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ond the reach of legal coercion in the fulfillment of its obligations, is for that very reason under stronger bonds to maintain its credit inviolate. Nor have they been unmindful of the honorable character and unblemished credit which the great State of Tennessee has always enjoyed in the markets of the world, of her reputation for the possession of large resources, nor of the humiliation she must consequently endure by any compromise whatever of her legal obligations. All these considerations have been duly weighed, and they have induced this committee to carefully inquire whether it was not expedient for them to recommend, instead of so large a reduction of the principal of the debt, a concession for a few years in the rate of interest, as proposed in a plan submitted to the Governor by holders of a large amount of bonds, in the belief, which is generally entertained among the creditors, that a gradual recovery of wealth would accrue to the State, and enable her at an early day to resume payment in full. This mode of adjustment would be obviously more gratifying to State pride, and would also afford greater present relief, and it would certainly be more acceptable to the majority of bondholders. ut, after attentively considering the statements of your delegation respecting the sad results of the war, the social o and general impoverishment it has entailed, and the wide-spread disorization existing in all the industries of the people throughout the State, we have been constrained to the decision that a summary reduction of the debt, even to the large extent indicated, is the best coursé for all parties concerned, and that, unless the Legislature shall now see its way clear for a settlement more favorable to the bondholders, it is both its duty and its policy to adopt the award which this committee most respectfully and conscientiously tender to them and to their creditors, as the result of their best judgment.

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The estimated “amount necessary to be raised for the purpose of carrying on the State government for two years,” ending December, 1878, as submitted to the Governor by the Controller, Treasurer, and Secretary of State, is $1,082,582 for current expenses, and $301,– 500 for interest on the school-fund, amoupting together to $1,334,032.

On the 8th of May the Railroad Commissioners of the State sold the Tennessee Pacific Railroad at public auction, to meet an unpaid balance due the State, amounting to $150,000, with interest from July 1, 1870. It was purchased by the company, and the sum of $178,000 in bonds of the State has been paid, leaving $3,500 in bonds and $10,650 in cash unpaid. The Knoxville & Charleston Railroad was sold by the commissioners for $75,000, one-half having been paid in bonds of the State. The Mississippi Central Railroad, having failed to pay interest on bonds loaned to it by the State, was placed in the hands of a receiver on the 25th of February, and has since been operated by him on behalf of the State. During the year it was kept in repair, the running expenses were paid, and $60,000 was paid into the Treasury of the State on account of taxes and interest.

The State Normal School has been located at Nashville, the trustees of the University of Nashville giving the use of its buildings. The Normal School, which is now in successful operation, has been supported thus far by the Board of Trust of the Peabody Education fund, but its support is to be withdrawn at the close of the scholastic year of 1876–77. The penitentiary of the State and its inmates are still under lease. An act of the Legislature of 1875 provided for a new lease for five years, if the highest bid received was satisfactory to the Governor and inspectors. Only three bids were received, and all these were rejected. The old lease has been extended for a period of eight months, at a rental of $10,181.75 quarterly for 800 convicts. A Republican Convention was held at Nashville on the 17th of May, for the purpose of choosing 24 delegates to the National Convention of the party at Cincinnati. There were about 200 delegates present, one-fifth of whom were colored. A letter from ex-Governor William G. Brownlow was read, urging the

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maintenance of the credit of the State by the full payment of every obligation. Resolutions were adopted advocating the preservation of the national credit and the restoration of an honest currency; expressing entire confidence in the ability of the Republican party to correct the abuses and errors that may have found entrance among those to whom it had confided its governing policy; favoring the punishment of corrupt officials; opposing interference with public schools by any sect or denomination; denouncing repudiation in every form; expressing full confidence in the delegates to Cincinnati, and declining to instruct, and referring the matter of a convention to nominate a Governor and other State officials to the Executive Committee for their action. The Democratic Convention for the selection of delegates to the National Convention at St. Louis was held at Nashville on the 31st of May. The following declarations were made:

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1. That civil reform in the public service is imperatively demanded. 2. The unconditional repeal of the resumption act. 3. The substitution of #. notes for nationalbank currency at the earliest moment practicable. 4. The ...'. of specie payments, whenever it can be effected without injury to the business interests of the country, and with fair prospects of being able to maintain them, the policy of the Reublican party having rendered early resumption impossible without the ruin and bankruptcy of the

*: 5. We demand rigid economy in expenditures, and strict accountability of all officials charged with the collection or disbursement of public money.

