the border Parieu from the department of Cantal. He fortress of Jacobabad, whose garrison, con- called himself a liberal conservative. sisting in part of 1,410 men, was considerably BLAIR, FRANCIS PRESTON, an American increased.
journalist, born at Abingdon, Washington Major Sandeman, with his escort of 1,000 County, Va., April 12, 1791 ; died at Silver men, met the Khan and his rebellious chiefs at Springs, Md., October 18, 1876. He was eduMastung, and succeeded in bringing about a cated at Transylvania University, Kentucky, peace. In August the Khan signed a treaty, and studied law, but never entered upon the the principal provision of which is the security practice. He early took part in politics, and in of the Bolan Pass. The Sirdar Alladina Kurd 1824 supported Henry Clay for the presidency, is intrusted with guarding the pass and keep- but dissented from his views, especially in reing it open. For this he receives from the lation to the United States Bank. When in Indian Government 1,000 rupees per month. 1829 the nullification movement was developed The Khan is to receive a certain som for every in South Carolina, Mr. Blair published an articamel that crosses the pass, while the tribes cle against it in a Kentucky newspaper, which living in the pass are also to receive a certain attracted the attention of General Jackson, who sum. These dues are to be collected by a per- invited the writer to become the editor of the son to be appointed by the Indian Government. Globe, a Democratic journal about to be estabEmil Schlagint weit speaks as follows of the lished in Washington. The journal was comresults of Major Sandeman's mission (Augsburg menced in November, 1830, and became the Gazette, No. 284): “After a stay of five months organ of the successive Democratic administraat the most important point of the Bolan tions, Mr. Blair retaining the control of it till Pass, the English expedition, consisting of five 1845, when President Polk thought it necessary companies of infantry, 350 cavalry, and two for the harmony of the party that the organ mountain-cannon, returned from Kelat, whith- should be placed in other hands, offering Mr. er it had been sent by the Indian Government, Blair the position of minister to Spain, which under the command of Major Sandeman, in was declined. He then retired to his estate of order to give the necessary force to the propo- Silver Springs, Montgomery County, Md. In sitions of this officer. Without firing a shot 1848 he withdrew from the regular DemoSandeman suoceeded in reconciling the dif- cratic party, and supported Mr. Van Buren for ferent tribes which had been at war with each the presidency. After the repeal of the Misother for several years, and to bring them souri Compromise he took an active part in the back under the sovereignty of the Khan of organization of the Republican party. He was Kelat. This military promenade forms a turn- the father of Montgomery and of the late Gen- . ing-point in the British policy. For years the eral Francis P. Blair, Jr. officers on the border had recommended this BOSIO, AstyanAX SCEvola, a French sculpstep, but it had been considered impossible for tor, born about 1798; died July 5, 1876. He armed men to cross the border without being was a son of Jean Bosio, a well-known hisattacked, and being involved in a new war torical painter, and a pupil of the celebrated with tribes of Beloochistan and Afghanistan, sculptor Baron Bosio, his uncle. His first which could only end with the further exten- works were exhibited in 1831, and at once sion of British rule over an unfertile country, gained for him considerable celebrity. Among with a population decidedly reduced in wealth his best-known works are a bust of Admiral and intellectual qualities. Instead of these Bougainville (1831), a young huntress nursing consequences ensuing, the troops were wel- her wounded dog (1835), à statue of Flora comed everywhere as peace-makers. With- (1840), and a large number of busts and bassout any great exertion England has gained reliefs. He obtained a second medal in 1838, considerable renown among these border and the decoration of the Legion of Honor in tribes."
