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after a journey to Munich, Rome, and Norway, he devoted himself exclusively to painting scenes from Norwegian history. He first gained considerable celebrity by his painting, “An Afternoon Service of Haugians” (a religious sect of Norway), for which he received the gold medal of the Berlin Academy. In 1850 he decorated the dining-hall of the Royal Palace in Oskarshall with ten paintings, representing the Norwegian peasant-life from beginning to end. Other works of importance are “The Orphan,” “The Wolf-Hunter in the Mountain-Hut,” and “The Norwegian Funeral.” In 1860 he produced two paintings, “The Dressing of the Bride” and “The Administration of the Lord's Supper in a Hut,” which attracted considerable attention. “The Duel at the Wedding” (1864) is considered his most powerful and passionate painting. His “Wedding Procession,” finished in 1873, gained for him a medal in the Vienna Exposition. His last large picture was finished in February, 1876. It represents the landing of Colonel Sinclair with Scottish auxiliaries for Sweden, at Romsdaelen, in 1612. TILDEN, SAMUEL Jones, was born in New Labanon, Columbia County, N. Y., February 9, 1814, where his grandfather, John Tilden, settled in 1790, and where his father, Elam Tilden, was a farmer and merchant. Samuel entered Yale College in 1833, but soon left that institution and graduated at the University of New York. He was admitted to the bar in 1841, and began practice in New York City. In 1844 the Morning News, a daily paper, was established in New York, to advocate the election to the presidency of James K. Polk. Mr. Tilden invested capital in this enterprise and became the editor of the journal, which position he held until after the election. In 1845 he was elected to the New York Assembly, and in 1846 was chosen a member of the Constitutional Convention, where he was made a member of the Committee on Finance and Canals. In 1855 he was defeated as the “SoftShell”. Democratic candidate for AttorneyGeneral of New York. Mr. Tilden now devoted himself to his profession. His practice was very extensive, and by it he amassed considerable wealth. Besides other important cases he was counsel, in 1856, for Azariah C. Flagg, in the case growing out of the contested election for the controllership of New York City; in 1857 for the relatives of Dr. Burdell against the claims of Mrs. Cunningham; and for the Pennsylvania Coal Company in the suit brought by the Delaware & Hudson Canal Company. Mr. Tilden became chairman of the Democratic State Committee in 1866, and was a leading member of the Constitutional Convention of 1867, serving with distinction on the Finance Committee. He became an indefatigable laborer in the cause of §. and political reform in the city of New (ork, and in 1869–70 was active in the organization of the Bar Association. When the con
test was waged against the members of the “Tammany Ring” holding city offices, who were charged with defrauding the city treasury of many million dollars, Mr. Tilden rendered in. valuable services to the cause of reform by his famous analysis of the accounts of the Broad. way Bank, showing conclusively how the alleged culprits had shared their spoils, and furnishing legal proof for their conviction. In 1872 he was again elected to the General Assembly, where he continued his exertions in the cause of reform. In 1874 he was elected Governor of New York by a plurality of 50,317 votes over John A. Dix (Republican) and Myron H. Clark (Prohibitionist). He was inaugurated January 1, 1875, and soon after declared war against the “Canal Ring,” which resulted in the overthrow of that organization. When the National Democratic Convention assembled in St. Louis, in June, 1876, Governor Tilden was the leading candidate for the first place on the ticket. On the first ballot he received 403; of the 713 votes cast. When the vote for the second ballot was finally announced, Governor Tilden had 535 in a whole vote of 738. The nomination was made unanimous, and he was declared the Democratic candidate for the presidency. He accepted the nomination in a brief speech on July 11th. His formal letter of acceptance was dated July 31st. (For this letter, and the results of the election, see UNITED STATEs.) TRANSWAAL REPUBLIC, a free state in South Africa, occupying a part of the territory of the former Dutch colonies in that region. Area, about 114,300 square miles; white population, 36,600; native population, 300,000. President, Thomas François Burgers; he was inaugurated in 1872; his term expires in 1877. President Burgers conceived a plan for organ. izing a direct trade with the Netherlands by means of a railroad to be built to Delagoa Bay. With this view he visited Europe in 1875 and 1876, and secured from the Portuguese Gov. ernment the concession of the privilege of building a railway, free of taxes for fifteen years, through the Portuguese territory to the port of Lorenzo Marquez, which was ratified by the Portuguese Cortes on the 23d of January. He also formed trade connections with mercantile houses in Amsterdam, and contracted a loan with a banking-house in that city for carrying out his purposes. Soon after the return of President Burgers to his country, the republic became involved in difficulties with Secocoeni, the chief of one of the Caffre tribes. The trouble arose in charges by the Boers, or Dutch colonists, that the natives were committing depredations upon their lands and stealing their cattle. Secocoeniwas called upon to repress the trespasses of his people, but, asserting that he was not tributary to the white government, refused to obey. The Volksraad, by the advice of President Burgers, ordered a “commando” to be called out to chastise him. An alliance was formed with
