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after a journey to Munich, Rome, and Nor- test was waged against the members of the way, he devoted himself exclusively to paint. “Tammany Ring holding city offices, who ing scenes from Norwegian history. He first were charged with defrauding the city treasury gained considerable celebrity by his painting, of many million dollars, Mr. Tilden rendered in“An Afternoon Service of Haugians” (a re valuable services to the cause of reform by his ligious sect of Norway), for which he received famous analysis of the accounts of the Broadthe gold medal of the Berlin Academy. In way Bank, showing conclusively how the 1850 he decorated the dining-hall of the Royal alleged culprits had shared their spoils, and Palace in Oskarshall with ten paintings, repre- furnishing legal proof for their conviction. In senting the Norwegian peasant-life from begin- 1872 he was again elected to the General Asning to end. Other works of importance are sembly, where he continued his exertions in “The Orphan," "The Wolf-Hunter in the Moun- the cause of reform. In 1874 he was elected tain-Hut," and "The Norwegian Funeral.” In Governor of New York by a plurality of 50,317 1860 he produced two paintings, “The Dress- votes over John A. Dix (Republican) and Myron ing of the Bride " and "The Administration of H. Clark (Prohibitionist). He was inaugurated the Lord's Supper in a Hut,” which attracted January 1, 1875, and soon after declared war considerable attention. "The Duel at the Wed- against the “Canal Ring," which resulted in ding" (1864) is considered his most powerful the overthrow of that organization. When the and passionate painting. His “Wedding Pro- National Democratic Convention assembled in cession,” finished in 1873, gained for him a St. Louis, in June, 1876, Governor Tilden was medal in the Vienna Exposition. His last large the leading candidate for the first place on the picture was finished in February, 1876. It rep- ticket. On the first ballot he received 4034 resents the landing of Colonel Sinclair with of the 713 votes cast. When the vote for the Scottish auxiliaries for Sweden, at Romsdælen, second ballot was finally announced, Governor in 1612.

Tilden had 535 in a whole vote of 738. The TILDEN, SAMUEL JONES, was born in New nomination was made unanimous, and he was Labanon, Columbia County, N. Y., February declared the Democratic candidate for the 9, 1814, where his grandfather, John Tilden, presidency. He accepted the nomination in settled in 1790, and where his father, Elam a brief speech on July 11th. His formal letTilden, was a farmer and merchant. Samuel ter of acceptance was dated July 31st. (For entered Yale College in 1833, but soon left this letter, and the results of the election, see that institution and graduated at the Univer- UNITED STATES.) sity of New York. He was admitted to the TRANSVAAL REPUBLIC, a free state in bar in 1841, and began practice in New York South Africa, occupying a part of the territory City. In 1814 the Morning News, a daily paper, of the former Dutch colonies in that region. was established in New York, to advocate thé Area, about 114,300 square miles; white popelection to the presidency of James K. Polk. ulation, 36,600; native population, 300,000. Mr. Tilden invested capital in this enterprise President, Thomas François Burgers; he was and became the editor of the journal, which inaugurated in 1872 ; his term expires in 1877. position he held until after the election. In President Burgers conceived a plan for organ1845 he was elected to the New York Assem- izing a direct trade with the Netherlands by bly, and in 1846 was chosen a member of the means of a railroad to be built to Delagoa Bay. Constitutional Convention, where he was made with this view he visited Europe in 1875 and a member of the Committee on Finance and 1876, and secured from the Portuguese GoFCanals. In 1955 he was defeated as the “Soft- ernment the concession of the privilege of Shell" Democratic candidate for Attorney- building a railway, free of taxes for fifteen General of New York. Mr. Tilden now de- years, through the Portuguese territory to the voted himself to his profession. His practice port of Lorenzo Marquez, which was ratified was very extensive, and by it he amassed con- by the Portuguese Cortes on the 23d of Jansiderable wealth. Besides other important uary. He also formed trade connections with cases he was counsel, in 1856, for Azariah C. mercantile houses in Amsterdam, and conFlagg, in the case growing out of the con- tracted a loan with a banking-house in that tested election for the controllership of New city for carrying out his purposes. York City; in 1857 for the relatives of Dr. Soon after the return of President Burgers Burdell against the claims of Mrs. Cunning- to his country, the republic became involved in ham; and for the Pennsylvania Coal Company difficulties with Secocoeni, the chief of one of in the suit brought by the Delaware & Hudson the Caffre tribes. The trouble arose in charges Canal Company. Mr. Tilden became chairman by the Boers, or Dutch colonists, that the naof the Democratic State Committee in 1866, tives were committing depredations upon their and was a leading member of the Constitu- lands and stealing their cattle. Secocoeni was tional Convention of 1867, serving with dis- called upon to repress the trespasses of his tinction on the Finance Committee. He be- people, but, asserting that he was not tributary came an indefatigable laborer in the cause of to the white government, refused to obey. judicial and political reform in the city of New The Volksraad, by the advice of President BurYork, and in 1869–70 was active in the organ- gers, ordered a "commando" to be called out ization of the Bar Association. When the con- to chastise him. An alliance was formed with

