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AMTS.

8.4

Smaalene.

861

0.4

North Drontheim.

STIFTS.

Hamar.

sisted of 91 vessels with 146 guns. The comSquare Miles. Population.

mercial navy, in the same year, consisted of Christiania

75,986 7,664 vessels of 1,319,734 tons. The railroads Akershuus..

1,983 116,098
1,548 107,710

in operation, in 1875, amounted to 557 kiloHedemarken.

10,037 120,651 metres. The number of Government teleChristian..

9,670 115,808

graph-stations, at the close of 1875, was 109; Buskerud.

5,659 102,155 Jarlsberg

87,844

length of lines, 6,480, and of wires, 11,600 Bratsberg..

5,707 82,974 kilometres. The number of inland dispatches Nedenäs..

8,855 78,247

sent was 469,034; of foreign dispatches sent, Lister and Mandal..

2,423 74,866 Stavanger

8,421 110,792

115,654 ; and of foreign dispatches received, South Bergenhuus.

5,854 119,301 130,233: making a total of 714,921. Including Bergen

38,430 North Bergenhuus.

7,045 86,123

the railroad-telegraphs, the length of lines Romsdal..

5,650 116,803 amounted to 7,175 kilometres, and of wires to South Drontheim.

7,084 116,604
8,794 81,718

12,405 kilometres; the number of stations to Nordland

14,660 103,788 171, and the total number of dispatches to Tromsö..

9,720 58,923

781,482. Finmark,

18,306 24,071

The Swedish Parliament was opened by the Total..

122,280 1,802,882 King on January 19th. In his speech from

the throne, referring to his visit in 1875 to Square Miles. Population. Denmark, Germany, and Russia, he laid partic

ular stress on the good feeling entertained by Christiania...

10,054 489,293

the princes and the people toward Scandinavia,

19,706 286,216 Christiansand.

15,407 341,879

and added that the latter would preserve this Bergen..

14,869 283,549 feeling by not interfering with foreign rights, Drontheim

19,568 270,163 Tromsö...

but, at the same time, would do everything to 42,686 181,782

preserve its dignity. The First Chamber elected Total...

122,280 1,802,882

for its president Count Lagerbjelke, and the The population of the principal cities, in Second Count Arvid Posse, the leader of the 1875, was as follows:

Peasant party. In February both Houses

adopted an amendment to the Constitution by CITIES.

Population. Christiania.

75,986

which the Council of State was changed into a Bergen...

33,430 ministry, with a responsible president at its Drontheim...

22,088 Stavanger..

18,923

head. The King, having approved this amendDrammen

18,608 ment, appointed as President of the Council Christiansand...

11,696

Baron de Geer. On May 13th both ChamThe receipts for 1875 amounted to 41,386,- bers adopted the bill introducing the met500 crowns (1 crown = $0.263), and the ex rical system, and on May 19th Parliament

adjourned.

The Storthing of Norway met on February 2d, and was opened by the King in person. In March the King ratified the admission of Norway to the Scandinavian monetary union. On May 23d the Storthing resolved to contract a loan of 24,000,000 crowns for railway purposes, which is to bear interest at a rate not higher than four and one-third per cent., and is to be payable in from thirty to fifty years. On June 13th the Storthing finally adjourned. In November the elections for the

Storthing resulted in & THE NEW STOBTHING HOUSE, CHRISTIANIA, NORWAY.

complete victory for the

Opposition. penditures to 39,091,500 crowns. The public SWITZERLAND, a republic of Central Eudebt, on December 31, 1875, was 48,307,600 rope, consisting of twenty-two cantons, three crowns. The imports, in 1874, amounted to of which are divided each into two indepen185,776,000 crowns, and the exports to 121,- dent half-cantons. The President of the Fed198,000 crowns. The war navy, in 1874, con- eral Council for 1876 was Dr. E. Welti, of the

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Canton of Aargau, and the Vice-President, Dr. francs, and the expenditures at 42,622,000. J. Heer, of Glarus. The area of Switzerland The liabilities of the republic amounted, at the is 15,992 square miles, and the population, ac- close of 1875, to 31,309,486 francs, as a set-off cording to the census of 1870, 2,669,147. The against which there was Federal property total revenue of the Confederation for 1875 amounting to 35,872,955 francs. amounted to 42,408,029 francs, and the ex In August, 1876, there were 2,243 kilometres penditures to 43,235,696 francs. The budget of railroads in operation; besides which there for 1876 estimated the receipts at 41,487,700 were 64 kilometres of foreign railroads on

