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Home or Highland Mission of Scotland were held at Edinburgh, beginning October 25th. Three new churches, at Berwick, Dumbarton, and St. Fergus, Aberdeenshire, were received into the Union. The statistics for the year showed that there were connected with the Union 73 churches, 64 ministers (an increase in the year of fourteen ministers), 34 Bibleclasses with 1,470 students, 62 Sunday-schools with 5,390 scholars and 690 teachers, 210 preaching-stations, and 7,361 members. Eight hundred and thirty-seven persons had been added to the communion during the year. The Baptist Home Missionary Society for Scotland, chiefly for the Highlands and Islands, according to its report for 1875, employed nearly thirty agents, who occupied about 150 stations in the Shetland and Orkney Islands, the islands of the west coast, the northern and western Highlands, and one or two Lowland counties. The annual meeting of the New Connection of General Baptists was held in Derby, beginning June 19th. The Rev. Dr. Buckley, of Orissa, India, was chosen president. The report of the secretary showed the following facts respecting the condition of the connection: Number of members in the home churches, 23,408; total number of members at home and in Orissa, 24,262; number of baptisms during the year by the home churches, 1,535; number of baptisms by the mission churches, 63. Six new churches were applying for admission, and when these were received, there would be 170 independent churches in the association. The condition of the denomination was represented as sound in doctrine and practice. A resolution was adopted against Lord Sanders's educational bill, which gave as reasons for opposing that measure, that it gives undue advantage to national schools (so called); that it tends to perpetuate denominational education; and that any measure which fails to provide for the universal establishment of board schools, while enforcing compulsory attendance either direct or indirect, inflicts an injustice upon all nonconformists. WI. BAPTISTs IN GERMANY AND ADJACENT Countries.—The Triennial Conference of the German Baptist Union was held at Hamburg, beginning July 13th. The statistical reports showed that the Union numbered 110 churches, with 22,504 members, and 1,296 preachingstations. The churches had raised during 1875, for religious purposes, the sum of 188,891 marks. During the three years since the last meeting of the Union, 4,874 believers had been baptized. It was decided to give increased attention to home missions, particularly in the Russian department. The Russian (Slavonic) Baptists employed seven of their number as missionaries among the people, and the Government no longer persecuted them. The meeting was attended by 151 deputies, of whom 57 were from the northwest, 53 from Prussia, one from Poland, 34 from the south, five from
Denmark, and one from Russia. Seven new churches were received into the Union—five from Germany and two from Russia. BARILI, ANToNio, an Italian composer and Professor of Music, born in Rome in 1824; died in Naples, July 12, 1876. From six years of age till thirteen, when he received the diploma of professor at the Congregation of St. Cecilia, being then the youngest member of that body, he was a pupil of his father. About this period his father died, when he entered upon the study of composition with Giuseppe Baini. At eighteen he left Italy for a short time, and, joining his mother in Spain, continued his studies under Carniser. Returning to Milan, he studied for a time under Mandanici, and afterward graduated as Maestro Composer in the Philharmonic Academy of that city at the age of twenty-one. The year following he was leader and director of the Italian Opera in Algiers, and the same year was serving in the same capacity in New York City. In 1850 he held a like position in the city of Mexico; and in 1854, returning to New York, organized the Sontag opera-troupe, with which he returned to Mexico. He remained in that city until 1861, and during that time composed his Spanish opera, “Un Pasio à Santa Anita.” In 1856, under the patronage of President Comonfort of Mexico, he organized and established a conservatory, which is now a flourishing national institution. After this he returned to New York and lived there eleven years, devoting himself to the duties of his art, and giving to the stage a number of artists. From the end of that time until 1874 he resided and labored in Baltimore and Washington. In August, 1874, he went to Naples, where he opened an “Academy of pure Italian singing,” especially for foreign