BOSWORTH, JOSEPH, an English scholar, From 1845 to 1851 he was Master of the born about 1790; died in June, 1876. He was Household to the Queen. Upon retiring from educated at Repton Grammar-School, received this office he was appointed Lieutenant of the the degrees of Master of Arts and Doctor of Tower of London, and was created a K. C. B. Laws at Aberdeen, and the honorary degree and a G. C. B. in 1873. of Doctor of Philosophy from the University BOYD, Sir HARLEY Hugu, fifth baronet of of Leyden in 1831. He subsequently studied Ballycastle, county of Antrim, born November at Cambridge, where he received the degree of 2, 1853; died in July, 1876, on board the mailDoctor of Divinity in 1839. He was ordained steamer Trenton, off St. Helena. He was the deacon in 1814, and after holding several liv- only son of Sir John Augustus Hugh Boyd, ings in England he was British chaplain in Bart., R. N., by his wife Honora Mary, third Rotterdam and Amsterdam between 1829 and daughter of the late Charles Biggs Calmady, 1841, where he translated the Common Prayer. Esq., of Longdon Hall, Devon. He succeeded Book into Dutch. In 1857 he was elected a to the title on the death of his father, August member of Christchurch College, and was 7, 1857. Dying unmarried, the title reverted soon after appointed Professor of Anglo-Saxon to his uncle, the Rev. Frederick Boyd, M. A., in Oxford. In this position, and by his writings rector of Holwell
, Bedfordshire. on the Anglo-Saxon language and kindred sub BRAGG, BRAXTON, an American general in jects, he gained great renown, being consid- the Confederate service, born in Warren ered a high authority on this subject. He County, N. C., about 1815; died in Galveston, wrote: “The Elements of Anglo-Saxon Gram- Texas, September 27, 1876. He graduated at mar" (1823); “A Compendious Grammar of West Point in 1837, was appointed lieutenant the Primitive English or Anglo-Saxon ; " "A of artillery, and served mainly in Florida till Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon Language 1843, during the war with the Seminoles; from (1838); "The Origin of the Danish Language; 1843 to 1845 he was stationed at Fort Moultrie, * Abstract of Scandinavian Literature; " " Ori- in Charleston harbor, and, just before the gin of the English, Germanic, and Scandina- breaking out of the war with Mexico, was vian Languages and Nations; " and "A Com- ordered to Texas. In May, 1846, he was made pendious Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1848). captain by brevet for gallant conduct in the He published “King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon defense of Fort Brown, Texas, and in June was Version of the Historian Orosius" (1855), and made captain of artillery. He was present at " The Description of Europe and the Voyages the battle of Monterey, September 21st-23d, of Ohthere and Wulfstan," by the same author, and was brevetted as major for gallant conduct both with English translations. He also pub- there; and iv 1847 he was brevetted as lieutenlished " The Gospels in Gothic of 360, and in ant-colonel for gallant conduct in the battle of Anglo-Saxon of 995, in Parallel Columns with Buena Vista. From 1848 to 1855 he was enWycliffe's Version of 1389 and Tyndale's of gaged in frontier service at Jefferson Bar1526. ” (1865; second edition, 1873). He was a racks, Mo., Fort Gibson, and Washita. In member of the Royal Institute of the Nether- March, 1855, he was appointed major of cavlands, and fellow of numerous foreign literary alry, but declined, and received leave of absence. societies.
In January, 1856, he resigned his commission BOWLES, Sir George, a British general, in the army, and retired to his plantation at born in 1787; died in May, 1876. He received Thibodeaux, La. In 1859–61 he was Commishis commission as ensign in 1804, and served sioner of the Board of Public Works of the with Lord Cathcart in the north of Germany State of Louisiana. When the civil war broke in 1805–6. He took part in the capture of out he joined the Confederate side, was apCopenhagen in 1807; served in the Peninsula pointed brigadier-general, and placed in comfrom 1809 to 1814; was present at the passage mand at Pensacola. In February, 1862, he was of the Douro; at the battles of Salamanca,' made major-general, and ordered to join the Talavera, and Vittoria; at the sieges of Ciu- Army of the Mississippi. He took part in the dad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Burgos, and San Sebas- battle of Shiloh, April 6th and 7th; was raised tian; at the capture of Madrid; at the passages to the full rank of general in place of General of the Bidassoa, Nivelles, Nive, and Adour, and A. S. Johnston, killed at Shiloh; and after the the investment of Bayonne. Ile was also evacuation of Corinth succeeded General Beaupresent at the battles of Quatre - Bras and regard in command of the department. In AuWaterloo, and at the capture of Paris. He gust he left Tennessee at the head of a strong was created a lieutenant and captain in 1810, force, and entered Kentucky, but, after the major in 1815, lieutenant-colonel in 1821, battle of Perryville, October 8th, was forced to colonel in 1837, major-general in 1846, liea- retreat, carrying with him a vast amount of tenant-general in 1854, and general in 1862. supplies and many recruits from Kentucky. He He was military secretary to the Duke of was removed from his command and placed Richmond in Canada from 1818 to 1820; was under arrest, but was soon restored, and redeputy adjntant-general in the West Indies sumed command of the force opposed to the from 1820 to 1825, and was stationed in Can- Federal army under Rosecrans. He was ada from 1837 to 1843, having command of checked by Rosecrans in the protracted contest Lower Canada during the rebellion of 1838. of Stone River or Murfreesboro, December 26,
1862, to January 2, 1863; again encountered In the table above given, the figures correand defeated him at Chickamauga, September sponding to the provinces marked thus, *, are 19 and 20, 1863; but was decisively defeated by according to the recent census; those for the General Grant at Chattanooga, November 23d- other provinces are merely estimated. It is 25th. Shortly afterward he was relieved from presumed with reason that, as soon as the cen. command and called to Richmond, where for sus-returns shall have been completed, the toa time he acted as military adviser to President tal population of the empire will be found to Davis, with whom he was a favorite. In the exceed 12,000,000. autumn of 1864 he led a small force from North The number of uncivilized Indians, leading Carolina to Georgia to operate against Sher- a nomadio life in the wilds and virgin forests man, but without success.