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Swiss territory. The Post-Office in Switzer. had a majority, and ordering a new election. land forwarded, in 1875, 51,267,244 inland and This led to disturbances, and on October 22d 16,808,029 foreign letters, making a total of a bloody affray took place at Stabio, in which 68,075,273 letters. The length of the Govern- several persons were killed. The Federal Counment telegraph-lines at the close of 1875 was cil sent a commissioner with full powers to 6,343 kilometres, and of wires 15,517 kilometres, with 1,002 stations. The length of railroad telegraph-lines was 227 kilometres, and of wires 2,282 kilometres. There were 493 telegraph-offices, of which 141 are open to the public. The number of inland dispatches was 2,062,439; of foreign dispatches, 594,315; and of transit dispatches, 240,171 ; besides 68,079 official dispatches.

In the Canton of Wallis a revised constitution was adopted in February, the vote polled being very light. The new constitution of Soleure was accepted by the Federal Council in February, while that of Zug was returned, to be subjected to another popular vote. On March 12th, at an election for the Grand Council of Soleure, the Liberals elected 105 members, and the Catholic party 9. On May 21st a new constitution was adopted in Schaffhausen by a large majority, after having been previously rejected three times. In Schwytz a new constitution was adopted on June 12th. Considerable excitement was created in the the canton to settle the difficulty. On NovemCanton of Ticino in October, by the action of ber 9th the Federal Council revoked the order the Liberal Council of State in dissolving the of the Council of State of Ticino. A delegaGrand Council, in which the Catholic party tion composed of deputies of both parties went

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CHAMOIS.

to Bern, together with the Federal Commis An international congress respecting the obsioner Bavier, where an amicable agreement servance of the Sabbath was held at Geneva, was finally arrived at.

beginning September 5th. M. Alexander LomThe Federal Assembly, which was in session bard was chosen president. Accounts were at the beginning of 1876, adjourned on March given by delegates from Spain, Italy, Austria, 25th, and assembled again on June 5th. The France, Germany, the Netherlands, SwitzerStänderath, or State Council, elected for its land, Germany, Great Britain, and the United president Paul Nagel, of Thurgau, and the States, of the manner in which the Sabbath National Assembly, Arnold Aepli

, of St. Gall. was observed in their respective countries, and On July 3d the Federal Assembly passed a law of the movements in progress in them to secure regulating the acquisition and renunciation of a greater regard for its sanctity. An InternaSwiss citizenship—a matter which had been tional League was formed, and declared to rest previously regulated only by cantonal laws. upon “ a Biblical basis," for the promotion and On December 4th the Federal Assembly met encouragement of the Sabbath, the definite for its regular winter session, and adjourned. constitution of which it was provided should on December 23d until March 5, 1877. be completed at a future meeting to be held

An International Postal Congress was held in after two years. The congress considered the Bern from January 17th to 27th. The princi- question respecting the most suitable day of pal questions under discussion were the admis- the week on which to pay workmen. It desion of French and English colonies, and the cided to recommend Friday as the pay-day, rates of postage to be charged on letters sent and Thursday as the day for closing the weekly there.

accounts.