ladies finishing their studies in Italy. Thirty years of unremitting toil had much impaired his health, which he hoped to recover in the salubrious climate of that city. But in this he was disappointed. Barili came from an eminent musical family. His father was a composer of distinction; his mother, Madame Barili Patti, a famous prima-donna, who once gained renown in the United States. His sister, Clotilda, was equally successful on the operatic boards; his brother, Nicolai, achieved popularity as a basso; his second brother, Ettore, was an excellent barytone; his half-sisters, Adelina, Carlotta, and Amelia Patti, have made a world-wide reputation; and his halfbrother, Carlo Patti, gained many laurels as a violinist and orchestral director. BAUER, CLARA, a German authoress, well known under the nom de plume of Karl Detlef, born June 23, 1836; died June 29, 1876. At an early age she lost her father, and being thus forced to provide for herself, she devoted her whole energy to develop her musical talents. She went to St. Petersburg, where she was a frequent visitor at the house of the Prussian embassador, Herr von Bismarck, who ever after took a great interest in her success. The impressions received on a journey through the Russian steppe caused her to devote herself to a literary career. Upon her return to Germany she settled in Dresden, and here, in 1869, ublished her first novel. Her last novel, “Ein ocument,” was not finished, one volume only having appeared at the time of her death. Her novels are chiefly descriptions of Russian life. BAYER, HIERoNYMUs JoHANN PAUL voN, a German jurist and scholar, born September 21, 1792; died June 13, 1876. After studying law at the Universities of Salzburg, Landshut, and Göttingen, he became in 1816 Privatdocent in the law faculty of the University of Landshut; in 1819 he was appointed extraordinary and in 1820 ordinary professor. After the removal of the University of Landshut to Munich, he five times occupied the position of rector. In 1853 he was appointed a life-member of the Upper Chamber of the Bavarian Diet. He is the author of a number of highly valuable works on law, among which are: “Worträge tiber den deutschen gemeinen ordentlichen Civilprocess” (tenth edition, 1869); “Theorie der summarischen Processe” (seventh edition, 1859); “Theorie des Concursprocesses nach gemeinem Rechte” (fourth edition, 1868). BELGIUM, a kingdom of Europe. Leopold II., King of the Belgians, was born April 9, 1835, son of King Leopold I., former Duke of Saxe-Coburg; ascended the throne at the death of his father, December 10, 1865; was married August 22, 1853, to Marie Henriette, daughter of the late Archduke Joseph of Austria, born August 23, 1836. Offspring of this union are three daughters. Heir-apparent to the throne is the brother of the King, Philip, Count of Flanders, born March 24, 1827, lieutenant-general in the service of Belgium, married April 26, 1867, to Princess Marie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, born November 17, 1845; offspring of the union is a son, Baldwin, born July 3, 1869. The area of the kingdom is 11,373 square miles; population, according to the last census, taken in 1866, 4,737,833; according to an official calculation of December, 1874, 5,336,634. Of this population, 54 per cent. belong to the Flemish and 44 to the Walloon-French nationality. The following table exhibits the population of each province of the kingdom on December 31, 1874, as well as the number of arrondissements and communes into which each province is divided:
Number of Number of Population on PRovinces. *|commune. Doi, sī. ments.
8 150 522,735
8 840 942.247
6 250 691,190
8 295 863,696
6 485 949,346
4 8:35 635,076
3 206 204,619
5 205 208,339
8 351 819,386
41 2,567 5,836,684
From these tables we derive the following facts: The number of boys born for 100 girls was 105.3, the number of inhabitants for one birth 30.2, the number of births per 100 deaths 158.7, and the number of inhabitants for one death 47.9. In the same year the number of still-born amounted to 7,750, 4,451 males and 3,299 females, and the number of divorces to 120. Of the births, 161,882 were legitimate and 12,096 illegitimate, and of the still-born 6,974 were legitimate and 776 illegitimate, making in all 168,856 legitimate and 12,872 illegitimate births.
In 1874 there were four communes with over 100,000 inhabitants, twelve communes with from 25,000 to 100,000 inhabitants, thirty-eight communes with from 10,000 to 25,000, ninetyeight communes with from 5,000 to 10,000, 1,207 with from 1,000 to 5,000, and 1,213 with less than 1,000 inhabitants.