of the interior, is reckoned to be about 1,000,BRAZIL (IMPERIO DO Brazil), an empire of 000. The Government has constantly encourSouth America, and the only monarchy in the aged the efforts made to reclaim these savages Western Hemisphere. It extends from lati- to civilization and Christianity; and, despite tude 5° 10' north to 33° 46' south, and from the vast extent of territory over which they longitude 34° 47' to 74° 7' west.* It is bound- are disseminated, and the difficulty of obtained on the north by the United States of Co- ing an adequate corps of missionaries (there lombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, and the At are but sixty-three at present engaged in the lantic; on the east by the same ocean; on the service), the results so far achieved are comsouth by Uruguay, the Argentine Republic, paratively satisfactory. Many encampments and Paraguay; and on the west by Bolivia, have been established, particularly in the valPeru, Ecuador, and Colombia.
leys of the Araguaya and the Amazon proper, The boundary-lines with Bolivia, Colombia, for the performance of religious exercises, and the Guianas, and the Argentine Republic, have for the education of the young, who readily not yet been officially defined.
acquire proficiency in reading, writing, and The territory of the empire is divided into other elementary branches. The encamp twenty provinces and one neutral municipality ments, formerly under the exclusive control (municipio neutro), which, with their popula- of the missionaries who founded them, are tions in 1876, and their capitals, are as fol- now, for the most part, subject to secular di. lows:
rectors. The indigenous inhabitants, with the
exception of a few small tribes, are of pacific PROVINCES.
Capitals. habits and proverbial sobriety; they are en
dowed with great physical strength, are exAmazonas*
ceedingly agile and adroit, and easily trained Pará.
232,622 27,199 Belem, or Pará. to till the ground, work in the mines, and man Maranhão.
74,980 São Luiz. Piauhy 178,427 28,795 Therezina.
the craft navigating the immense rivers of the Ceará.
689,773 81,918 Portaleza. interior. Yet their native proneness to wanRio Grande do Norte* 220,959 13,020 Parahyba.. 841,643 20,914 Parahyba.
dering proves a serious obstacle to their fairly Pernambuco* 752,511 89,028 | Recife.
settling down to sedentary occupations. Alagoas* 812,268 85,741 Maceió.
The children are enticed to the encampments Sergipe..
139,812 Bahia.. 1,120,846 162,295 São Salvador, or by presents of useful tools and instruments of
Bahia. iron, and there, simultaneously with the moral Espirito Santo*.
22,659 Victoria. Rio de Janeiro...
and intellectual instruction of both sexes, the 456,850 270,726 Nictheroy. Municipio Neutro*. 226,038 48,939 Rio de Janeiro. males are prepared for carpenters, smiths, or
630,742 156,612 São Paulo. other trades, while the females are usually emParaná*
116,162 10,560 Curitiba. Santa Catharina*. 144,818 14,984 Desterro.
ployed as domestics. São Pedro do Rio
There is a project on foot for the formation of Grande do Sul.... 864,002 66,876 Porto Alegre. Minas Geraes. 1,612,419 866,574 Ouro Preto.
a regular corps of official interpreters, speaking Goyaz*.
10,652 Goyaz. the principal Indian languages, and destined to Matto Grosso
6,667 Cuyabá. be attached to the various military colonies situTotals. 8,223,620 1,476,567
ated mainly in the great centres of the aborigiUncivilized Indians.. 1,000,000
nal population. Several colleges have already General total.... 10,700,187
been organized for the education of the In
dians, the most important being those of Santa The area of Brazil has recently been esti- Isabel, in the valley of the Araguaya, and mated at 8,337,218 square kilometres, or 3, Mankos, capital of the province of Amazonas, 219,001 square miles. The areas of the three and the Government intends to establish one largest provinces—Amazonas, Matto Grosso, at Mucury, on the banks of the river Doce, in and Pará-are 732,054, 532,683, and 443,132 the midst of the region mainly inhabited by square miles, respectively; and that of Ser
the Botocudos. gipe, the smallest province, is 15,093 square
The system of slavery, rendered necessary miles; and that of the neutral municipality, by force of circumstances, from the time of 538 square miles.