T

TAFT, ALPHONZO, was born in Townsend, the art of telegraphy. Mr. E. P. Gray, of Vt., November 5, 1810. He graduated at Yale Chicago, a gentleman who has originated other College in 1833, and two years later became a important improvements in telegraphie protutor in that institution. În 1840 he began the cesses, is the undoubted author of the invenpractice of law in Cincinnati, Ohio, where, after tion, although La Cour, of Copenhagen, had a highly-successful career of twenty-six years conceived its possibility almost simultaneously, at the bar, he was chosen Judge of the Superior and was engaged in the construction of the Court of Cincinnati. To this position he was apparatus independently; and Prof. Graham twice reëlected. He has been a warm supporter Bell, of the Massachusetts Institute of Techof the Republican party since its organization, nology, who claims to have demonstrated the was defeated as a candidate for Congress by possibility of conveying sounds of different George H. Pendleton, was for three years à pitch by telegraph, in 1873, has the merit of member of the City Council of Cincinnati, and having wrought very important improvements for_twenty-five years a member of the Board in the apparatus. An instrument on a similar of Education. He has been a member of the principle to the musical telephone was also Board of Trustees of the University of Cin- constructed by a German inventor about fifcinnati since its foundation, and is a Trustee of teen years ago. The possibility of telegraphYale College, from which he received in 1867 ing audible speech, it would seem, was not the degree of Doctor of Laws. In 1875 his suspected before it was practically accomname was prominently brought forward as a plished by Prof. Bell, in the early part of 1876. candidate for Governor of Ohio. Just before Prof. Bell has experimented with fifty or more the assembling of the convention, ex-Governor different kinds of apparatus, and in the later R. B. Hayes telegraphed to a delegate : "I improvements the distinctness of the vocal cannot allow my name to be used against Judge sounds transmitted has increased remarkably. Taft. He is an able and pure man, and a sound The instrument used in his first success, by Republican. I would not accept a nomination which a conversation was carried on between in contest with him." Considerable opposition two separate houses, is described as consisthad been developed against Judge Taft in con- ing of two single-pole electro-magnets with a sequence of an opinion which he had delivered resistance of 10 ohms each, arranged in circuits on the school question; and after he had re- with a battery of 5 carbon elements, the total ceived 186 votes in the convention, his name resistance being 25 ohms, and 2 drumheads of was withdrawn. After the resignation of Gen- goldbeater's skin of 24 inches diameter, with a eral Belknap, in March, 1876, Judge Taft was circular piece of clock-spring glued to the made Secretary of War, and in May following centre of each membrane. One of the earliest he became Attorney-General.

experiments made by Prof. Bell was to transTELEPHONE, THE. The invention of a mit the tones of a reed-organ. A membrane method of transmitting sounds, and even artio- was stretched between the electro-magnet and ulate language, by the telegraph, for long dis- its armature, and the reeds of the organ were tances, opens up new and great possibilities in so arranged as to open and close the circuit as

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they vibrated. By this arrangement the mu- tunes played upon the organ at the Milwaukee
sical notes were loudly reproduced at a dis- end were perfectly audible to the large au-
tance, and when chords were struck, the com- dience.
ponent tones were simultaneously sounded by TELLKAMPF, JOHANN LUDWIG, a German
the armature of the receiving telephone. Gal- scholar, born January 28, 1808; died February
vanic music, or the production of musical 10, 1876. Having emigrated to the United
sounds by rapidly magnetizing and demagne- States in 1838, he received an appointment in
tizing an electro-magnet a sofficient number the same year as Professor of Political Econ-
of times in a second, was the discovery of omy in Harvard College, and in 1843 in Colum-
Page in 1837. It was Prof. Bell who, in 1874, bia College, New York, but in 1846 returned to
discovered that this effect did not depend en- Germany as professor in Breslau. In 1848 he
tirely on the magnetic condition of the iron was elected to the Frankfort Parliament, in
core, but was due in a measure to the vibra- 1849 to the Prussian Chamber of Deputies, in
tions of the insulated copper wire which forms 1855 to the Herrenhaus, and in 1871 to the
the coil. Telephony depends on the intense first German Reichstag. Together with Potter,
vibrations which can be produced by electrical he wrote “Political Economy” (New York,
means around a smooth wire of soft iron. 1840); with his brother Theodore “Ueber die
Telephonic effects can be produced by three Besserungsgefängnisse in Nord-Amerika und
different kinds of currents: intermittent, pul- England” (1844); " Essays on Law Reform
satory, undulatory. Intermittent currents are and Commercial Policy" (1859); “Ueber Ar-
characterized by the alternate presence and beiterverhältnisse und Erwerbsgenossenschaf-
absence of electricity in the circuit; the pulsa- ten in England und Nord-Amerika" (1870);
tory current is marked by sudden changes in and “Selbstverwaltung und Reforme der Ge-
the intensity of the current; and the undu- meinde und Kreisordnungen in Preussen, und
latory current is marked by gradual changes Self-government in England und Nord-Amer-
of intensity, analogous to the changes in the ika" (1872).
density of air produced by the vibrations of a TENNESSEE. In March, 1875, the Legis-
pendulum. At first, the attempts to transmit lature of Tennessee created a department of
words were not entirely successful; although Agriculture, Statistics, and Mines, and Colonel
the vowel sounds were perfectly rendered, the J. B. Killebrew was appointed a commissioner
consonants were very indistinct. This was not, to take charge of it. During the twenty-one
however, uniformly the case, and sometimes á months following he performed an immense
whole sentence could be reproduced with start- amount of labor in examining into the mineral
ling naturalness. These defects have now and agricultural resources of the State, and dis-
been overcome, so that long dispatches can be seminating information thereon. He has pre-
sent, and have been sent, fifty miles and fur- pared and published the following special re-
ther, in which every word was instantly recog- ports:
nizable.