Instruction is well cared for in all grades. In 1872 there were 5,678 primary schools with 618,937 pupils. Schools for adults have been established in most communes. Their number in 1872 was 2,851, with 199,957 pupils. The number of normal schools for primary teachers was, in 1874, 37, with 2,336 students, of which 22 schools, with 1,132 students, were for females. The number of secondary schools in 1874–75 was 168, with 17,763 pupils. Superior instruction is imparted in the two state Universities of Ghent and Liége, and the two free Universities of Brussels and Louvain. The number of students in each of these in 187 was as follows:
Ghent.... 221 Liége..... 541 Brussels. 555 Louvain................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 955
The Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Antwerp had, in 1874, 1,601 students. There were, besides the Antwerp Academy, 80 other academies of design and drawing-schools, with 10,191 pupils; a Conservatory of Music at Brussels with 594, another at Liége with 609 pupils, and 46 other conservatories of music, with 8,932 pupils. The expenses for primary instruction in 1873 amounted to 18,076,635 francs, and the expenses of the two government universities in 1874 were 949,990 francs. Nearly the entire population of Belgium is nominally connected with the Roman Catholic Church, at the head of which are the Archbishop of Malines, and five bishops. The other ecclesiastical benefices consisted, December 31, 1874, of 184 deaneries, 230 cures (parishes of the first class), 2,779 succursales (parishes of the second class), 180 chapels, 1,839 vicariates, 114 coadjutors, 26 annexes, 695 oratories and chapels of hospitals, colleges, etc. The number of religious communities of men, in 1866, was 178, with 2,991 inmates; that of religious communities of women, 1,144, with 15,205 inmates. The number of mutual-aid societies recognized by the state was, in 1873, 117; their aggregate revenue, 207,918 francs; expenditures, 194,923 francs; capital, December 31, 1873, 612,882 francs; number of mutual-aid societies not recognized by the state, 89; receipts, 447,309 francs; expenses, 403,785 francs; capital on December 31, 1873, 480,110 francs. The number of saving-societies for buying winter provisions recognized by the state was four; expenditures, 28,806 francs; capital on December 31, 1873, 13,879 francs. The number of saving-societies not recognized by the state was eight; expenditures, 86,019 francs; capital on December 31, 1873, 3,340 francs.
The receipts and expenditures for 1873 were as follows:
receipts. I. Ordinary Receipts: Francs. 1. Taxes ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142,738,395 2. Tolls.......... 7,596,197. 8. Stocks and Rentes -- 74,718,153 4. Reimbursements.......... - - - - - - - - - - 1,978,428 5. Extraordinary resources applied to the #". needs of the state........ 973,203 II. Special Receipts....................... 118,084,446 Total receipts 341,0SS,822 expenditures. I. Ordinary Erpenditures: 1. Public debt.. . 47,061,39 2. Dotations.... 4,455,257 8. Justice...... 15,860,895 4. Foreign Affairs . 1,608,438 5. 16,369,412 6. . 75,175,858 7. . 89,866,076 3. 15,572,812 ments 1.286,622 II. Eartraordinary Earpenditures.......... 189,141,616 Total expenditures.............. 850,898,378 Deficit......................... 9,809,556
The public debt at the close of 1874 was as follows:
LoANs. Francs. Two and one-half per cents................ 219,959,632 Four and one-half per cents: 1st series, conversion of 1844............ 65,864,182 2d series, emission of 1844.............. 67,483,000 8d series (1858)......................... 141,284,900 4th series (1857 and 1860)...... ... 65,846,400 5th series (1865) .............. 58,581,000 6th series (1867, 1869, 1870, 1871 77,578,200 Four per cents (1871)............. . 50,608,800 Three per cents (1878)............... . 248,250,000 Floating debt......................... ..... 314,585,000 Total............................ 994,541,114
The standing army is formed by conscription, to which every able-bodied man who has com
pleted his nineteenth year is liable. Substitution is allowed. The legal term of service is eight years, but two-thirds of this time are generally spent on furlough. The strength of the army is to be 100,000 men on the war footing, and 40,000 in times of peace. In 1874 the army was composed as follows:
Araiy. En solde. Sans solde. Total.