the foundation of the first European colonies
on Brazilian soil, will, in the course of a few * The statistics given in this article are, save where other years, have altogether disappeared. By virtue wise expressed, taken from official returns for 1876. of the law of September, 1871, no child of any
color or degree is any longer born to slavery. tional Government. Though many of the coloThe slaves belonging to or employed by the nies are in a prosperous condition, the Brazilian Government, or in the service of the imperial system of immigration has not hitherto been household, were declared free on the day on attended with so good results as that of the which the abolition law was promulgated. Argentine Republic. It would appear that the The rural establishment of São Pedro de Al- immigrants who fare worst in Brazil are those cántara, in the province of Piauhy, was prepared as a place of refuge for a portion of the slaves, who entered immediately upon the enjoyment of freedom, and they are there employed as laborers in the national demesne, and their children, born since the proclamation of the law, are reared in an institute specially devoted to that purpose and in charge of a director, a female teacher for the primary branches of education, and a priest for their moral and religious instruction. For the slaves owned by private individuals a special emancipation fund has been formed, to be applied yearly for the purchase of their freedom, agreeably to the regulations published in 1871.* The sums appropriated for that fund in the fiscal years 1871 and 1875 amounted to $2,304,212; to which should be added the special appropriations in the several provinces, and donations from private philanthropists, from whom a large number of slaves receive their freedom every year. The number of emancipated slaves from the
BALSAM COPAIBA. end of 1871 to the commencement of 1876 was 6,000; and that of the children born of slave proceeding from the United Kingdom. In the mothers since the law of abolition was issued, second half of 1876, the British Emigration 64,000.
Commissioners were desired, by the Secretary Naturalization is at present easily obtain- for the Colonies, to give publicity to the folable in Brazil, the only qualification required lowing further caution to persons desiring to being a residence of two years within the em- emigrate to Brazil : pire, or of a like period abroad in the service
In February, 1875, and again in June of the presof the Brazilian Government, and the evident ent year, the Emigration Commissioners were diintention of the applicant to remain in the rected by her Majesty's. Government to caution country, or in its service, after he has become emigrants against proceeding to Brazil. It appeare, a citizen.
however, by dispatches from her Majesty's minister
at Rio de Janeiro, that emigrants have recently arOne of the chief necessities of the country rived from this country for the settlement known as being an increased population, special efforts Kittoland, in the province of Paraná, in Southern are made by the Government for the accom- Brazil, and that accounts have been received at Rio plishment of that end. Among other induce- that those emigrants are in a lamentable condition. ments and privileges offered to immigrants missioners have been directed to repeat their caution are the following:
to persons invited to emigrate to Kittoland or any The payment by the Government of the difference they do so. Her Majesty's minister at Rio has sent
other settlement in Brazil, to consider
well before in the amount of passage-money from the port of home a statement made by a respectable emigrant, departure to the United
States and that to Brazil; who proceeded to Kittoland in June last, to the the advancement of the full passage-money to fam- effect that, on his arrival at the settlement, he found ilies intending to settle in the government colonies; that it comprised very little table-land, but that exemption from import duty on all effects the prop- there were heavy woods, and that, generally speakerty of and brought into the country by the immi- ing, the spot was unfit for habitation. He added that grants; a hunting-gun given to each adult; etc., not a single house had been erected, and that there
was no road within twenty miles; that there were There were in 1875 fifteen colonies immedi- who were living under tents, and that the English
at that time in the settlement but three Englishmen, ately dependent upon the central Government, emigrants whom he met at Curitiba, on his way to with a population of 23,018, against 16,412 in Kittoland, appeared to be in a deplorable condition. 1873; about a dozen others founded under the This statement was made
on oath before her Majanspices of provincial governments,
and a num- esty's minister at Rio, and is confirmed by two
other British subjects, one of whom states that he ber belonging to private companies, some of had resided at Curitiba for eight years. In the end whom, however, receive subsidies from the na- the emigrant returned to Rio, on his way to this
country, having lost by his emigration no less than See ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for 1872.
£175 in money, besides the value of tools and other See Annual CYCLOPEDIA for 1872, 1873, 1874, and articles he had taken with him. The Emigration
Commissioners recommend persons invit:d to emi