the Amazwazies, another of the native tribes, and a considerable force was organized to proceed against Secocoeni. Early in July an attack was made by the allies upon the Caffre fortress at Johannesstadt. The Amazwazies stormed the fort with bravery, and would have achieved a complete success, but that the Boers, who were to have supported them by advancing from another side, did not come up. On the 27th of July an attempt was made to storm the headquarters of Secocoeni, but the allied chief Mapaslella led a part of the force of the Government into an ambuscade, whereby they suffered great loss. For this, Mapaslella and some of his officers were put to death, his village was destroyed, and 5,000 huts were burned and 169 of his people slaughtered. The course of events turned to the advantage of Secocoeni. By the end of August the force of the Government was reported to be substantially annihilated. The survivors fled to Pretoria. A position was maintained at Steel Poort, with the help of mercenary troops under General Wan Šišim. These troops have been charged with committing outrages against the women and children of the natives, the effect of which was not beneficial to the cause of the Government. A movement was made, led chiefly by the English in the diamondfields, to call for the intervention of the English authorities at Natal, but it was not countenanced by the Volksraad, which met early in September. About this time Cetchwayo, the Zooloo king, announced to the Government of Natal that he could no longer restrain his people, and threatened to move upon the Transvaal with a force of nearly 40,000 men, and a general rising of the natives seemed imminent. Happily these apprehensions were not fulfilled. On the 17th of November General Wan Schlickmann's forces attacked a minor fortress belonging to Secocoeni, but were twice repulsed, and General Van Schlickmann was killed. After this engagement Secocoeni's people assumed a bolder attitude. The course of events in the Transvaal country was observed with solicitude by the people and governments of the neighboring English colonies, for they apprehended that, if the natives succeeded in overcoming the Boers, the other European settlements would be exposed to the peril of gen
eral attacks; and there were, besides, many British subjects in the territory of the republic whose interests and rights were injuriously af. fected by the hostilities. Nevertheless, the of. fers made by the English to assist, by negotiation or otherwise, were not received favorably by the Transvaal authorities. A peace was concluded with Secocoeni on February 5, 1877, he agreeing to pay an indemnity of 2,000 cattle, to submit to all the laws of the country, and to obey all the decrees of the Government regarding himself and his people. Quiet has also been restored among the Zooloos. TURKEY, an empire in Eastern Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Reigning sovereign, Sultan Abdul-Hamid II., born September 22, 1842; succeeded his elder brother, Sultan Murad V., August 31, 1876. (See ABDUL-HAMID.) The heir-presumptive to the throne is Mehemet Reshad Effendi, the brother of the present Sultan, born November 3, 1844. The area and population were as follows, according to the latest estimates:
countries. Area. Population. 1. Turkey proper in Europe......... 140,868 8,506,900 2. Dependencies in Europe: Roumania 46,795 || 5,073,000 Servia.............. 16,817 | 1,377,000 8. Possessions in Asia 748,486 || 18,141,600 Tributary principality, (Samos) 218 84,900 4. Dependencies and possessions in Africa: Egypt.......................... 869,391 || 17,000,000 Vilayet of Tripoli....... ....... 844,423 1,150,000 Regency of Tunis............... 45,710 || 2,000,000 Total......................... | 2,212.208 || 48,288,400
The empire is divided into vilayets, under governors-general (calis). They are subdivided into sanjaks (districts) under governors (mutessarifs), and these into cazas (circles) under lieutenant-governors (kaimakams), and the latter into nahiyes (communes). The mayors of villages are called mukhtars. The boundaries of the vilayets are constantly undergoing changes, which, however, do not generally affect the boundaries of the sanjaks, but consist in the transfer of one or several sanjaks to another vilayet, or in their erection into independent vilayets. In 1876*European Turkey was divided into the following vilayets:
Population in 1874.
Constantinople (European part)................... } 25,525 121,267 188,540 22,943 827,750 1. Adrianople........................... - 814,742 522,185 13,017 1,349,894 2. Danube. ... ............. 27,146 870.959 766,044 5,426 1,642,429 3. Sophia (inclusive of Nissa). 11,684 509,840 145,236 5,045 660,121 4. Ralonica... 14,929 834.873 802.97. 11,500 9,845 5 Janina..... 13,860 472,574 241,062 8,670 717,306 3 Bitolia (Monastir, 15,771 494,159 742,270 8,992 1,240,421 7. Scutari .......... 4.894 89,491 82,048 - - - - 171,589 S. Bosnia........................................ 18.014 708,207 487,877 6,298 1,151,972 8. Herzegovina .................................. 5.3 142,128 43,219 74 185,421 Crete...---------------....................... 8,317 234,118 87.840 3,200 275.153 Army................ ........................l............'.............. 82,589 ..... 82,539 *avy.........................................'.......................... 23,824 ..... 28,324 Total.................................. | 139,067 4,792,448 8,609.606 || 75,165 s.477,214
+ See Behm and wagner, herokeruna der Erde, iv., p. 114.