Infantry.. ...] 21954 || 44.3s. To Cavalry.. ... 4,807 4.867 9,174 Artillery.. . 6,522 || 7,386 18,908 Engineers .................... 933 1,231 2,164 Total................... 34,216 || sizes Toisi
The civic militia or National Guard numbers 125,000 men without and 400,000 with the reserve. Its duty is to preserve liberty and order in times of peace, and the independence of the country in times of war. A royal decree, dated October 20, 1874, divided the kingdom into two military circumscriptions, one embracing the provinces of Antwerp and West and East Flanders, and the second the others. The imports in 1873 amounted to 1,422,700,000 and the exports to 1,158,600,000 francs. (For a detailed statement of the commerce with each country, see ANNUAL CyclopæDIA for 1875.) The commercial navy in 1873 was composed of 69 sailing-vessels with 46,439 tons, and 28 steamers with 30,005 tons. The aggregate length of the railroads in operation on December 31, 1874, was 3,370 kilometres (1 kilometre = 0.62 mile), of which 664 were state railroads, and 2,706 belonged to private companies. The aggregate length of the lines of electric telegraph was, in 1872, 4,430 miles; that of wires, 15,802; the number of telegraph-offices was, in 1871, 478; the number of telegrams sent in 1874 was 2,750,223, of which 1,849,973 were inland, 693,506 foreign, and 206,744 transit telegrams. On March 22d the House passed the bill of the Minister of Finance, by which the 12,000,000 francs which the state owed the Railroad Building Association were to be paid immediately instead of the time agreed upon. The purpose of the bill was to assist the Bank of Belgium, which had lost heavily by the defalcation of its cashier, the bank being a creditor of the association. On April 8th the new law respecting academic degrees was passed by a vote of 78 to 26, all the Catholics and 19 Liberals voting for it, while 26 Liberals voted against it, and two did not vote. This law provides that in future the universities shall confer the degrees upon their own judgment, while the state will only guarantee their legality after an examination by a special commission. The state, however, reserves the right to subject to a special examination all persons who desire to obtain a government office. The winter session of the Chambers began on November 14th. In the Chamber of Deputies M. Bara brought up the election riots, which had occurred in several places in June, but at the same time proposed the postponement of the debate. The elections for provincial councils, held on May 22d, resulted in favor of the Liberal party in Antwerp, Liége, Tournay, and Ghent, while the Catholic party was successful in Namur, Bruges, and Louvain. The elections for the House of Representatives took place on June 13th. The Liberals had hoped to obtain a majority in the new House, but were disappointed in this, the political situation remaining virtually unchanged. At Brussels and Liége the Liberals carried the day without a contest. At Ostend, Philippeville, and Arlon, they defeated their opponents; and at Malines, Turnhout, Louvain, Courtrai, Dixmude, Roulers, Thielt, Dinant, and Bastogne, they were beaten. The Catholics, in spite of opposition,
maintained their positions at Bruges—where, however, they had only a majority of eight— at Furnes, Namur, Marchin, Neufchâteau, Virton, and Antwerp. The Catholic party gained a seat at Ypres by the defeat of W. Alphonse Vandenpeereboom, a Liberal, and formerly Minister of the Interior. On the other hand, it lost two seats at Nivelles, where its candidates were replaced by Liberals who were re. turned by a large majority. The Catholic ministry had a majority of fourteen in the previous Chamber. The Liberals having gained two seats at Nivelles and lost one at Ypres, the Catholic loss was reduced to one seat, or a displacement of two votes, still leaving the Catholics a majority of twelve. Great excitement prevailed in many of the larger towns on election-day. In Antwerp the people thronged
the streets singing and hooting; blows with walking-sticks were exchanged, and some windows broken. The same scenes took place at Brussels, but on a smaller scale. Later in the evening the disturbances became more serious. A house was demolished, and more than fifty shots were fired by the troops of the line. At Ghent a monster demonstration was made in front of the Catholic Club, and the windows were broken by the mob. The disturbances continued for several days. Crowds coninued to hoot and hiss, in front of CathoHe institutes, so that the authorities were freed to protect them by the civic guards. in Brussels the rioters, to the number of many housands, marched through the streets shoutng, “Down with the ministry!” and attacked odwrecked a Catholic institution. The police harged upon the mob, wounding several and otesting a large number. One result of the *toral defeat of the Liberals is, that Ant*P has taken the initiative of an agitation which is to be extended to all the large towns. this agitation is to be for the purpose of ob