6. We are opposed to the further contraction of the circulating medium, and believe commercial and industrial interests would be promoted by the replacement of a portion of the currency already withdrawn.

7. We insist that only honest and capable men be appointed to office. 8. We demand the vigilant investigation and the condign punishment of official corruption and crime, according to the methods and measures of the law, and thank the popular branch of Congress for its unfaltering efforts to uncover and punish official peculation. 9. No bounty to any one class engaged in special industry, to the prejudice of other and more numerous classes pursuing occupations equally important, and opposing protection for protection's sake. 10. We declare hostility to all legislation designed or calculated to foster and favor the few to the detriment of the many. 11. We insist on the subordination of the military to the civil authorities. 12. We declare unfaltering fealty to the Constitution, and oppose any attempt to enlarge its powers beyond its true spirit and meaning.

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13. That delegates to the St. Louis Convention be, and they are hereby, instructed to vote as a unit on all propositions, and that the majority shall control the vote; and while we ...}. an unfaltering and zealous support to any sound and capable Democrat who may be nominated for President, and while we do not instruct our delegates in regard to their votes, yet we express our preference for the Hou. Thomas A. Hendricks, of Indiana, as honest and capable, favorably located, and, in our judgment, combining more elements of success than any other named aspirant. During the month of August, party conventions were held, at which the action of the National Convention was fully approved and their platforms reaffirmed. Candidates were nominated for presidential electors and for Governor of the State. James D. Porter was nominated by the Democrats for Governor. The Republicans made no regular nomination, but Thomas was put forward as an independent candidate. George Maury was supported by a portion of the Republican party, William T. Yardley (colored) by others, and A. M. Hughes by a small number. At the election on the 7th of November the total vote for presidential electors was 222,732, of which the Democratic candidates received 133,166, and the Republican candidates 89,566, making the majority of the former 43,600. For Governor there were 210,632 votes cast. Of these, Porter received 123,740, Thomas 73,695, Maury 10,436, Yardley 2,165, and Hughes 596. Porter's plurality over Thomas was 50,045; majority over all, 36,848. The Legislature chosen at the same time, to hold its session in January, 1877, consists of 20 Democrats and 5 Republicans in the Senate, and 57 Democrats, 16 Republicans, and 2 Independents in the House. This makes the Democratic majority 15 in the Senate and 39 in the House, or 54 on joint ballot. The Secretary of State, Controller, and Treasurer, are elected by the Legislature. In January, 1877, Colonel C. W. Gibbs and Colonel J. L. Gaines were reëlected to the offices of Secretary of State and Controller, and Colonel Marshall T. Polk was chosen Treasurer. Colonel Polk is the youngest son of a brother of James K. Polk, a former President of the United States. He was educated at the West Point Military Academy, and served in the Confederate army, a part of the time on the staff of General Leonidas Polk. James E. Bailey has been chosen United States Senator, to complete the term begun by Andrew Johnson and continued by D. M. Key, who was appointed by the Governor, but failed of election when the Legislature met. Judge Bailey is a lawyer of high standing, a native of Clarksville, and before the civil war was a prominent Whig. He served as a colonel in the Confederate army. TEXAS. The Constitutional Convention which met at Austin on September 1, 1875, to revise and amend the organic law of the State, closed its session by final adjournment on the 24th of November. Among other changes made in the old constitution, the or

ganization of the three departments of the State government is more or less altered; as, in the executive, some of the officers are made elective; in the legislative, the number of Senators is fixed at thirty-one, and of Representatives at ninety-three; and it establishes one Supreme Court, consisting of a Chief-Justice and two Associate Justices; one Court of Appeals, composed also of three judges; and twenty-six District Courts, held by one judge each. By ordinances appended to the new constitution, the convention divides the State into twenty-six judicial, thirty-one senatorial, and seventy-nine representative districts.

state seal or Texas.