1. “Report on the Little Sequatchie Coal-
The completest and most satisfactory exper- field,” comprising 40 pages.
iments yet made were those of Prof. Graham 2. “Report on the Ocoee and Hiawassee Min-
A. Bell, at Salem, on the 13th of February of eral District,” comprising 67 pages.
this year (1877), and of E. P. Gray, at Chicago, 3. " Agricultural and Mineral Wealth of Ten-
on the 27th of the same month. At Salem, on nessee," comprising 196 pages.
the occasion of a lecture by Prof. Bell upon 4. “Report on the Region of Country lying
the telephone, to illustrate its powers, he had on the Cincinnati Southern and Knoxville &
several messages transmitted back and forth Ohio Railways,” comprising about 150 pages.
from Boston, 20 miles away; the dispatches The “Report on Agriculture and Mineral
from Boston were distinctly heard by the au- Wealth " is an abridgment of a larger work of
dience; several questions and answers were nearly 1,200 pages, entitled "The Resources of
interchanged, and not only could the words be Tennessee." Besides these, Colonel Killebrew
distinguished, but coughing and singing in the has prepared a treatise of 120 pages on "To-
Boston office were audible in the lecture-hall, bacco and its Culture in Tennessee," a pamphlet
and the applause which greeted the messages of 40 pages on “Sheep-busbandry and Stock-
was distinctly heard at Boston. The experi- growing " in the State, and a tabular statement
ments at Chicago were not less remarkable. of the "Manufacturing and Mining Interests
Masical airs were played on an instrument con- of the Commonwealth,” showing the amount
nected with the telephone at Milwaukee, which of capital invested, number of hands employed,
is distant about eighty-five miles from Chicago, the wages paid, and the amount of annual pro-
and clearly heard throughout a considerable hali duction. This last work had not been issued
in the latter place. These experiments also at the close of the year, but was ready for the
were conducted for the purpose of illustrating press. These various pamphlets and reports
a lecture. Prof. Gray's apparatus consisted of have been accompanied by maps, and about
fifteen boxes on which were stretched musical 14,000 copies of them have been distributed.
strings connected with the telegraphic instru- In addition to these published results of his
ment; a stringless violin hung upon a long labor, the commissioner has made a collection
wire, acting as a sound-box. A dozen or more of 739 classified specimens of minerals and

agricultural products, which are arranged in a the general direction of Dr. J. M. Safford, the room set apart for the purpose in the Capitol, State Geologist, who has been mainly instrubesides a large number not yet classified and mental in securing the survey. arranged. In submitting his report to the The finances of the State are not in an altoGovernor, in the latter part of December, the gether satisfactory condition. Default has been commissioner says:

inade in the payment of interest due on the The great end for which I have labored has been State's bonds since July 1, 1875. In June of to induce capital to fill our unoccupied fields of in- that year an attempt was made to provide for dustry. I have believed, and still believe, that our the interest coming due, by the issue of bonds; people need relief from taxation; not that taxes are but such harsh terms were demanded in order harder to pay, the margin between their necessary to negotiate the new bonds, that the plan was expenses and income being very small. This want abandoned, and no interest has since been of ability on the part of our people does not arise paid, though a considerable amount fell due from a scarcity of agricultural products, but from July 1, 1875, January 1, 1876, and January 1, the want of home-markets. There is to-day more 1877. 'The present indebtedness of the State munerative market. There is too great a proportion is as follows: Funded and registered bonds of our people engaged in agriculture compared with outstanding, $22,812,400; bonds belonging to that the industrial history of every country will fail to be registered, $396,000; fundable bonds sho aggregate population of the State. I believe the East Tennessee University, not required to show a prosperous people where such a large num- and coupons not presented, $1,021,000; pastsuits. Every farmer in the State, if asked, will say due interest, $2,088,756: total, $26,318,156. that the price brought for what he has to sell is too Deducting from this $1,671,916 loaned to the low compared with the cost of production. The la- Memphis & Charleston Railroad, $1,199,180 borer will say, truthfully, that he cannot live on less loaned to the Mississippi Central Railroad, State needs is productive consumers-labor engaged $316,744 loaned to the Mississippi & Tennesin other departments of business creating what the see Railroad, $14,150 due from the purchasers farmer needs, and taking in exchange therefor what of the Tennessee & Pacific Railroad, $51,125 the farmer produces. The time is propitious for making the value and Charleston Railroad, $204,000 due from the

due from the purchasers of the Knoxville & abundance of our mineral wealth known. Stagnation reigns throughout the iron-world, and iron-mas- purchasers of the McMinnville & Manchester ters are looking the world over to secure better lo- Railroad, and $95,636.10 interest due from calities for the prosecution of their manufacturing solvent railroads, we bave as the debt to be enterprises, where all the raw material may be found provided for, $22,765,404.90. In December close together, and where the investment required Governor Porter received from several of the will be less. We have in the State of Tennessee a happy combination of all these advantages, and it largest creditors of the State the following can be demonstrated that we can make a ton of pig- communication: iron anywhere along the line of the Cincinnati Southern, Knoxville & Ohio, and Nashville & Chatta

The undersigned holders of bonds of the State of nooga Railroads, at about what the ore costs per ton Tennessee, believing

that the best interests of Ten in Pittsburg. This fact is well established; and to nessee and of her public creditors will be served by make it known, to prove the cheapness of our iron an early permanent adjustment of the claims of such and coal-fields, to show the means of transportation creditors, on a basis honorable to the State and by river and by rail in course of construction and equitable to them, respectfully ask your Excelleney, already completed, have been the chief objects of in the full belief that such a settlement is practicamy labor...

ble, to recommend that the Legislature of TennesCapitalists from Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, see, as early as may be possible at its ensuing sesand from many of the States north, are daily inquir" sion, appoint a commission to come to this city and ing into our capabilities. Companies are now form- confer with the holders of bonds of the State of Tening, and negotiations pending, which will add many nessee, for the purpose mentioned herein. inillions of capital to the State. Agents are now selecting lands in various portions of the State.

Early in 1877 the Board of Arbitration apThe publications, or selections therefrom, which I pointed to make a fair adjustment of the obhave made, have to some extent been republished ligations of defaulting Southern States, after a in Pittsburg, New York, England, Germany, and prolonged conference and consultation in New Switzerland.' A growing inquiry for information is York with a delegation of five prominent citity-one months just passed more than 3,700 letters zens of Tennessee appointed for the purpose, have passed through my office. The States of Vir- made an award proposing that, "after adding ginia, Alabaina, and Kentucky, seeing the effects of all the arrears of interest up to July 1, 1877, such advertising, have applied for copies of the act the then

aggregate of the State debt should be established a similar bureau, which is now in active readjusted by the issue of new bonds at the operation; and the friends of the movement in Vir- rate of sixty per cent, of the total amount. ginia and Alabama expect to have the acts before This was left to be ratified by the Legislature their respective Legislatures at present carried, hav- of the State, which was then in session. In ing the same object in view.

the report of the Board of Arbitration in makA geodetic survey of the State has been be- ing the award, the following statement of reagun, under the authority of the Superintendent sons was made: of the United States Coast Survey, and at the expense of the Federal Government. It is to with much deliberation, arrived, they have not lost

In the conclusion to which this committee bave, be executed by Prof. A. H. Buchanan, under sight of the fact that a sovereign State, although be

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