taining a change in the existing electoral law. The vote is now given by arrondissement, and the consequence is, that in four large towns– Ghent, Antwerp, Bruges, and Namur—where the great majority of the electors are Liberals, they are swamped by the rural electors, who are completely under the sway of the Catholic clergy. The reform proposed by the Liberals would completely do away with this state of affairs, and would secure to the large cities a Liberal representation. On February 13th the Catholic party arranged a large demonstration in Malines for the purpose of celebrating the election of a city council, and to offset similar demonstrations arranged by the Liberals in Antwerp and Ghent: The Catholic associations in the kingdom had generally been invited, and numerous delegations, with many of the prominent leaders of the party, took part in the festivities. The meeting was followed by a banquet, at which the first toast was the Pope, and the second the King. Upon the departure of the guests, disturbances occurred at the depot, which formed the subject of an interpellation in the House. The Minister of the Interior promised a thorough investigation and the punishment of the guilty. In the animated debate which ensued in the House, the Catholics held the entire Liberal party responsible for the disturbances.
Belfry or Bruges.
Brussels was the seat of several important international conferences during the year. The Health Congress, held in September, was preceded by an international exhibition of objects relating to public health and safety. The exhibition was opened by the King on June 26th. Upon arriving at the entrance the King was received by the Count of Flanders and the chief members of the executive and the various committees, including M. Warocque, the President of the Chamber of Representatives, General Renard, Lord Alfred S. Churchill, and Major Burgess, chairman and secretary of the British Committee. The opening ceremony was of a very simple character. An address to the King and Queen was read by M. Warocque, who dwelt on the difference between this and other exhibitions, explaining its objects and intentions, and expressing the gratification of the executive at the aid they had received from other countries. The address concluded with a few words especially addressed to the Queen, and referring to the interest she is known to take in the Belgian Red-Cross Society. The King responded very
briefly, merely expressing his gratification at the excellent prospects of the exhibition, and the pleasure he felt in opening it. The members of the different committees were then F. to him in a reception-room which ad been prepared for the purpose, and afterward proceeded to their different galleries, where they attended the King in his inspection of each in turn. The exhibition building, which was in the park, was of rather a singular character. In order to interfere as little as possible with the ordinary condition of the park, it was made to follow the lines of the walks, and therefore consisted of a number of long buildings of different widths, meeting at the points of junction of the paths, but otherwise separate. Each country had a whole building or part of one, and was thus compelled to make the best appearance it could, without much reference to the general effect. Of the countries exhibiting, Belgium had the most space, with England following closely, these two being the largest exhibitors. France, Germany, and Russia, were well represented, while Austria, Hungary, Italy, Norway and Sweden, Holland, Denmark, and Switzerland, the other contributing countries, were not so largely, and the United States was not at all, represented. The Health Congress, which was held as an appendix to the exhibition, was in session from September 27th to October 4th, and was attended by delegates from all European countries. The Congress divided itself into five sections, which held their sessions in the mornings, while in the afternoons all the sections united to a common session. Of the common sessions, six were held. In the first the important question of laborers' dwellings was discussed. The debate limited itself to the question