The new constitution makes the State elections biennial, and limits the duration of the legislative session to sixty days, except the first session, which may be extended to ninety days, with a still further extension of thirty days, if the Legislature deems it necessary. The convention submitted its work to the people at an election held on the second Tuesday of April, 1876, when they should ratify or reject the new constitution, and vote also for the State and local officers specified in it. In preparation for this election, the Democratic party of Texas met in State Convention at Galveston, at the end of the first week of January, 1876, to nominate candidates for State offices, for Judges of the Supreme Court and Court of Appeals, and for presidential electors; also to choose delegates to the Democratic Convention at St. Louis. The nominations resulted as follows: For Governor, Richard Coke; for Lieutenant-Governor, Richard B. Hubbard; for State Treasurer, A. J. Dorr; for Controller of Public Accounts, Stephen H. Darbin; for Commissioner of the General Land-Office, J. J. Gross; for Attorney-General, Hamilton H. Boone. For Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court, O. M. Roberts. For Associate Justices, Messrs. Moore and Gould. For Judges of the Court of Appeals, John P. White, M. D. Ector, and C. M. Winkler. For presidential electors at large and their alternates, the following were declared nominated: D. C. Giddings, of Washington County, and S. H. Epperson, of Marion County, electors; Columbus Upson, of Bexar County, and Samuel J. Adams, of Dallas County, alternates.

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The following platform was adopted by the convention:

We, the Democracy, in convention assembled, hereby declare our principles and policy, and ask for them the popular approval:

1. We reaffirm our faith in the principles of the Democratic party, as heretofore enunciated by our State Conventions, and congratulate the people upon the faithful redemption of all the pledges upon which the Democratic party was recently placed in power in Texas; and point to the honesty and efficiency of our present State administration, as a F. of our continued fidelity to the interests of the State and people.

2. The Democratic P. now as in the past adhering to its F. of maintaining an efficient system of general education, declares it to be the duty of the Legislature of the State to speedily establish and make provision for the support and maintenance of public free schools, and to this end to exercise the whole power with which it is invested.

3. The sufferings and losses of our people on the frontier from the forays of savages, and upon the Mexican border from invasions, murder, and rapine by the Mexican banditti, enlist our deep and sincere sympathy; and while we hereby pledge our most

energetic efforts to afford them adequate protection in person and property by the State, we also earnestly appeal to the General Government to give that protection and security to our people and their property thus exposed, to which they are entitled under the Constitution of the United States. 4. That the Democratic party, firmly upholding the Constitution of the United States as the foundation and limitation of the powers of the General Government, and the safe shield of the liberties of the people, demands for the citizen the largest freedom consistent with public order, and for every State the right of self-government and home rule: that, to uphold the former and protect the latter, the Democracy of Texas plants itself for the great leading principles enunciated in the inaugural of President Jefferson and the farewell address of the immortal Jackson, and enters the contest of 1876 with the firm conviction that the elements of opposition to the national Administration should be consolidated in the approaching, presidential campaign, without prejudice to the unity and perpetuity of the l)emocratic organization. 5. We pledge to the nominees of this convention our earnest and active support.

For the same election of February 15, 1876, the Republicans nominated a State ticket, headed by William Chambers as their candidate for Governor, and adopted a platform which censured Governor Coke's administration of the State government; denounced the proposed

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The new Constitution was adopted at the election of February 15th. The whole number of votes cast in the State was about the same as on the State ticket, and its adoption secured § about the same majority, though somewhat ess.

The new constitution, being ratified by the people, went into operation on the third Tuesday in April, 1876. The benefits expected to accrue to the people of Texas from it have been stated as follows:

The adoption of the constitution has saved the people from an appalling disaster. It is a rebuke to railroad peculators; it has condemned the enemies of the Texas & Pacific Railroad, by preventing entry to the lands guaranteed to the road by the State; it has secured the payment of taxes on 30,000,000 acres of land, on which at present not a cent of taxes is paid; it has secured to every county its fair proportion of the proceeds from taxation; it prevents unjust usury; it preserves the credit of the State in her bonded securities; it fixes the capital of the State permanently at Austin, and gives her 3,000,000 acres of the public domain . . . . which is worth, at the least calculation, as many dollars; this same to be expended in the construction of a new Capitol and other public buildings. Add to the other blessings which the constitution confers, that it is so framed as to remove the objections of the fastidious in the future by its provisions for easy amendments. A two-thirds vote of the Legislature is required to propose amendments; and the acceptance by a majority of the votes cast, at either a special or general election, secures its adoption. . . . Under the provisions of the new constitution, the Legislature will be convened on the third Tuesday in April. The session will consist of three months’ duration, and after that the people will be called upon to pay for biennial sessions only, and these confined to a distinct #." The general election will be held on the rst Monday in November, commencing with November, 1878. The officers elected under the new constitution will hold their offices as if they had been elected in November. This prolongs their terms of office six months and some days. They will be installed in office on the third Tuesday in April, the same day that is fixed for the assembling of the Legislature.

The members of the Legislature met at Austin on April 18, 1876, when both Houses were soon organized. T. R. Bonner was elected Speaker of the House, he having received 45 votes, against 43 cast for D. U. Barziga, his competitor, also a Democrat. The aggregate amount of the State debt, bonded and floating, on August 31, 1876, consisted of the following items: BoxDED debt.

75,000 00 697,000 00

Frontier defence bonds, act of Angust 5, 1873.
Bonds for funding State warrants, act of May

30, 1878................................... 4,400 00 Bonds for funding State warrants, act of May 2, 1874.................................... 499,000 00 Revenue deficiency bonds, act of December 2, 1871 ...................................... 500,000 00 Bonds for payment of g debt, act of March 4, 1874.............................. 1,000,000 00 Pension bonds, acts of August 13, 1870, April 21, 1874..................... - - - - - - - - - 1,099,974 00 Bonds for redemption of State debt, act of July 6, 1876.................................... 875,000 00

Total............... ------------------- $4,875,874 00

$125,000 00,

Floating debt. Warrants on general revenue unpaid August 31, 1876. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $212,084 57 Pension certificates and approved claims unbonded............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53,287 00 Approved certificates of debt: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15,978 88 Interest due Agricultural and Mechanical College fund......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53,400 00 Total........................... ------- $334,699 95 Debt or doubtful, validity. State bonds issued to State University fund, under act of November 12, 1866, as indemnity for United States bonds belonging to that Å. and transferred to general revenue account in February, 1860....... ............ $134,472 26 Interest to August 31, 1876, on above bonds issued to University fund.................... 63,874 80 State bonds of act of November 12, 1866, issued to school-fund in lieu of United States bonds belonging to that fund used during the late War. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82,168 82 Interest to August 31, 1876, on above bonds issued to school-fund....................... 89,030 20 State bonds, act of November 15, 1864, issued to school-fund in lieu of warrants belonging to that fund destroyed during the war...... 320,867. 18 Interest on above bonds issued to school-fund, to August 31, 1876 217,849 50 Total. ................................ $857,762 21

The business transacted at the General LandOffice, in regard to the disposal of lands belonging to the vast public domain of Texas, has been much larger during the last fiscal year than at any previous one. The number of patents issued within that period, and covering 2,421,989 acres of land, was 4,555; and new files have been made covering 9,870,687 acres. The amount of fees and dues received at the said office during the year was $54,580.91. The whole number of acres comprised within the area of Texas is estimated at 175,594,560; number of acres of public domain against which no claim exists, 67,580,129. The Legislature continued its session for ninety days, comprising the full time of a regular session, and nearly the two additional months allowed by the new constitution, until August 22d. On May 2d, the second Tuesday from the opening of the session, the Legislature proceeded to the election of a United States Senator, for the term of six years, to begin with March 4, 1877. The joint votes having stood, for Richard Coke 68, for John Ireland 49, Richard Coke was declared to be duly elected. The legislation of the session was strictly local in its nature. The total vote for presidential electors on November 7th was 149,555, of which the Democratic electors received 104,755, and the Republican electors 44,800. The Democratic candidates for Congress were elected by a combined majority of 60,476. TIDEMAND, Adolf, one of the most celebrated painters of Norway, born August 14, 1814 (not 1815, as erroneously stated in some works); died August 25, 1876. He studied in the Academies of Copenhagen and Düsseldorf, and in 1841 brought out his first large painting, representing a scene from the life of Gustavus Vasa. Having returned to Düsseldorf

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