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Area.

the Amazwazies, another of the native tribes, eral attacks; and there were, besides, many and a considerable force was organized to pro- British subjects in the territory of the republic ceed against Secocoeni. Early in July an at- whose interests and rights were injuriously aftack was made by the allies upon the Caffre fected by the hostilities. Nevertheless, the offortress at Johannesstadt. The Amazwazies fers made by the English to assist, by negotiastormed the fort with bravery, and would have tion or otherwise, were not received favorably achieved a complete success, but that the by the Transvaal authorities. A peace was conBoers, who were to have supported them by cluded with Secocoeni on February 5, 1877, he advancing from another side, did not come up. agreeing to pay an indemnity of 2,000 cattle, On the 27th of July an attempt was made to to submit to all the laws of the country, and storm the headquarters of Secocoeni, but the to obey all the decrees of the Government reallied chief Mapaslella led a part of the force garding himself and his people. Quiet has of the Government into an ambuscade, where- also been restored among the Zooloos. by they suffered great loss. For this, Mapas TURKEY, an empire in Eastern Europe, lella and some of his officers were put to Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Reigndeath, his village was destroyed, and 5,000 huts ing sovereign, Sultan Abdul-Hamid II., born were burned and 169 of his people slaughtered. September 22, 1842 ; succeeded his elder brothThe course of events turned to the advantage er, Sultan Murad V., August 31, 1876. (See of Secocoeni. By the end of August the force ABDUL-HAMID.) The heir-presumptive to the of the Government was reported to be sub- throne is Mehemet Reshad Effendi, the brother stantially annibilated. The survivors filed to of the present Sultan, born November 3, 1844. Pretoria. A position was maintained at Steel The area and population were as follows, acPoort, with the help of mercenary troops cording to the latest estimates : under General Van Schlickmann. These troops have been charged with committing outrages

COUNTRIES.

Population. against the women

and children of the natives; 1. Turkey proper in Europe... 140,868 the effect of which was not beneficial to the 2. Dependencies in Europe:

8,506,900 cause of the Government. A movement was

46,795 6,078,000 made, led chiefly by the English in the diamond- 8. Possessions in Asia.

16,817 1,877,000

748,486 18,141,600 fields, to call for the intervention of the Eng Tributary principality, Sissam lish authorities at Natal, but it was not coun- 4. Dependencies and possessions in

218

84,900 tenanced by the Volksraad, which met early Africa: in September. About this time Cetchwayo, Egypt..

869,891 17,000,000

844,428 Vilayet of Tripoli.

1,100,000 the Zooloo king, announced to the Govern

Regency of Tunis.

45,710 2,000,000 ment of Natal that he could no longer restrain his people, and threatened to move upon the

Total..

2,212,208 48,288,400 Transvaal with a force of nearly 40,000 men, and a general rising of the natives seemed im The empire is divided into vilayets, under minent. Happily these apprehensions were governors-general (calis). They are subdivided not fulfilled. On the 17th of November Gen- into sanjaks (districts) under governors (mueral Van Schlickmann's forces attacked a minor tessarifs), and these into cazas (circles) under fortress belonging to Secocoeni, but were twice lieutenant-governors (kaimakams), and the latrepulsed, and General Van Schlickmann was ter into nahiyes (communes). The mayors of killed. After this engagement Secocoeni's peo- villages are called mukhtars. The boundaries ple assumed a bolder attitude. The course of of the vilayets are constantly undergoing events in the Transvaal country was observed changes, which, however, do not generally with solicitude by the people and governments affect the boundaries of the sanjaks, but conof the neighboring English colonies, for they sist in the transfer of one or several sanjaks apprehended that, if the natives_succeeded in to another vilayet, or in their erection into inovercoming the Boers, the other European set- dependent vilayets. In 1876* European Turtlements would be exposed to the peril of gen- key was divided into the following vilayets :

POPULATION IN 1874.
VILAYETS.

Mohammedans.

Roumania
Servia...

Area.

Christians.

Jews.

Total.

22.943
18,017
5,426
5.045
11,500
8,670
8,992

Constantinople (European part)..

121,267 183,540

25,525 1. Adrianople....

814,742 522,185 9. Danube

27,146 870,959 766,044 & Sophia (inclusive of Nissa).

11,684 509,840 145,286 4 Salonica...

14,929 834.678 802,972 5. Janina..

13.860 472,574 241,064 6 Bitolia (Monastir).

15.771 494,159 742,270 7. Scutari

4.894
$9.491

$2,048 8. Bosnia.

18.014 708,297 437,877 8. Herzegovina

0,877 142,128

43,219 Crete,

8,817 284,118

87,840 Army..

82,089 Navy..

23,824 Total

189,967 4,792,443 | 8,609,606 See Behm and Wagner, Berölkerung der Erde, iv., p. 114.

827,700 1,849,894 1,642,429 660,121 649,845

717,806 1,240,421

171,089 1,151,972 185,421 275.158 82,539 28,824

6,298

8,200

70,165

8,477,214

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